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Fluid Coupling

Torque Multiplication
Torque converter purposes
• Allows vehicle to stop in gear
• Creates connection between engine and
• When using locking converter a 1:1 link can
be established
• Multiplies torque at low RPMs
Basic components
• Turbine
• Impeller
• Stator with one-way clutch
• Pressure plate if lock-up
• Impeller • Turbine
– Part of housing bolted – Locked to input shaft
to flexplate – Acted on by force of
– Pumps fluid by fluid
centrifugal force – Spins faster based on
– Throws fluid out to fluid force
contact turbine vanes – Can only obtain 90%
of impeller speed
unless lockup style
Operation of stator
• Fluid flow can be re-directed to “help”
impeller at lower speeds increasing torque
of engine
• Fluid re-directing is performed by stator
• After torque multiplication is not desired
stator overruns
• Defective one way clutch can cause lack of
power at low or high rpm
Stall speed
• Stall speed is the point when engine rpm is
limited by fluid pressure on turbine
• Controlled by vane design and stator
• Too low stall speed can indicate stator
• Too high can indicate slipping trans.
Torque converter facts
• Fluid for coupling is supplied by trans.
pump through shaft
• Most of the heat is created in converter
• Usually just before cooler
• Not a serviceable unit
• Can hold 10+ quarts of oil
• Converter housing often drives trans. oil
• Watch for loose bolts
Converter lock-up
• Performed by mechanically linking turbine
to housing
• Controlled with hydraulics and electronics
• Has friction surface with a dampening
pressure plate
• Used to increase mileage by reducing 10%
Lock-up problems
• Can stick on, causing stalling
• Can shutter on engagement
• Can cause chuggle
• Inop causing mileage complaints and or
overheating trans.