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Dr. Murari R. R. VARMA Department of Civil Engineering Thapar University, Patiala

Drainage basin (watershed, catchment) - Drains surface water to a common outlet

Drainage divide - how is it defined?

Hydrographs

A stream flow or discharge hydrograph is a graph or table showing the flow rate as a function of time at a given location on the stream. OR A hydrograph is a graph showing discharge (i.e., stream flow at the concentration point) versus time

A hydrograph is the response of a given catchment to a rainfall

Types

Long term Hydrographs(Annual, Monthly, Seasonal)

± Calculating Surface water Potential of a stream ± Reservoir Studies ± Drought studies

** Storm or flood hydrograph
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Results from an isolated storm Single-peaked skewed distribution of discharge

± Comprised of all runoff components namely surface, inter flow and base flow ± Hydrographs complex ² multiple peaks, kinks ± Simple hydrographs resulting from isolated storms used for analysis.

1988 .Chow.

Chow. 1988 .

Chow. 1988 .

.steeper recession curves ² higher slopes ± Nature of the valley ± Elevation ± Drainage density Ratio of total channel length to total drainage area ² higher DD. higher peaks.Factors affecting flood hydrograph Physiographic factors Basin Characteristics ± Size Times base larger for larger catchments ± Shape Fan shaped (high peak and narrow hydrographs) Elongated (broad and shallow peaks) ± Slope Time base smaller .

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intensity. Roughness and Storage capacity Climatic Factors Storm Characteristics ± Precipitation. magnitude and movement of storm Initial loss Evapotranspiration . swamps and Other storages Channel Characteristics ± CS.Physiographic factors Infiltration characteristics ± Land use and land cover ± Soil type and Geological conditions ± Lakes. duration.

Chow. 1988 .

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20 Kri varies from 0. groundwater) ± Qt = Q0 Krt Barnes (1940) or Qt = Q0 e-at where a = ln kr Kr =recession constant of a value less than unity Kr = krs .85 Krb varies 0.5 to 0.85 to 0.Hydrograph Components Rising Limb or curve ± Controlled by basin and climatic factors Crest Segment Recession limb or curve ± Controlled by catchment characteristics ± Due to depletion of Storage (surface and channel. Krb Krs varies 0.05 to 0. Kri. inteflow.99 .

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Raghunath. 2006 .

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Base flow Separation Raghunath. 2006 .

DRH Direct Runoff Hydrograph ± The SRH Obtained after base flow Separation is DRH ERH Effective rainfall Hyetograph or hyetograph of rainfall excess Area of ERH x Area of catchment = area under a DRH=volume of direct runoff .

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Unit Hydrograph ± Predict the flood hydrograph resulting from a known storm in a catchment ± Sherman 1932 The Hydrograph of direct runoff resulting from one unit depth(usually 1cm) of rainfall excess occurring uniformly over the basin and at a uniform rate for a specified duration( D hours). -Unit refers to depth of rainfall excess .1cm .

. .Distribution is considered to be uniform all over the catchment .Features .UH a lumped response of the catchment to a unit rainfall excess of D hr duration .Area of UH is equal to volume given by 1 cm depth of rainfall excess over the catchment. .Volume of water contained in the Unit Hydrograph must be equal to rainfall excess .Rainfall is considered to have an average intensity of 1/D cm/h for the duration D hr of the storm.It relates only direct runoff to rainfall excess.

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± DRH for a given ER in acatchment is same irrespective of when it occurs Linear Response Direct runoff response to rainfall excess is linear. ± Enables the method called super position to derive DRH ± ± ± ± ± . X1(t) -> y1(t) and X2(t) -> y2(t) X1(t) + X2(t) -> y1(t) + y2(t) X2(t) = r X1(t) then y2(t) = r y1(t) ER in a duration D is r times the unit depth the resulting DRH will have ordinates bearing ratio r to those of corresponding D-h unit hydrograph.Basic Assumptions Direct runoff response to a given effective rainfall in a catchment is time-invariant. ± Since the area resulting DRH should increase by ratio r the base of DRH will be the same as that of unit hydrograph.

their combined effect is obtained by superposing the respective DRHs . if two ER of Dh duration occur consecutively.

Application of Unit Hydrograph A DRH of a catchment can be calculated if an appropriate UH is available ± If Dh UH and Storm hyetograph are available ± ERH is derived ± ERH divided into M blocks of D duration ± Rainfall excess in each Dh is operated upon the UH to obtain Various DRH curves ± Ordinates of this DRH are lagged suitably to obtain proper time sequence and then are collected and added to obtain the nett DRH. .

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Determination of DRH from known UH and ERH .

± A no of Unit Hydrographs are plotted on a common pair of axes. ± Various UH Will not be identical ± Adopt a mean of such curves (average to peak flows and time peak are calculated) ± Curve of best fit judged by eye is drawn . of isolated Storm Hydrographs caused by short spells of rainfall excess each of approximately same duration.1 Dh) are selected from a continuously gauged runoff of the stream. ± Baseflow is separated for each.90D to 1. Derivation of Unit Hydrographs ± A no. (0.

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10mm < ER < 50mm is suggested.Criteria for Selecting Storm Events to Derive UHs Storms are isolated and occur individually. Storms should be flood-producing storms ± ER is high. The number of storm events should be at least 5. Storm coverage should be uniform over the entire watershed . Duration of rainfall should be approx.watershed area should not be too large. say 200 ha < 5000 km2 . UH . 1/5 to 1/3 of basin lag.

UH .Derivation of UH (For simple ERH) 1. The duration of the UH is the duration of ERH. Measure the total volume of DRH in equivalent uniform depth (EUD) 3. 2. Assume that ERHs are uniform. 6. In rainfall-runoff analysis. the times of occurrence for DRH and ERH are commonly made identical. the UH can be derived by dividing the ordinates of DRH by VDRH 5. Analyze hydrograph and perform baseflow separation. 4. Find the effective rainfall such that VDRH = VERH.

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Decompose ameasured composite flood hydrograph into its component DRHs and base flow .When suitable isolated storms are not available . Q5 =R1u5+R2u4+R3u3 Solving by optimisation schemes by matrix methods .Inverse of derivation of flood hydrograph from UH Ordinates of Composite DRH Q1 = R1u1 Q2=R1u2+R2u1 Q3=R1u3+R2u2+R3u1 .Unit Hydrograph from a complex storm .A common UH of appropriate duration is assumed to exist .

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20%D grouped under one average duration D h. S curve .for different durations Other duration are derived from available durations Two methods 1.Unit Hydrographs of different Durations UH's are derived from simple isolated storms and if their durations do differ much ~ +. Due to lack of data. Method of Super position 2.

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resulting from a continuous effective rainfall at a constant rate for an infinite period. Qs. can be computed as Qs = [A/D x 10-4] m3/hr . the continuous rainfall producing 1 cm (or 1 inch) of runoff every D hr would reach an equilibrium discharge.S-Curve Analysis (1) S-curve is a DRH (also called S-hydrograph). Produced by summation of an infinite series of Dh Uhs spaced Dh apart After D hours. Qs. The equilibrium discharge.

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the difference between the two S-curves represents the direct runoff hydrograph resulting from a rainfall excess of T/D cm or inches. an average S-curve can usually be drawn through the points without too much difficulty. the duration of the UH may differ slightly from the duration used in calculation. This means that the initial UH does not represent actually the runoff at a uniform rate over time. Note: The S-curve tends to fluctuate about Qs. That is. . Nevertheless.S-Curve Analysis (2) To derive a UH of duration D-hr from the S-curve. obtained from Dhr UH. The -hr UH then can be easily obtained by dividing the ordinates of SA-SB by T/D. . Then. the S-curve is shifted to the right by T-hr. Such fluctuations usually occur because of lack of precision in selecting UH duration.

large flood bank storage affect linear reationships Precipitation has to uniform. .Use and Limitations of Unit Hydrograph Use Development of Flood hydrographs for extreme rainfall ± use in design of Hydraulic Structures Extension of Flood flow records based on rainfall records Development of Flood forecastingand warning systems Limitations Assumptions .uniform distribution. Precipitation must be from rainfall:snowmelt cannot be satisfactorily represented Large storages like tanks. Intensity constant for duration of rainfall excess Basins above 5000 Km2 and below 200ha are not preferred. Ponds .

Distribution graphs Variation of UH introduced by Bernard (1935) A D-h UH with ordinates representing the percentage of surface runoff occurring in successive periods of equal time intervals of D-h Useful in comparing the runoff characteristics of different catchments.Duration of Unit Hydrograph Should not exceed the time of rise Should not exceed the basin lag Time of concentration D~ ¼ of basin lag is ideal choice >1200 km2 above 12 hr duration preferred. .

UH .

Methods for synthesising hydrographs for ungauged areas have been developed by Bernard. UHs derived thus are called Synthetic UHs. Snyder¶s method ± Appalachian mountains USA .Synthetic Unit Hydrographs No data ± ungauged catchments ± Remote locations Empirical equations developed from available data is developed for a region Relation between basin and salient hydrograph characteristics. Clark. McCarthy and Snyder.

peak discharge (Qp) and lag time (basin lag. .Snyder¶s method 3 main parameters .base width (T). tp) Basin lag or lag time (In snyder¶s method midpoint of unit rainfall excess to peak of the UH) ± Represents the mean time of travel of water particles from all parts of catchment to the outlet during a given storm.

UH .

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Finalizing of Synthetic UH After obtaining the parameters of from Synders method a tentative UH is drawn An S curve is developed and Plotted ± As UH ordinates will bw tentative ± will have kinks Smoothened and logical pattern of S curve is sketched From this S curve a tr` hr UH can be derived back Area under th UH is checked to see if it is 1cm Time obtained from synthetic UH will be least accurate. UH .

UH .

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UH .

UH .

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