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Enhance: To make greater (as in value, desirability, or attractiveness. Frequency: The number of times that a periodic function repeats the same sequence of values during a unit variation of the independent variable. ± Webster¶s New Collegiate Dictionary

1

2010-10-4

School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, CSU

Content

This chapter is concerned primarily with helping the reader develop a basic understanding of the Fourier transform and the frequency domain, and how they apply to image enhancement.

Background Introduction to the Fourier Transform and the Frequency Domain Smoothing Frequency-Domain Filters Sharpening Frequency-Domain Filters Homomorphic Filtering Implementation Summary

2 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, CSU

4.1 Background

Any function that periodically repeats itself can be expressed as the sum of sines and/or cosines of different frequencies, each multiplied by a different coefficient (Fourier series). Even functions that are not periodic (but whose area under the curve is finite) can be expressed as the integral of sines and/or cosines multiplied by a weighting function (Fourier transform). The advent of digital computation and the ³discovery´ of fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm in the late 1950s revolutionized the field of signal processing, and allowed for the first time practical processing and meaningful interpretation of a host of signals of exceptional human and industrial importance.

3 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, CSU

The frequency domain refers to the plane of the two dimensional discrete Fourier transform of an image. The purpose of the Fourier transform is to represent a signal as a linear combination of sinusoidal signals of various frequencies.

4

2010-10-4

School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, CSU

y )e ± Inverse Fourier transform: £ f ( x. CSU ¡ ´ ´ £ ¢ ¢ e jU ! cos U j sin U j 2T ( ux vy ) dxdy . y ) ! ´ 5 2010-10-4 ´ g g (u. v)e j 2T ( ux vy ) dudv School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. v ) f ( x.2 Introduction to the Fourier Transform and the Frequency Domain The one-dimensional Fourier transform and its inverse ± Fourier transform (continuous case) (u ) ! ´ f ( x)e j 2Tux dx where j ! 1 ± Inverse Fourier transform: f ( x) ! ´ F (u )e j 2Tux du g g The two-dimensional Fourier transform and its inverse ± Fourier transform (continuous case) ¡ ¡ (u .4.

the discrete Fourier transform and its inverse always exist... if M 6 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. Other times both equations are multiplied by Unlike continuous case.. M 1 The 1/M multiplier in front of the Fourier transform sometimes is placed in the front of the inverse instead.2..2. M 1 § M x !0 ± Inverse Fourier transform (IDFT) f ( x) ! § F (u )e j 2Tux / M u !0 M 1 or x ! 0.4..1.. only 1/ f(x) is finite duration..2.1The one-dimensional Fourier transform and its inverse (discrete time case) ± Fourier transform (DFT) 1 M 1 (u ) ! f ( x)e j 2Tux / M for u ! 0.. CSU .1.

CSU . ± Frequency (time) component: each of the M terms of F(u).jU Since e ! cos U j sin U and the fact cos( ) ! cos then discrete Fourier transform can be redefined 1 M 1 F (u ) ! § f ( x)[cos 2T ux / M j sin 2T ux / M ] M x !0 or u ! 0.. M 1 ± Frequency (time) domain: the domain (values of u) over which the values of F(u) range... 2.. 7 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. because u determines the frequency of the components of the transform.1.

F(u) can be expressed in polar coordinates: (u ) ! where (u ) e jJ ( u ) (u ) ! « R (u ) I (u ) » ½ 2 2 1/2 (magnitude or spectrum) « I (u ) » J (u ) ! tan 1 ¬ ¼ (phase angle or phase spectrum) R (u ) ½ ± R(u): the real part of F(u) ± I(u): the imaginary part of F(u) Power spectrum: P (u ) ! (u ) ! R 2 (u ) I 2 (u ) 2 8 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .

Some One-Dimensional Fourier Transform Examples Please note the relationship between the value of K and the height of the spectrum and the number of zeros in the frequency domain. CSU . 9 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

10 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. The transform of a delta function is a constant. The transform of a constant function is a DC value only. CSU .

11 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU . The transform of an infinite train of delta functions spaced by T is an infinite train of delta functions spaced by 1/T. The transform of a cosine function is a positive delta at the appropriate positive and negative frequency.

12 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. The transform of a square pulse is a sinc function. CSU . The transform of a sin function is a negative complex delta function at the appropriate positive frequency and a negative complex delta at the appropriate negative frequency.

CSU .1. M 1.2 The two-dimensional Fourier transform and its inverse (discrete time case) ± Fourier transform (DFT) 1 (u ....1.. y : the spatial or image variables 13 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.2.1..1.... M 1. v : the transform or frequency variables x.2.. N 1 u. v)e j 2T ( ux / M vy / N ) u !0 v !0 M 1 N 1 for x ! 0. y ) ! §§ (u.4.. y ! 0. v ) ! MN M 1 N 1 §§ x ! 0 y !0 f ( x.. y )e j 2T ( ux / M vy / N ) for u ! 0. N 1 ± Inverse Fourier transform (IDFT) f ( x.2.. v ! 0...2.2...

We define the Fourier spectrum.v) ± I(u. v) » J (u . v) (power spectrum) 2 ± R(u. v) ½ P(u. v) ! R 2 (u . v) 2 2 1 ? A 1 2 ( spectrum) « I (u . CSU . and power spectrum of the two-dimensional Fourier transform as follows: (u . v) ! tan ¬ ¼ (phase angle) R (u . v) I 2 (u . v) I (u .v): the imaginary part of F(u.v) 14 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. phase anble.v): the real part of F(u. v) ! R (u .v) ! (u .

v ) (conujgate symmetric) (symmetric) 15 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. v ) ( u . y )(1) 1 F (0. y) * ( u . v) ! (u . v) ! ? x y A M N ! F (u . v ) (shift) 2 2 (average) M 1 N 1 x ! 0 y !0 §§ f ( x. CSU . Some properties of Fourier transform: f ( x.0) ! MN (u .

taking the 1D DFT o every ro o image f(x. CSU .y) y or v x or u (c) F(u.v) can be obtained by 1.y) (a) f(x. taking the 1D DFT o every column o F(u.v) 16 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. 2.y) Convention of coordination: (b) F(u. F(u.y).y).Steps and some example o t o-dimensional DFT The 2D DFT F(u.

CSU . 17 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.or v.direction and the width or height of white block of source image.shi t Consider the relationship between the separation of zeros in u.

CSU .Shape of three dimensional spectrum 18 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

CSU .The Property of Two-Dimensional DFT Rotation DFT DFT 19 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

The Property of Two-Dimensional DFT Linear Combination A DFT B DFT 0.75 * B DFT 20 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .25 * A + 0.

results in the same DFT. illing the empty ne values ith zeros.The Property of Two-Dimensional DFT Expansion A DFT B DFT Expanding the original image by a actor o n (n=2). CSU . 21 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

Two-Dimensional DFT with Different Functions Sine ave Its DFT Rectangle Its DFT 22 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .

Two-Dimensional DFT with Different Functions 2D Gaussian unction Its DFT Impulses Its DFT 23 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .

CSU .4.3 Filtering in the Frequency Domain Frequency is directly related to rate of change. The frequency of fast varying components in an image is higher than slowly varying components. 24 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.2.

What is zero-phase-shift filter? 25 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.Basics of Filtering in the Frequency Domain Including multiplication the input/output image by (-1)x+y. CSU .

v ) ! ¯ 1 otherwise.v) by the filter function (notch filter): 0 ® if (u .Some Basic Filters and Their Functions Multiply all values of F(u. CSU . ° ± All this filter would do is set F(0.0) to zero (force the average value of an image to zero) and leave all other frequency components of the Fourier transform untouched and make prominent edges stand out 26 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. N / 2) H (u . v ) ! ( M / 2.

CSU .Some Basic Filters and Their Functions Lo pass ilter Circular symmetry Highpass ilter 27 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

g.Some Basic Filters and Their Functions Low frequency filters: eliminate the gray-level detail and keep the general gray-level appearance. edge and noise) gray-level detail. CSU . (blurring the image) Low frequency filters: have less gray-level variations in smooth areas and emphasized transitional (e. (sharpening images) 28 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering..

4.4 Correspondence between Filtering in the Spatial and Frequency Domain Convolution theorem: ± The discrete convolution of two functions f(x. y n ) 1 M 1 N 1 ! §0 § h(m.2. CSU . 29 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. y n) MN m ! n ! 0 The process of implementation: 1) Flipping one function about the origin.y) of size M v N is defined as 1 f ( x. n) f ( x m.y) and h(x. y ) ! MN M 1 N 1 m! 0 n! 0 § § f (m. n )h (x m. y ) h ( x . 3) Computing a sum of products over all values of m and n. y). 2) Shifting that function with respect to the other by changing the values of (x. for each displacement.

v) and H(u. y y0 ) and is defined by : M 1 N 1 §§ s( x. y )e MN x !0 y !0 MN 30 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. v) ! §§ H ( x. v) Eq. y ) AH ( x x0 .2-35) : 1 M 1 N 1 1 j 2T ( ux / M vy / N ) ! F (u . y ) h ( x . then Eq.y). y0 ) x !0 y !0 M 1 N 1 x ! 0 y !0 §§ s( x. v ) f ( x. v) H (u. CSU . y ) F (u .v) denote the Fourier transforms of f(x.2-31) f ( x .0) The shifting property of impulse function where H ( x. y ) : a unit impulse located at the origin The Fourier transform of a unit impulse at the origin (Eq4. y)h( x. v ) H (u . located at coordinates (x0. (4. y )H ( x.y0): H ( x x0 .232) an impulse function of strength A. y y0 ) ! As( x0 . y ) ! s(0.±Let F(u.y) and h(x. y) F (u. (4.

the response of impulse input is the transfer function of filter. CSU . 31 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. (4. v ) H 1 1 h( x. v) H (u. y )AH (u. v ) H ( x. y ) ! §§ H (m. y ) MN Combine Eqs. v) MN MN h( x.2-36)) 1 M 1 N 1 f ( x. v) That is to say.2-35) (4. y ) H (u . (4. then the convolution (Eq. (4. y ) . y ) h( x. y ) ? ( x.2-31). n)h( x m. y ) h ( x.2-36) with Eq. Let f ( x. y ) h( x. y ) H (u . y ) ! H ( x. we obtain: f ( x. y n) MN m !0 n !0 1 ! h( x. y ) F (u .

CSU . We can specify filters in the frequency. Filtering in frequency is more intuitive.The distinction and links between spatial and frequency filtering If the size of spatial and frequency filters is same. However. Fourier transform and its inverse are linear process. it makes more sense to filter in the spatial domain using small filter masks. take their inverse transform. whenever possible. and the use the resulting filter in spatial domain as a guide for constructing smaller spatial filter masks. 32 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. then the computation burden in spatial domain is larger than in frequency domain. so the following discussion is limited to linear processes.

Gaussian filter function given the equation (u ) ! e where W : the standard deviation of the Gaussian curve. Let H(u) denote a frequency domain. 2) both the forward and inverse Fourier transforms of a Gaussian are real Gaussian function.There is two reasons that filters based on Gaussian functions are of particular importance: 1) their shapes are easily specified. CSU . The corresponding filter in the spatial domain is u 2 / 2W 2 h( x) ! 2T W e 2T 2W 2 x 2 33 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

CSU .34 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

they never turn positive again. Once the values turn negative. 35 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. Filtering in frequency domain is usually used for the guides to design the filter masks in the spatial domain.(u ) ! e 2 u 2 / 2W1 Be 2 u 2 / 2W 2 .W 1 u W 2 ) The corresponding filter in the spatial domain is h( x) ! 2T W 1 Ae 2 2T 2W 1 x 2 2T W 2 e 2 2T 2W 2 x 2 We can note that the value of this types of filter has both negative and positive values. ( u B. CSU .

These properties make the Gaussian filter very useful for lowpass filtering an image. So. if we convolve an image with a Gaussian function. there will never be any negative output values to deal with. There is also an important relationship between the widths of a Gaussian function and its Fourier transform. Other filters besides lowpass can also be implemented by using two different sized Gaussian functions. 36 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. This is controlled by the variance parameter W2 in the equations. the width of the Fourier transform gets larger. the values are always positive. CSU . In addition.Some important properties of Gaussian filters funtions One very useful property of the Gaussian function is that both it and its Fourier transform are real valued. there are no complex values associated with them. The amount of blur is controlled by W2. If we make the width of the function smaller. It can be implemented in either the spatial or frequency domain.

± Ideal lowpass filter ± Butterworth lowpass filter ± Gaussian lowpass filter 37 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .2 Smoothing Frequency-Domain Filters The basic model for filtering in the frequency domain G (u . There are several standard forms of lowpass filters (LPF). v) where F(u. v) F (u .4.v): the Fourier transform of the image to be smoothed H(u.v): a filter transfer function Smoothing is fundamentally a lowpass operation in the frequency domain. v) ! H (u.

v) to the center of ther frequency rectangle (M/2.v) : the distance from point (u.Ideal Lowpass Filters (ILPFs) The simplest lowpass filter is a filter that ³cuts off´ all high-frequency components of the Fourier transform that are at a distance greater than a specified distance D0 from the origin of the transform. The transfer function of an ideal lowpass filter 1 i D (u . v ) ! (u M / 2) 2 ? ( v N / 2) 1 2 2 A 38 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. N/2) D (u . v) " D0 where D(u. CSU . v) e D0 (u . v) ! ¯ 0 ° i D (u.

cutoff frequency ILPF is a type of ³nonphysical´ filters and can¶t be realized with electronic components and is not very practical. 39 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .

CSU .40 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

41 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.The blurring and ringing phenomena can be seen. CSU . in which ringing behavior is characteristic of ideal filters.

v ) H (u. diagonal scan line of (d) spatial spatial spatial 42 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. (b) Corresponding spatial ilter. v ) Notation: the radius of center component and the number of circles per unit distance from the origin are inversely proportional to the value of the cutoff frequency. CSU . (c) Five impulses in the spatial domain.13 (a) A requency-domain ILPF o radius 5. y ) F (u . simulating the values o ive pixels. (d) Convolution o (b) and (c) in the spatial domain.Another example of ILPF Figure 4. y ) h( x. requency f ( x.

43 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU . v ) ! 1 2n 1 ?D (u . v ) / D0 A Note the relationship between order n and smoothing The BLPF may be viewed as a transition between ILPF AND GLPF.Butterworth Lowpass Filters (BLPFs) with order n H (u . BLPF of order 2 is a good compromise between effective lowpass filtering and acceptable ringing characteristics.

Butterworth Lowpass Filters (BLPFs) n=2 D0=5. CSU .and 230 44 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.80.30.15.

Butterworth Lowpass Filters (BLPFs) Spatial Representation n=1 n=2 n=5 n=20 45 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .

v ) ! e 2 D 2 ( u . v ) / 2 D0 46 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.Gaussian Lowpass Filters (FLPFs) H (u . CSU .

and 230 47 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.Gaussian Lowpass Filters (FLPFs) D0=5. CSU .15.80.30.

48 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.Additional Examples of Lowpass Filtering Character recognition in machine perception: join the broken character segments with a Gaussian lowpass filter with D0=80. CSU .

Application in ³cosmetic processing´ and produce a smoother. softer-looking result from a sharp original. 49 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .

50 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .Gaussian lowpass filter for reducing the horizontal sensor scan lines and simplifying the detection of features like the interface boundaries.

v ) ! 1 2n 1 ?D0 / D (u . v ) ! ¯ 1 ° i D (u . v ) ! 1 e 2 D 2 ( u . v ) ! 1 H lp (u . v ) D0 i D (u .4 Sharpening Frequency Domain Filter H hp (u . v ) Ideal highpass ilter 0 ® H (u . v ) D0 Butter orth highpass ilter H (u . CSU . v ) / 2 D0 51 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. v ) A Gaussian highpass ilter H (u .4.

CSU .Highpass Filters Spatial Representations 52 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

Ideal Highpass Filters (IHPFs) non-physically realizable with electronic component and have the same ringing properties as ILPFs. v) D0 D0 53 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. 0 ® H (u . v) ! ¯ 1 ° if D (u . v) if D (u . CSU .

v)A 54 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. v) ! 2n 1 ?D0 / D (u . CSU .Butterworth Highpass Filters The result is smoother than that of IHPFs and sharper than that of GHPFs 1 H (u .

CSU . v ) ! 1 e 55 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. v ) / 2 D0 H (u .Gaussian Highpass Filters The result is the smoothest in three types of high-pass filters 2 D 2 ( u .

CSU . v) ( jv) 2 F (u. N/2) and obtain H (u . y) x 2 f ( x. y) [ f ( x.y). it can be shown that x 2 f ( x. y ) « (u M / 2) 2 (v N / 2) 2 » F (u . y)] ! [ ] ! ( ju) 2 F (u. v ) ½ 56 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. v ) ! « (u M / 2)2 (v N / 2)2 » ½ We have the following Fourier transform pairs 2 f ( x.The Laplacian in the Frequency Domain The FT of n-order differential of a function f(x) is « d n f ( x ) / dx n ½ ! ( ju )n F (u ) » For a two-dimensional function f(x. v) ! ( u 2 v 2 ) F ( u. Laplacian can be implemented in the frequency domain by using the filter H (u . v ) ! (u v ) 2 2 Shift the center to (M/2. v) xx 2 xy 2 2 So.

CSU .The plot of Laplacian in frequency and spatial domain Frequency domain Spatial domain 57 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

® M N » ¾ « g ( x. y ) ! f ( x. y ) 2 f ( x. v) ¿ 2 2 ½ ° À A integrated operation in frequency domain For display purposes only 58 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU . y) ! 1 ¯ ¬1 (( u ) 2 ( v ) 2 ) ¼ F ( u.

Unsharp masking. high-boost filtering. and high-frequency emphasis filtering (refers to page187-191) 59 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .

5 Homomorphic filtering Problems: When the illumination radiating to an object is nonuniform. aims: Simultaneously compress the gray-level range and enhance contrast. and emphasis the details. These characteristics lead to associating the low frequencies of the Fourier transform of the logarithm of an image with illumination and the high frequencies with reflectance. CSU . Principal: Generally. 60 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. while the reflectance components tends to vary abruptly. particularly at the junctions of dissimilar objects. eliminate the effect of non-uniform illumination. the detail of the dark part in the image is more discernable. the illumination component of an image is characterized by slow spatial variations.4.

v) R(u. v) 3) Determine the H(u. v) H (u.The illumination-reflectance model of an image Illumination coefficient: i( x. v) 61 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. y) ln r ( x. y) F [ z ( x. y) reflectance coefficient: r ( x. v) ! H (u. CSU . v) (u. y)r ( x. y )] F [ln r ( x. y) ! i( x. y) ! ln f ( x. y)] Z (u. y)] ! F [ln i ( x. v) ! I (u.y) component. y ) f ( x. S (u. v). y) Steps: 1) 2) z ( x. v) I (u. and enhance the contrast of r(x. which must compress the dynamic range of i(x.y). y) ! ln i( x.

The following function meet the above requires rH>1 rL<1 The curve shape shown in above figure can be approximated using basic form of the ideal highpass filters. CSU . v ) / D0 ) ]KL School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. v ) ! (K H K L )[1 e 62 2010-10-4 2 c ( D 2 ( u . for example. using a slightly modified form of the Gaussian highpass filter and can obtain H (u .

y ) ! exp[i ' ( x. CSU . y) !F ' 1 [ H (u. y ) 63 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. y )r0 ( x. y) ! F 5) 1 i0 ( x. v)] r ' ( x. y )] g ( x. v) I (u.Steps: 4) i ( x. y )] r0 ( x. v) (u. v)] [ H (u. y ) ! i0 ( x. y ) ! exp[r ( x.

y) 64 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.v) FFT-1 exp g(x.y) ln FFT H(u. CSU .The flow-chart of Homomorphic filtering f(x.

CSU .Two examples 65 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

66 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .

y y 0 ) F (u .1Some Additional Properties of the 2D Fourier Transform . and : Translation f ( x x0 .6. y )] 1 f ( ax.4. v )e j 2T (ux0 / M vy0 / N ) f ( x. y )] [ f 2 ( x. v / b) ab Distributivity and scaling rotation f (r . scaling. N U 0 ) 67 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.6 Implementation 4. y ) f 2 ( x. U U 0 ) F ( w. CSU . distributivity. v v0 ) [ f1 ( x. y )e j 2T ( xu0 / M yu0 / N ) F (u u0 . by) F ( u / a. y )] ! [ f1 ( x.

Periodicity. v ) ! F (u . v ) ! F (u M . v N ) ! f (u M . v ) ! f (u . v ) ! f (u M . and back-to-back properties F (u . v ) shi t 68 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. v ) ! F (u . conjugate symmetry. v N ) f (u . CSU . v N ) F (u . v N ) ! F (u M .

69 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. y )e j 2T vy / N 1 ! M M 1 x!0 F ( x . v ) ! M M 1 x!0 §e j 2T ux / M 1 N § y !0 N 1 f ( x . CSU . v )e j 2T ux / M § A similar process can be applied to computing the 2-D inverse Fourier transform. Separability 1 F (u .

y ) ! MN MN M 1 N 1 u !0 v !0 F (u . similarly have 1 1 f ( x. CSU . v )e j 2T ( ux / M vy / N ) §§ Here.2 computing the inverse FF using a forward transform algorithm Repeat the one-dimensional inverse FF: f ( x) ! § F (u )e j 2T ux / M u !0 M 1 Take the complex conjugate of two side and multiply M 1 1 f ( x) ! M M M 1 u !0 F (u )e j 2T ux / M § Which is the form of forward FF.4. For two-dimensional case.v) as a simple function presenting on the forward transform equation 70 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. we can treat F(u.6. Take the complex conjugate of the result of the above equation and will get the inverse FF by forward transform.

4. CSU .3 More on Periodicity: the need for padding Convolution process f ( x) h( x) ! 1 M M 1 m!0 § f (m )h ( x m ) Aliasing or wraparound error 71 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.6.

The methods of solving the aliasing problem is to extend and pad.

f ® ( x )0 e x e f e ( x) ! ¯ 0 ° e x e

1 1

extend

h ® ( x )0 e x e B 1 he ( x) ! ¯ 0 °B e x e 1 here u + B 1

extend

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For two-dimensional case

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An example

*

=

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**4.6.4 convolution and correlation theorems
**

convolution

1 f ( x, y ) h ( x , y ) ! MN

M 1 N 1 m!0 n!0

§ § f (m, n )h (x m, y n )

f ( m, n)h( x m, y n)

1 correlation f ( x, y ) o h( x, y ) ! MN

M 1 N 1 m!0 n!0

§§

Except for the complex of f and h not mirrored about the origin, everything else in the implementation of correlation is identical to convolution, including the need for padding. Correlation theorem

f ( x, y ) o h( x, y ) ! F (u , v ) H (u , v ) f ( x, y )h( x, y ) ! F (u , v ) o H (u , v )

Correlation includes across- and auto-correlation, and its main use is for matching and sure the location where h (template) finds a correspondence in f.

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4.6. CSU .5 Summary of Some Important Properties of the 2-D Fourier Transform 77 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

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80 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering. CSU .

CSU .Summary Spatial and frequency filtering are both highly subjective processes The basic concept about Fourier Transform (FT) The algorithm of FT and the process of frequency filtering The physical meaning related to FT The relationship of resolution between spatial and frequency domain Correspondence between filtering in the spatial and frequency domains The general type of smoothing and sharpening filters and their main features Homomorphic filtering Some important properties of FT Convolution and correlation theorems 81 2010-10-4 School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering.

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