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May 21, 2006

The Basics

May 21, 2006

Unit Conversions

rad rev 2π =1 sec sec N ⋅m 1Watt = 1 sec

Coulomb 1Watt = 1Volt ⋅ Ampere = 1Volt sec

May 21, 2006

Basics

The FORCE applied by a wheel is always tangent to the wheel.

**Force is measured in units of weight (lb, oz, N)
**

May 21, 2006

Basics

The required TORQUE to move a mobile robot is the force times the radius of the wheel.

May 21, 2006

Torque is measured in units of weight x length (lb·ft, oz ·in, N·m)

Procedure for Sizing DC Motors

May 21, 2006

Information Needed

• • • • Estimated Weight Number of wheels and motors Maximum incline Desired maximum velocity at worst case • Push/Pull forces

May 21, 2006

Procedure

• Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case

May 21, 2006

Friction

• Static Friction

– Used to determine traction failure

• Rolling Friction

– Used to determine motor requirements

• Kinetic Friction

May 21, 2006

Rolling Friction

FR = µ R ⋅ N

∀ µR Is the coefficient of Rolling friction

– Using the coefficient of Static friction (µS) will typically be to high

• To determine µR:

– Roll a wheel at a initial velocity, v, and measure the time, t, in which it takes to v stop

µR =

May 21, 2006

t⋅g

Rolling Friction

• Some typical values for µR

– Steel on steel: 0.001 – Rubber on pavement: 0.015

May 21, 2006

Other Forces

• Gravity

FI = W ⋅ sin θ

• External

θ

May 21, 2006

Total Force

• Calculate worst case

– Up hill with rolling friction

F = W ⋅ ( µ R ⋅ cosθ + sin θ )

– Up hill with rolling friction, pushing – Level ground with rolling friction

F = W ⋅ ( µ R ⋅ cosθ + sin θ ) + FEX F = µ R ⋅W

**– Level ground with rolling friction, pushing
**

May 21, 2006

F = µ R ⋅ W + FEX

Other Cases

• Tracks

– Set µr=0 – Use a spring scale to determine the force required to pull the chassis in neutral and add that to the worst case force

• Gear Trains

– Bulky gear trains may significantly affect the outcome – If this is a concern, it may be best to test in the same way as tracks

May 21, 2006

Procedure

• Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case • Step Two: Calculate power requirement

May 21, 2006

Power Requirement

• Determine velocity, v, requirement under maximum load (worst case force) • Using the worst case force and velocity, calculate the power requirement • This is the total power, divide by the number of motors if more than one motor is used

RULE OF THUMB: 3 TIMES MARGIN

May 21, 2006

P = F ⋅v

Procedure

• Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case • Step Two: Calculate power requirement • Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement

May 21, 2006

**Speed/Torque Requirements
**

• Using the velocity requirement, v, and the radius of the wheel, r

v ω= r

Speed requirement is in rad/sec

• Using the speed from above and the power per motor

May 21, 2006

P T= ω

Procedure

• Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case • Step Two: Calculate power requirement • Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement • Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements

May 21, 2006

Spec Sheet

May 21, 2006

Spec Sheet

May 21, 2006

Procedure

• Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case • Step Two: Calculate power requirement • Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement • Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements • Step Five: Plot motor characteristics

May 21, 2006

**Torque vs. Speed Curve
**

T = TPK TPK − ⋅ω S NL

**• Where T = Torque • TPK = Stall Torque • SNL = No Load Speed ∀ ω = Speed
**

May 21, 2006

**Torque vs. Speed Curve
**

Torque vs. Speed

7.00E-02 6.00E-02

5.00E-02

Torque, Nm

4.00E-02

From this plot, maximum speed can be determined for a given load.

3.00E-02

2.00E-02

1.00E-02

0.00E+00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Speed, rpm 5000 6000 7000 8000

May 21, 2006

Power

T = TPK TPK − ⋅ω S NL

ω = (TPK

P = T ⋅ω

S NL −T) TPK

TPK P (ω ) = − ⋅ ω 2 + TPK ⋅ ω S NL S NL 2 P (T ) = − ⋅ T + S NL ⋅ T TPK

May 21, 2006

Power

Power vs. Speed

1.20E+01 1.00E+01

8.00E+00 Power, watts

6.00E+00

4.00E+00

2.00E+00

TPK P (ω ) = − ⋅ ω 2 + TPK ⋅ ω S NL

0 1000 2000 3000 Speed, rpm 4000 5000 6000 7000

0.00E+00

May 21, 2006

Power

Power vs. Torque

1.20E+01 1.00E+01

8.00E+00 Power, watts

6.00E+00

4.00E+00

2.00E+00

S NL 2 P (T ) = − ⋅ T + S NL ⋅ T TPK

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 Torque, Nm 0.04 0.05 0.06

0.00E+00

May 21, 2006

Power vs. Speed

1.20E+01

Power

Power vs. Torque

1.20E+01

1.00E+01

8.00E+00 Power, watts

6.00E+00

4.00E+00

1.00E+01

2.00E+00 Power, watts

8.00E+00

0.00E+00 0 1000 2000 3000 Speed, rpm 4000 5000

6.00E+00 6000 4.00E+00

7000

1 ω = ω max 2

2.00E+00

0.00E+00 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 Torque, Nm 0.04 0.05 0.06

**Peak power is obtained at half of maximum torque and speed
**

May 21, 2006

1 T = Tmax 2

Procedure

• Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case • Step Two: Calculate power requirement • Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement • Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements • Step Five: Plot motor characteristics

May 21, 2006

A Few Extra Points

May 21, 2006

**Simple DC Motor Model
**

V = I ⋅R+e

T = kt ⋅ I e = ke ⋅ ω V = I ⋅ R + ke ⋅ ω

η max

I NL = 1 − IP

2

May 21, 2006

Motor Inductance

• The windings of a DC motor creates an Inductance, L • Change in current through an di V =L inductance creates a voltage dt • Switching current to a motor causes di/dt to spike (Flyback)

Flyback voltages can be very high and damage electronics, that is why a flyback diode in the switching circuit is required.

May 21, 2006

Winches

• Similar to drive motors

May 21, 2006

Common Mistakes

• Using static or kinetic friction instead of rolling friction

– If a wheel is rolling without slipping, the only energy loss is due to deformations in the wheel/surface (rolling friction)

**• Using PWM to control a motor reduces the available torque
**

– The average power, speed and torque are reduced, however, effective torque is not significantly effected

May 21, 2006

Questions?

May 21, 2006

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