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# Sizing Electric Motors for

Mobile Robotics

The Basics

## May 21, 2006

Unit Conversions
2π =1 1Watt = 1
sec sec sec
Coulomb
1Watt = 1Volt ⋅ Ampere = 1Volt
sec

Basics

## The FORCE applied

by a wheel is always
tangent to the wheel.

## Force is measured in units of weight (lb, oz, N)

May 21, 2006
Basics

The required
TORQUE to move a
mobile robot is the
force times the

## Torque is measured in units of weight x length

May 21, 2006 (lb·ft, oz ·in, N·m)
Procedure for Sizing DC
Motors

## May 21, 2006

Information Needed
• Estimated Weight
• Number of wheels and motors
• Maximum incline
• Desired maximum velocity at worst
case
• Push/Pull forces

## May 21, 2006

Procedure
• Step One: Determine total applied force
at worst case

## May 21, 2006

Friction
• Static Friction
– Used to determine traction failure
• Rolling Friction
– Used to determine motor requirements
• Kinetic Friction

## May 21, 2006

Rolling Friction
FR = µ R ⋅ N
∀ µR Is the coefficient of Rolling friction
– Using the coefficient of Static friction (µS)
will typically be to high
• To determine µR:
– Roll a wheel at a initial velocity, v, and
measure the time, t, in which it takes to
stop v
µR =
May 21, 2006 t⋅g
Rolling Friction
• Some typical values for µR
– Steel on steel: 0.001
– Rubber on pavement: 0.015

Other Forces
• Gravity
FI = W ⋅ sin θ

• External
θ

## May 21, 2006

Total Force
• Calculate worst case
– Up hill with rolling friction
F = W ⋅ ( µ R ⋅ cosθ + sin θ )
– Up hill with rolling friction, pushing
F = W ⋅ ( µ R ⋅ cosθ + sin θ ) + FEX
– Level ground with rolling friction
F = µ R ⋅W
– Level ground with rolling friction, pushing

## May 21, 2006

F = µ R ⋅ W + FEX
Other Cases
• Tracks
– Set µr=0
– Use a spring scale to determine the force required
to pull the chassis in neutral and add that to the
worst case force
• Gear Trains
– Bulky gear trains may significantly affect the
outcome
– If this is a concern, it may be best to test in the
same way as tracks
May 21, 2006
Procedure
• Step One: Determine total applied force
at worst case
• Step Two: Calculate power requirement

## May 21, 2006

Power Requirement
• Determine velocity, v, requirement
under maximum load (worst case force)
• Using the worst case force and velocity,
calculate the power requirement
P = F ⋅v
• This is the total power, divide by the
number of motors if more than one
motor is used
RULE OF THUMB: 3 TIMES MARGIN
May 21, 2006
Procedure
• Step One: Determine total applied force
at worst case
• Step Two: Calculate power requirement
• Step Three: Calculate torque and speed
requirement

## May 21, 2006

Speed/Torque Requirements
• Using the velocity requirement, v, and
the radius of the wheel, r
v
ω= Speed requirement
r
• Using the speed from above and the
power per motor
P
T=
ω
May 21, 2006
Procedure
• Step One: Determine total applied force
at worst case
• Step Two: Calculate power requirement
• Step Three: Calculate torque and speed
requirement
• Step Four: Find a motor that meets
these requirements
May 21, 2006
Spec Sheet

Spec Sheet

## May 21, 2006

Procedure
• Step One: Determine total applied force
at worst case
• Step Two: Calculate power requirement
• Step Three: Calculate torque and speed
requirement
• Step Four: Find a motor that meets
these requirements
• Step Five: Plot motor characteristics
May 21, 2006
Torque vs. Speed Curve
TPK
T = TPK − ⋅ω
S NL
• Where T = Torque
• TPK = Stall Torque
• SNL = No Load Speed
∀ ω = Speed

## May 21, 2006

Torque vs. Speed Curve
Torque vs. Speed

7.00E-02

6.00E-02
From this plot,
5.00E-02 maximum speed can
be determined for a
Torque, Nm

4.00E-02
3.00E-02

2.00E-02

1.00E-02

0.00E+00
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Speed, rpm
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Power
TPK S NL
T = TPK − ⋅ω ω = (TPK −T)
S NL TPK
P = T ⋅ω
TPK
P (ω ) = − ⋅ ω 2 + TPK ⋅ ω
S NL
S NL 2
P (T ) = − ⋅ T + S NL ⋅ T
TPK
May 21, 2006
Power
Power vs. Speed

1.20E+01

1.00E+01

8.00E+00
Power, watts

6.00E+00

TPK
4.00E+00
P (ω ) = − ⋅ ω 2 + TPK ⋅ ω
2.00E+00 S NL
0.00E+00
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Speed, rpm
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Power
Power vs. Torque

1.20E+01

1.00E+01

8.00E+00
Power, watts

6.00E+00

S NL 2
4.00E+00
P (T ) = − ⋅ T + S NL ⋅ T
2.00E+00 TPK
0.00E+00
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
Torque, Nm
May 21, 2006
Power vs. Speed
Power
1.20E+01

1.00E+01

8.00E+00
Power vs. Torque
Power, watts

6.00E+00 1.20E+01

4.00E+00 1.00E+01

2.00E+00 8.00E+00

Power, watts
0.00E+00 6.00E+00
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Speed, rpm

1
4.00E+00

ω = ω max
2.00E+00

2
0.00E+00
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
Torque, Nm

1
Peak power is obtained at half of T = Tmax
maximum torque and speed 2
May 21, 2006
Procedure
• Step One: Determine total applied force
at worst case
• Step Two: Calculate power requirement
• Step Three: Calculate torque and speed
requirement
• Step Four: Find a motor that meets
these requirements
• Step Five: Plot motor characteristics
May 21, 2006
A Few Extra Points

## May 21, 2006

Simple DC Motor Model

V = I ⋅R+e e = ke ⋅ ω V = I ⋅ R + ke ⋅ ω

T = kt ⋅ I
2
 I 
η max = 1 − NL 

 IP 
May 21, 2006
Motor Inductance
• The windings of a DC motor creates an
Inductance, L
• Change in current through an di
inductance creates a voltage V =L
dt
• Switching current to a motor causes
di/dt to spike (Flyback)
Flyback voltages can be very high and damage
electronics, that is why a flyback diode in the
May 21, 2006
switching circuit is required.
Winches
• Similar to drive motors

## May 21, 2006

Common Mistakes
• Using static or kinetic friction instead of rolling
friction
– If a wheel is rolling without slipping, the only
energy loss is due to deformations in the
wheel/surface (rolling friction)
• Using PWM to control a motor reduces the
available torque
– The average power, speed and torque are
reduced, however, effective torque is not
significantly effected

Questions?