KEY WORDS y NANOTECHNOLOGY:-technology for microscopic devices: the art of manipulating materials on a very small scale in order to build microscopic machinery. y NANOROBOTS:-nanorobot is a tiny machine designed to perform a specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision at nanoscale dimensions. .

INTRODUCTION y Nano means very very small. . y One of the most happening and promising field of nanotechnology is Nanorobotics. y Nanorobots are of special interest to researchers in the medical industry. y Nanotechnology has made use of such small things on a large scale possible products manufactured.

also known as integrated circuits that operate computers. .APPROACHES FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY y TOP-DOWN:-In the top-down process. technologists start with a bulk material and create out a smaller structure from it. y BOTTOM-UP:-The bottom-up approach involves the manipulation of atoms and molecules to form nanostructures. y This is the process commonly used today to create computer chips. the tiny memory and logic units.


These moving electrons generate a tiny electric current that the STM measures. the surface of the object being examined. . the tip of which can be as small as a single atom.SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE An STM uses a tiny probe. or tunnel into. Tunneling allows electrons emitted from the probe of the microscope to penetrate. to scan an object.

ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. An AFM uses a tiny silicon tip. usually less than 100 nm in diameter. which creates a threedimensional image of the surface of the sample. as a probe to create an image of a sample material. A sensing mechanism records the up-anddown movements of the probe and feeds the data into a computer. the electrons of the atoms in the sample repel the electrons in the probe. . As the silicon probe moves along the surface of the sample.

.TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (TEM) y The TEM uses a high-energy electron beam to probe material with a sample thickness of less than 100 nm. its composition. and they yield information on the size of the nanostructure. and its crystal structures. y The electron beam is directed onto the object to be magnified. y TEMs are suitable for imaging objects with dimensions of less than 100 nm. y can magnify an object up to 30 million times.


locate cancerous cells. y Smaller foreign mechanical devices will be able to reach the places where the larger equivalent can t. y CANCER KILLERS:. and supply poison that would kill a cancerous cell.NANOROBOTS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE y The advantages of tiny technology are perhaps most apparent in medicine.The nanorobot would flow freely throughout the body. .

He refers to his simple medical robot as a "reciprocate". .Artificial Red Blood Cell Another application of a nanorobot would be to provide oxygen in the event of impaired circulation. Freitas claims to have already designed such an artificial red blood cell. In nanomedicine.

The physical. chemical and biological properties of such small particles allow industry to incorporate enhanced functionalities into products.Nanopowder Nanopowders contain particles less than 100 nm in size (1/10. .000th the thickness of a human hair).

are being explored by research teams in the US. µNanomembrane filtration devices¶ that µclean the polluted water¶. . clean and affordable water´.Membranes Nanotechnology can address one of the most pressing issues of the 21st Century ² ³safe. Israel and Australia at various prosperous research centers .

subtle.FUTURE DIRECTION:‡ As this is a young field. with initial applications focused in diagnostics and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Specifically. ‡ Nanorobots hold promise for a strong presence in medicine to come. ‡ The Department of Defense health scientists issued a statement in 1997. It proves essential when damage to the human body is highly selective. which says that nanomedicine will play a major role by the year 2020. and later proceeding into applications inside the body. . present literature is relatively sparse and leaves much room for expansion of information. the design of nanorobots needs more attention. or time-critical.

so that products can be of the highest quality and cause the lowest environmental degradation. ‡Need for packing and protection from environment for the nano products is also a big challenge. ‡ It is also equally important to understand the relation of nanotechnology to other technologies ‡ Transforming the micro scale systems with the nano scale systems is the biggest problem.CHALLENGES ‡ Understanding ¶self-assembly· which are the properties of some molecules to arrange themselves into a desired pattern or devices. . ‡ To improve one·s control over how things are built.

there by ending much of the pain and suffering . devices and system at the nano scale. y Research shows that operation at the nanoscale may prove quiet useful in area such as medicine and the environment.CONCLUSION:y Nanorobots can theoretically destroy all common diseases of the 20th Century . y Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary study of particles. .

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