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Conceptual Framework

Chapter- 02
Conceptual Framework of Accounting

 Cohesive set of interrelated objectives

and fundamentals for external financial
 Consists of-
 Objectives of financial reporting
 Qualitative characteristics of accounting
 Financial statement elements
 Recognition criteria for financial statement
Objectives of Financial Reporting

 Focus on the users of financial

statements and financial
Basic Objectives of Financial Reporting

 According to the Statement of Financial

Accounting Concept (SFAC) No.1,
financial reporting should provide useful
 For making investment, credit and similar
 For Judging the amounts, timing, and certainty
of future cash flows
 About the resources of the business, the claims
of the resources, and the changes in the
resources during an accounting period
Qualitative characteristics of accounting

 Helps to examine what qualities make

accounting information useful
 Two types of qualities-
 Primary Qualities
 Relevance-Information is relevant when it
can influence the users decision and posses
the predictive value and confirmative value.
 Relevance
 Timeliness

 Predictive Value

 Feedback Value
Reliability- Information is reliable when
it has the objectivity.

oRepresentational Faithfulness
o Neutrality
Secondary Qualities

 Comparability- accounting
information should be comparable
with other enterprises
 Consistency- means that company
should use the same accounting
principles and methods from year to
Financial statement elements

 Assets
 Liabilities
 Equity
 Revenues
 Expenses
Recognition criteria for financial
statement items

 Accounting Assumptions
 Accounting Principles
 Constraints or modifying
Accounting Assumptions
 Business Entity-Every business to accounted
separately and distinctly from its owner or owners.

 Going concern-Entity is assumed to be formed for

indefinite life and there is no possibility of liquidation
in foreseeable future.

 Periodicity-The accounting report should be done


 Monetary Unit-Financial information should be

measured and accounted for in the basic monetary
unit of the country in which it operates its business.
Accounting Principles
 Historical cost principle- Assets should be recorded
at its acquisition price.

 Matching principle-All expenses related to a given

revenue are matched with and deducted from that
revenue for the determination of periodic income.

 Revenue recognition principle-With certain

exceptions revenue is recognized at the point if

 Objectivity principle-Accounting information should

have the objective evidence rather than subjective

 Full-disclosure principle-Financial statements should

reports all relevant information related with the
Constraints or modifying conventions
 Cost benefit-Benefits of accounting information
cannot exceed cost of information.

 Materiality-Information is considered as material

when its misstatement or error can influence the
decision of the users.

 Industry peculiarities-Financial statement should

be prepared according to industry practice of
related companies.

 Conservatism-Aims of conservatism principle is to

avoid favorable exaggeration in accounting