Man is a rational being and is curious to exploit/discover new things in the environment. In order for him to understand the life in a better aspect and try to solve the mystery of the nature/environment. While exploiting the environment, human activities resulted to pollution and RELEASE OF certain HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.
Bioremediation came as an option that offers the possibility to destroy or render harmless various contaminants using natural biological activity.
branch of biotechnology that uses biological process to overcome environmental problems.
can be defined as any process that uses:
. fungi. green plants or their enzymes to return the natural environment altered by contaminants to its original condition.
technology using microorganisms was reportedly invented by George M. He was the assistant county petroleum engineer for Santa Maria. he spent his spare time experimenting with dirty jars and various mixes of microbes.
. During the 1960s. Robinson. California.
An example of a more general approach is the cleanup of oil spills by the addition of nitrate and/or sulphate fertilisers to facilitate the decomposition of crude oil by indigenous or exogenous bacteria. such as degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by bacteria.
.Bioremediation may be employed:
to attack specific soil contaminants.
How might microorganisms attack hazardous organic wastes?
The breakdown of organic compounds by microorganisms
compound directly. compound converted to harmless inorganic molecules such as carbon dioxide and salts
Microorganisms are the catalyst generator and enzymes are the catalysts. The biochemical transformation requires catalysts. These enzymes result in degradative (catabolic) reactions to provide energy and material for synthesis of additional microbial cells.
.Slide 9 L2 The design of bioremediation process involves the optimization and control of select portions of biochemical cycles.
which may also be toxic and recalcitrant to further degradation
. compound to some other compound.
prime importance are microorganisms capable of producing enzymes that will degrade the hazardous chemical (target compound) as enzymes degrade compounds through exploitation of the organism¶s energy need.Cont.
REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOREMEDIATION
ENERGY SOURCE MOISTURE
ELECTRON ACCEPTOR pH
ABSENCE OF COMPETITIVE ORGANISMS
ABSENCE OF TOXICITY
REMOVAL OF METABOLITIES
Lecturer. Enzymes degrade compounds through exploitation of the organism's energy needs. therefore an energy source and electron acceptor are important. nutrients and temperature for cellular growth
Lecturer.Slide 11 L3 The requirements for biodegradation in descending order of importance.
Lecturer. Of prime importance are microorganisms capable of producing enzymes that will degrade hazardous chemicals (target compound). 7/10/2008
microorganisms gain their energy through oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions.
The release may be: Deliberate and well regulated (industrial emissions) Accidental and largely unavoidable (chemical/oil spills) US EPA estimated that in 1980 at least 57 millions metric tons of the total waste can be categorized into three general groups:
.THE BASIC PROBLEM: RELEASE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Enormous quantities of organic & inorganic compounds are released into the environment each year as a result of human activities.
biological organisms and radionuclides. 7/10/2008
.Slide 12 L1 This include organic chemicals. inorganic chemicals.
Pb. Nuclear waste including radioactive material such as plutonium which are dangerous for thousands of years
Heavy metal. Ni and Be can accumulate in various organs. also known as organochlorides including pesticides and other organic compounds such as PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) Research proven a positive correlation between cancer in lab animals and organochlorides. Hg. interfere with normal enzymatic reactions and cause disease including cancer Chlorinated hydrocarbons. Cd.
Bioremediation is the application of biological process principles to the treatment of groundwater, soil and sludges contaminated with hazardous chemicals. It requires the control and manipulation of microbial processes in surface reactors or in the subsurface. The contaminants can be biodegraded in situ or removed and placed in bioreactor (at or off the contamination sites). Idea: To isolate microbes that can degrade or eat a particular contaminant To provide the conditions whereby it can do this most effectively, thereby eliminating the contaminant
Heterotrophic microorganisms are the principal user of organic matter in the biosphere and are key in cycling carbon from the organic to the inorganic state. Provided that sufficient inorganic nutrients as an energy source and a terminal electron acceptor for metabolism are present, all naturally occurring organic material can be biodegraded eventually.
Simple organic compounds such as acetate may persist under condition that do not favor microbial activity. These conditions include extremes in temperature or pH, the presence of toxicants or antimicrobial agents, the inhibition or exclusion of microbial enzymes, and the lack of water and an electron acceptor.
the procaryotic and eucaryotic.Microbial Divisions
Two kinds of cells are recognized. Procaryotic cell Bacteria Blue-green bacteria or cyanobacteria Eucaryotic cell Plants Animals Rotifers Protozoa Fungi Most algae
The most important groups to bioremediation are bacteria and fungi.
Organic chemicals provide: carbon.Microorganisms destroy organic contaminants in the course of using the chemicals for their own growth and reproduction. source of cell building material. electrons. source of energy
aerobic and anaerobic Cells catalyze oxidation of organic chemicals (electron donors).
Metabolism is defined by the nature of the redox reaction Metabolism modes are divided into two. acceptor is oxygen In anaerobic. causing transfer of electrons from organic chemicals to some electron acceptor
Electron acceptors: In aerobic oxidation. acceptor is: -nitrate -manganese -iron -sulfate
. In addition. another offshoot of bioremediation is phytoremediation.TYPES OF BIOREMEDIATION
The two main types of bioremediation are in situ bioremediation and ex situ bioremediation.
. There are two main types of in situ bioremediation: intrinsic bioremediation and accelerated bioremediation. so it¶s generally better to use.In Situ Bioremediation
In situ bioremediation is when the contaminated site is cleaned up exactly where it occurred. It is the most commonly used type of bioremediation because it is the cheapest and most efficient.
it is the most commonly used. and since it is the cheapest means of bioremediation available. There is no human intervention involved in this type of bioremediation.
. scientists turn next to accelerated bioremediation.Intrinsic Bioremediation
Intrinsic bioremediation uses microorganisms already present in the environment to biodegrade harmful contaminant. When intrinsic bioremediation isn¶t feasible.
nutrients.Slide 22 L8 IB relies on the intrinsic (naturally occurring)supplies of electron acceptors.
Lecturer. nutrients or other stimulants. Involves no engineered measures to increase the supply rates of oxygen. 7/11/2008
. and other necessary materialsto develop biologically active zone and prevent the migration of contaminants away from the source.
. either substrate or nutrients are added to the environment to help break down the toxic spill by making the microorganisms grow more rapidly.Accelerated Bioremediation
In accelerated bioremediation. Usually the microorganisms are indigenous. but occasionally microorganisms that are very efficient at degrading a certain contaminant are additionally added.
The goal of in situ treatment is to manage and manipulate the subsurface environment to optimize microbial degradation. which is particularly important when the contaminated plume has moved under permanent structures.
Main advantage is that site disturbance is minimized. Biggest limitation of in situ treatment has been the inability to deal effectively with metal contaminants mixed with organic compounds.
In Situ Bioremediation
Bioventing is the most common in situ treatment and involves supplying air and nutrients through wells to contaminated soil to stimulate the indigenous bacteria. L6
the easiest way to supply oxygen is by pulling air through the unsaturated soil. 7/11/2008
. by passing air through the unsaturated zone evaporates moisture and can dessicate the soil enough that microbiological activity is slowed down or prevented. vacuum pumps create negative pressure that sweeps air through the soil and past the contaminated soil.Slide 25 L6 contaminants are trapped in the unsaturated zone (also known as vadose zone) above the water table.
. Bioaugmentation Bioremediation frequently involves the addition of microorganisms indigenous or exogenous to the contaminated sites.In situ biodegradation involves supplying oxygen and nutrients by circulating aqueous solutions through contaminated soils to stimulate naturally occurring bacteria to degrade organic contaminants.
Biosparging involves the injection of air under pressure below the water table to increase groundwater oxygen concentrations and enhance the rate of biological degradation of contaminants by naturally occurring bacteria. Biosparging increases the mixing in the saturated zone and thereby increases the contact between soil and groundwater.
Slide 27 L7 Originally developed in Europe. Biosparging can strip volatile contaminants from the saturated zone into the unsaturated zone and a vapor-capture system. 7/11/2008
. and has become a popular means of engineered bioremediation in North America for strictly aerobic biodegradation. Not effective when low-permeability geological zones trap or divert the gas flow.
. This type of bioremediation is generally used only when the site is threatened for some reason. usually by the spill that needs to be cleaned up. since the contaminated land is physically removed.Ex Situ Bioremediation
Another type of bioremediation is ex situ bioremediation. which is when contaminated land are taken out of the area to be cleaned up by the organisms. Ex situ bioremediation is only used when necessary because it¶s expensive and damaging to the area.
Excavation incurs major costs and potentially increases exposure to workers and those who reside nearby. 7/11/2008
Lecturer. heavily contaminated sources and when a rapid site cleanup is desired.Slide 28 L9 Most applicable for small.
Ex Situ Bioremediation
Landfarming is a simple technique in which contaminated soil is excavated and spread over a prepared bed and periodically tilled until pollutants are degraded.
. The presence of these organic materials supports the development of a rich microbial population and elevated temperature characteristic of composting. Composting is a technique that involves combining contaminated soil with nonhazardous organic compounds such as agricultural wastes.
low tech form of ex situ bioremediation.
.Slide 29 L10 LF is a simple. nutrients and moisture can be added initially and throughout the treatment period to optimize conditions for microbial growth.contaminated solids are mixed into the surface layer of topsoil.
Bioreactors-Slurry reactors or aqueous reactors are used for ex situ treatment of contaminated soil and water pumped up from a contaminated plume. sludge) or water through an engineered containment system.
. Bioremediation in reactors involves the processing of contaminated solid material (soil.
Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up potentially damaging spills. into harmless or valuable forms. The plants work with soil organisms to transform contaminants. such as heavy metals and toxic organic compounds.
Biodegradation ± microbial catalyzed reduction in complexity of chemicals Involves the breakdown of organic compounds either through biotransformation into less complex metabolites or through mineralization into inorganic minerals. CO2 or CH4. Mineralization .conversion of an organic substrate to inorganic end products
accessibility of nutrients. The extent and rate of biodegradation depend on many factors including pH. microbial population. temperature.
Growth-linked metabolism biodegradation provides carbon and energy to support growth.
. oxygen. chemical structure of the compound. cellular transport properties and chemical partitioning in growth medium. take place only when organic carbon concentrations very low. degree of acclimation. but to obtaining carbon for respiration to maintain cell viability. Maintenance metabolism biodegradation not linked to multiplication.
BIODEGRADATION SYSTEM IN BIOREMEDIATION
MICROORGANISMS Growth Physiology Genetic competence Metabolic diversity Enzymology metabolites
CONTAMINANTS Mass transfer Bioavailability Hydrophobicity Recalcitrance Structure Toxicity
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS pH Temperature Moisture Oxygen Nutrients Soil type
Microbes will adapt and grow at different temperatures. in water. Because of the adaptability of microbes and other biological systems. and in anaerobic conditions.Microorganisms
Microorganisms can be isolated from almost any environmental conditions. with the presence of hazardous compounds or on any waste stream. as well as extreme heat. with an excess of oxygen. desert conditions.
. these can be used to degrade or remediate environmental hazards.
they cannot necessarily be there in the numbers required for bioremediation of the site. Their growth and activity must be stimulated. Biostimulation usually involves the addition of nutrients and oxygen to help indigenous microorganisms. These nutrients are the basic building blocks of life and allow microbes to create the necessary enzymes to break down the contaminants.
Although the microorganisms are present in contaminated soil.
and nitrogen it constitutes about 95% of the weight of cells. and carbon to phosphorous is 30:1. oxygen. The nutritional requirement of carbon to nitrogen ratio is 10:1.
.Carbon is the most basic element of living forms and is needed in greater quantities than other elements. In addition to hydrogen.
Limitations to biodegradation
Adequate bacterial concentrations (although populations generally increase if there is food present) Electron acceptors Nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus) Non-toxic conditions Minimum carbon source
for example. Instead of transferring contaminants from one environmental medium to another. the complete destruction of target pollutants is possible.Advantages of bioremediation
Bioremediation is a natural process and is therefore perceived by the public as an acceptable waste treatment process Many compounds that are legally considered to be hazardous can be transformed to harmless products. from land to water or air.
often without causing a major disruption of normal activities. Bioremediation is less expensive
.Advantages of bioremediation
Bioremediation can often be carried out on site.
It is difficult to extrapolate from bench and pilot-scale studies to full-scale field operations. There are some concerns that the products of biodegradation may be more persistent or toxic than the parent compound.
.Disadvantages of bioremediation
Bioremediation is limited to those compounds that are biodegradable.
. suitable environmental growth conditions.Disadvantages of bioremediation
Bioremediation often takes longer than other treatment options Biological processes are often highly specific. Important site factors required for success include the presence of metabolically capable microbial populations. and appropriate levels of nutrients and contaminants.
Case Study: Oil spill Bioremediation
As a result of the petroleum industry millions of tons of these compounds enter the oceans every year. Others such as the aromatic compounds like benzene are more soluble. Many hydrocarbons dissolve slowly in water.
. and these are toxic to living cells. While accidental releases may contribute to only a small percentage of the oil released into the marine environment large accidental oil spills receive much attention and evoke considerable public concern because they can result in contamination of ocean and shoreline environments.
The biggest spill ever occurred during the 1991 Persian Gulf war when about 240 million gallons spilled from oil terminals and tankers off the coast of Prince William Sound.
. Alaska. The Exxon Valdez accident at Bligh Reef in 1989 discharged 40 million litres«.
. Oleophilic fertilizer enhanced biodegradation of oil. Bioremediation was a useful cleanup alternative that was used by Exxon on large scale.Bioremediation to the rescue?
Initial studies showed that the number of oil degrading microorganisms on oiled beaches in comparison with untreated controls increased by as much as 10.
. The beaches are more compatible with local wildlife (less tendency for fur and feathers to become oiled).
Oleophilic fertilizer proven to be an effective nutrient source for oil degrading microbial communities.