CARL GUSTAV JUNG

Analytic Theory

BIOGRAPHY
‡ Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 June 06, 1965)
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Child of Paul Achilles Jung and Emilie Preismerk Swiss Psychiatrist Founder of Analytical Psychology Human Psyche by nature religious

‡ Dream Analysis ‡ Fields:
‡ Alchemy ‡ Sociology Astrology Arts Literature

‡ Individuation Central concept of
analytical Psychology

‡ Worked with Sigmund Freud ‡ Schools:
± University of Basel (Degree in Psychiatry) ± University of Zurich (Worked as a senior Psychiatrist) ± France: Study with Psychiatrist Pierre Janet

‡ Research on Word Association
± in which a person's responses to stimulus words can reveal complexes: groups of related, often repressed, ideas and impulses that bring about habitual patterns of thought or behavior

‡ Research on Word Association
± in which a person's responses to stimulus words can reveal complexes: groups of related, often repressed, ideas and impulses that bring about habitual patterns of thought or behavior

‡ A psycho-galvanometer
± measures the resistance of the skin to the passage of a very small electric current. It has been known for decades that the magnitude of this electrical resistance is affected, not only by the subject's general mood, but also by immediate emotional reactions

Lower values indicate lower skin resistance and hence higher stress rapid drop in skin resistance reflects the increased tension of being killed

Important Findings of his reaserch
‡ A low level of cortical arousal is desirable for relaxation, hypnosis, and the subjective experience of psychic states and unconscious manifestations. ‡ A high level of cortical arousal gives increased powers of reflection, focused concentration, increased reading speed, and increased capacity for long-term recall. ‡ Cortical arousal has a simple relationship to skin conductivity. Arousal of the cortex increases the conductivity of the skin and conversely, a drop in arousal causes a drop in skin conductivity.

Jung and Freud agreed on the most basic hypothesis

‡ in addition to the rational, conscious aspect of the personality, there is another realm of the psyche of which man is normally not aware, which they called the unconscious. ‡ Psychoanalysis
± was then developed as a technique, consisting of free associations, designed to bring such conflicts into awareness and thus deal with them from an adult viewpoint.

The way to Individuation
‡ The Persona is an identity we hold and which we present to the outside world. We may hold several of such: our career role; our role as mother father, son, etc; our political identity, and so on. ‡ The Ego is our center of consciousness, our conscious sense of self. Therefore it excludes (although remains influenced by) all of our make-up that is unconscious. Jung says: "So far as we know, consciousness is always Egoconsciousness. In order to be conscious of myself, I must be able to distinguish myself from others. Relationship can only take place where this distinction exists."

‡ The Shadow is an unconscious part of the Ego, and receptacle for that which we have for one reason or another disowned or wish to remain out of sight and those qualities that one would rather not see in oneself, as well as unrealized potentials. The Shadow is intimately connected to the Id and its structures, Thanatos and Eros that contain the animal instincts. It's the part of the personality that's forced out of mental awareness by the Ego's defense mechanisms.

‡ The Anima is a node of unconscious beliefs and feelings in a man's psyche relating to the opposite gender, the Animus is the corresponding complex in a woman's psyche. As part of the Ego unconscious, these complexes can rise into consciousness when activated by appropriate circumstances.

‡ The Self is simply the totality of the entire psyche. It is the function which contains all the other functions and around which they orbit. It may be difficult for the conscious Ego to accept that there may be more to the psyche than that of which it is currently aware.

‡ The major goal of Jungian therapy is Individuation through the integration of the Ego and the Shadow. By this means a person becomes a psychological 'in-dividual,' that is, a separate indivisible unity or 'whole'.

Introversion and extraversion
‡ Introversion is "the state of or tendency toward being wholly or predominantly concerned with and interested in one's own mental life." Introverts tend to be quiet, low-key, deliberate, and relatively non-engaged in social situations. They take pleasure in solitary activities such as reading, writing, watching movies, inventing and designing.

INTROVERT

EXTRAVERT

‡ Extraversion is "the act, state, or habit of being predominantly concerned with and obtaining gratification from what is outside the self." Extraverts tend to enjoy human interactions and to be enthusiastic, talkative, assertive and gregarious. They take pleasure in activities that involve large social gatherings, such as parties, community activities, public demonstrations, and business or political groups

PERSONAL UNCONCIOUS
‡ The personal unconscious contains all the beliefs, values, feelings and memories which one is not currently conscious of. It contains material that can be made conscious by simple act of will, which can be termed 'Preconscious'; material that requires some effort or external stimulus to retrieve, both cognitive and affective, which can be termed 'subconscious'; as well as material that may never be recalled to consciousness ever again.

COLLECTIVE UNCONCIOUS
‡ The collective unconscious contains instinctive drives and patterns of behavior that we all share, as human beings. It includes the overall cellular memory of past ancestors, that is located inside of the body and is passed on genetically. But Jung also perceived the collective unconscious as something we tap into by psychic means, as a current 'over-mind' of our race.

ARCHETYPES
‡ Archetypes are innate, universal psychic dispositions that form the substrate from which the basic themes of human life emerge. A group of memories and interpretations associated with an archetype is a complex, e.g. a mother complex associated with the mother archetype. Jung treated the archetypes as psychological organs, analogous to physical ones in that both are morphological constructs that arose through evolution.

Jung's Stages of Development
‡ Childhood The 'archaic stage' of infancy has sporadic consciousness; then during the 'monarchic stage' of the small child there is the beginning of logical and abstract thinking, and the ego starts to develop. ‡ Youth & Early Years From puberty until 35 - 40 there is maturing sexuality, growing consciousness, and then a realization that the carefree days of childhood are gone forever. People strive to gain independence, find a mate, and raise a family.

‡ Middle Life The realization that you will not live forever creates tension. If you desperately try to cling to your youth, you will fail in the process of self-realization. At this stage, you experience what Jung calls a 'metanoia' (change of mind) and there is a tendency to more introverted and philosophical thinking. People often become religious during this period or acquire a personal philosophy of life. ‡ Old Age Consciousness is reduced in the last years, at the same time there is there acquisition of wisdom. Jung thought that death is the ultimate goal of life. By realizing this, people will not face death with fear but with the feeling of a "job well done" and perhaps the hope for rebirth.

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