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Aggregates for Concrete

Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures – Chapter 6


Overview
 Geology
 Classification
 Characteristics of Aggregates
 Potentially Harmful Materials
 Alkali-Aggregate Reactivity
 Beneficiation
 Handling and Storage
Aggregates for Concrete
Aggregate Geology
Aggregate Classification
 Normal-weight,
lightweight,
heavyweight
 Natural aggregate
 Manufactured aggregate
 Recycled-concrete
aggregate
 Marine-dredged aggregate
Natural Aggregate
 Gravel and sand
 Mixture of several minerals
 Pits, rivers, lakes, seabeds
 Quality depends on parent bedrock
Manufactured Aggregate
 Crushed rock or air-cooled slag
 Fine and coarse aggregate
 Rough, angular texture
 Cubical or elongated shape
 More uniform in size
 Less likely to be contaminated
Recycled-Concrete Aggregate
Recycled-Concrete Aggregate
Marine-Dredged Aggregate
 Tidal estuaries, seashore
 Two concerns: seashells and salt
 Avoid uncrushed shells
 Avoid using high chloride aggregates in
reinforced concrete
Aggregate
Character-
istics
Grading
Grading
Grading Limits
Fine-Aggregate Grading
Coarse-Aggregate Grading
Coarse-Aggregate
Grading
Maximum Size vs. Nominal Maximum Size

 Maximum size – 100% passing

 Nominal maximum size – typically 85% to 95%


passing
Nominal Maximum Size
Combined Aggregate Grading
Combined Aggregate Grading
Combined Aggregate Grading
Gap-Graded Aggregates
 Certain particle sizes omitted, typically one
coarse aggregate size
 Excess coarse aggregate – honeycomb,
segregate
 Excess fine aggregate – high water demand,
shrinkage
 Properly proportioned mixtures are readily
consolidated with vibration
Fineness Modulus
Particle Shape and Surface Texture
Bulk Density and Voids
 Bulk density – mass of aggregate in unit volume
 Includes voids
 30% - 45% voids in coarse aggregates
 40% - 50% voids in fine aggregates
 Angularity increases voids
Density and Relative Density
 Density = Relative density x density of water
 Typically between 2400 and 2900 kg/m3
(150 and 181 lb/ft3)
 Relative density typically between 2.4 and 2.9.
Absorption and Surface Moisture
Bulking
Resistance to Freezing and Thawing
D-Cracking
Abrasion and Skid Resistance
 Abrasion resistance used as quality index
 Los Angeles abrasion test is most common
 No correlation between aggregate abrasion and
concrete abrasion
 Siliceous content > 25% for good skid
resistance
Strength
 Rarely tested
 Tensile strength – 2 MPa to 15 MPa (300 psi to
2300 psi)
 Compressive strength – 65 MPa to 270 MPa
(10,000 psi to 40,000 psi)
Shrinkage
Resistance to Acid
 Acids generally attack calcareous aggregates
 Calcareous aggregates neutralize acid
 Siliceous aggregates are attacked by sodium
hydroxide
Fire Resistance and Thermal Properties
 Dependent on mineral constituents
 Lightweight aggregates outperform normal-
weight aggregates
 Calcareous aggregates outperform siliceous
aggregates
 Coefficient of thermal expansion – 0.55 x 10-6
per °C to 5 x 10-6 per °C (1 x 10-6 per °F to 9 x
10-6 per °F)
Potentially Harmful
Materials
Potentially Harmful Materials
Alkali-Aggregate Reactivity
Alkali-Silica Reaction
Alkali-Carbonate Reaction
 Rare due to general unsuitability of reactive
aggregates
 Tested through:
 Petrographic examination (ASTM C295)
 Rock cylinder method (ASTM C586)
 Concrete prism test (ASTM C1105)
Aggregate Beneficiation
 Improving quality through processing
 Heavy media separation
 Jigging
 Rising-current classification
 Crushing
Handling and Storing Aggregates
Handling and Storing Aggregates
Summary
 Geology
 Classification
 Characteristics of Aggregates
 Potentially Harmful Materials
 Alkali-Aggregate Reactivity
 Beneficiation
 Handling and Storage
Questions