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¾ ways in which a person·s interactions and
relationships with others change as that person grows older
¾ emergence of distinctive styles of thought,
feeling, and behavior
Psychoanalytic theory (Freud) Psychosocial theory (Erikson) Social learning theory Cognitive developmental perspective Biological perspective .
Beginnings of social relationships ¾ social smile ¾ temperament ¾ bi-directional influence ¾ reaction range .
The formation of attachments ¾ Harlow·s monkeys ¾ secure attachment x infant expects that caregiver will be available ¾ anxious attachment x caregiver cannot be counted on for comfort .
Self-understanding ¾ physical self ¾ active self ¾ social self ¾ psychological self .
or neglect ¾ the impact of divorce . Environmental influences ¾ parenting styles x authoritative vs. sexual. permissive ¾ child abuse x physical.
and general activity level The interplay of genes and environment . Genetic influences ¾ sociability. emotionalism.
Gender roles ¾ patterns of behavior characteristic of members of one·s own sex Biological influences ¾ some behavioral differences between the sexes appear before much contact with the social environment .
Environmental theories ¾ The Freudian perspective x Oedipus conflict ¾ The social learning perspective ¾ The cognitive developmental view .
Socialization ¾ learning the expectations and values of one·s society Internalization ¾ incorporating society·s values into the self to such an extent that violation of those standards produces guilt .
The Freudian perspective ¾ child internalizes the moral code of the same-sex parent ¾ rapid development of superego The social learning perspective ¾ children act morally due to reinforcement ¾ children have moral models to imitate .
The cognitive developmental perspective ¾ preconventional level ¾ conventional level ¾ postconventional level .
Personal reward orientation Conventional Morality ¾ 3. The ´good boy/nice girlµ Orientation ¾ 4. Social contract orientation ¾ 6. Universal ethical principle orientation . Punishment-obedience ¾ 2. The ´law and orderµ orientation Post-conventional Morality ¾ 5. Preconventional Morality ¾ 1.
I·ll scratch yoursµ x High school example: A group of high school students involved in a cooperative learning activity get upset because one of their group members is repeatedly absent and did not do any work. Preconventional Morality ¾ Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation x Avoid (physical) punishment x High school example: One middle school teacher has latecomers do pushups--50 of them--in front of the class. . ¾ Stage 2: Personal Reward Orientation x ´You scratch my back.
Conventional Morality ¾ Stage 3: The ´good boy/nice girlµ Orientation x In an inner city high school student's journal. This rule reinforces the fundamental purpose of government to protect the health and welfare of its citizens . she wrote "I am going to work harder in school so I won't let you down because if you think I can make it then I can make it" ¾ Stage 4: A ´Law and Orderµ Orientation x "Move carefully in the halls".
I request that everyone in the class be responsible for classroom management.. Post-conventional Morality ¾ Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation x Example for a handout in a high school class: "Please remember that this is your room and your class.. To ensure that our rights are protected and upheld. The behavior and participation of each person will shape the type of learning that will occur. Since one person's behavior affects everyone else. the following laws have been established for this classroom." .
everyone is entitled to equal dignity as a human being. Jr. Mother Theresa. In this room. Martin Luther King. ethnic. x High school teacher: "I will not tolerate any racial. It is not fair to erase someone's face. reciprocity. Examples: Gandhi. or sexual slurs in this classroom. equality. Post-conventional Morality ¾ Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation x an orientation toward universal ethical principles of justice. and respect x Very rare.µ .
Secondary sexual characteristics Importance of timing of puberty Establishment of an independent identity Peer relationships Psychological and sexual intimacy .
Early adulthood ¾ period of action ¾ challenge to women ¾ change in attitudes and concerns ¾ age-thirty crisis .
Mid-life and beyond ¾ changes resulting in crises ¾ consistent with Erikson·s seventh stage ¾ generativity x the desire to reach out and become concerned with the well-being of future generations .
Individual differences in adult development Coping and satisfaction in adulthood .
2000) Meta-Analysis: A meta-analysis combines results of several original studies. .Meta-analytic study (Roberts and DelVecchio. Assessed personality traits repeatedly over longer time intervals (at least one year apart) Data in the meta-analysis: 3.217 correlation coefficients from 152 longitudinal studies of personality. Original Studies: Method.
Results: Roberts and DelVecchio (2000) .
Mean levels of personality traits change with development. people tend to become less emotional and more responsible and cooperative Beyond age thirty. the only significant personality changes are those related to reduced physical activity . Between twenty and thirty. reaching adult levels by age thirty.
or other demographic categories . personality traits are essentially fixed All of the major personality traits display this stability Stability of personality holds true regardless of gender. By age thirty. race.