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CLARITY OF LEARNING

TARGETS
Clarity of Learning Targets

Assessment can be made precise, accurate, and


dependable only if what are to be achieved are
clearly stated and feasible.
Learning Targets

 involve knowledge, reasoning, skills, products


and affects

 need to be stated in behavioral terms or terms


which denote something which can be
observed through the behavior of the
students
LEARNING TARGETS IN THE COGNITIVE
DOMAIN
involves knowledge and the development of
intellectual skills
 includes the recall or recognition of specific
facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that
serve in the development of intellectual
abilities and skills
addresses development that is individual
rather than interpersonal, focuses on
content rather than context, and is
independent of emotion
The Cognitive Domain

Skills in the cognitive domain revolve around


knowledge, comprehension, and critical thinking
of a particular topic.

As proposed by Benjamin Bloom (1954),there are


6 major levels of educational objectives at the
cognitive level, starting from the simplest
behavior to the most complex. The categories can
be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is,
the first ones must normally be mastered before
the next ones can take place.
The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain
1. KNOWLEDGE – refers to the acquisition of
facts, concepts, and theories.
- forms the foundation of all other cognitive
objectives for without it, it’s not possible to
move up to the next higher level of thinking
in the hierarchy of educational objectives.

- this level require the students to remember.


Test items ask the student to recall or
recognize facts, terminology, problem solving
strategies, or rules.
The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain

Words typically used in the KNOWLEDGE level


are: define, recall, recognize, remember,
identify, enumerate

Example:

• Identify the health benefits of eating apples.

• Recall the four major food groups without error.


The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain

2. COMPREHENSION – refers to the same


concept as “understanding”
- demonstrates that the student has
sufficient understanding to organize
and arrange material mentally

- a step higher than mere acquisition of facts


and involves a cognition or awareness
of the interrelationships of facts and
concept
The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain

Words typically used in the COMPREHENSION


level are: describe, compare, contrast,
rephrase, put in your own words, explain
the man idea

Example:

• Compare the health benefits of eating apples vs. oranges.


The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain

3. APPLICATION - refers to the transfer of


knowledge from one field of study to
another or from one concept to another
concept in the same discipline

- a question that asks a student to apply


previously learned information to reach
an answer
The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain

Words typically used in the APPLICATION level:


apply, classify, use, choose, employ, write an
example, solve, compute, show
Example:

• Use the appropriate ingredients in making an


apple pie.
The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain

4. ANALYSIS - refers to the breaking down of a


concept or idea in its components and
explaining the concept as a composition of
these concepts

- higher order questions that require


students to make a critical and in-depth
thinking
The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain
Words typically used in the ANALYSIS level:
identify motives/causes, draw conclusions,
determine evidence, support, analyze
Example question:

• List four ways of serving foods made with apples and


explain which ones have the highest health benefits.
Provide references to support your statements.

• Deduce a message that implies a universal truth from


the story read.
The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain

5. SYNTHESIS – refers to the opposite of


analysis and entails putting together the
components in order to summarize the
concept

- a higher order question that asks the student to


perform original and creative thinking
The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain
Words typically used in the SYNTHESIS level:
predict, produce, write, design, develop,
synthesize, construct, how can we improve,
what would happen if, can you devise, how
can we solve
Example:

• Convert an "unhealthy" recipe for apple pie to a


"healthy" recipe by replacing your choice of
ingredients.
• Explain the health benefits of using the ingredients
you chose vs. the original ones.
The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain
6. EVALUATION AND REASONING – refers to
valuing and judgment or putting the
worth of a concept or principle

- requires the student to judge the merit of


an idea, a solution to a problem, or
an aesthetic work

- a higher level question that does not have a


single correct answer.
The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain

Words typically used in the EVALUATION level:


Appraise, Argue, Assess, Evaluate, Judge,
Justify, Prove, Rank, Rate

Example:

• Prove that men are better in mathematics than


are women.
The Six Levels in the Cognitive Domain

©Lee Kolbert
References
De Guzman-Santos, Rosita. (2007). Assessment of Learning 1.
Quezon City, Philippines: Adriana Printing Co., Inc.

http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloom's_Taxonomy

http://cetl.matcmadison.edu/efgb/2/2_3_4.htm

http://weblogs.pbspaces.com/mrskolbert/2010/11/06/defined-
or-denied-21st-century-students-in-todays-classrooms/

http://nsuwptechnology.wikispaces.com/Bloom's+Verb+Wheel