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Conflict and Negotiation

Lorevy Sangcal and Gianne Martinez


C o n fl i c t

A Realistic View
of Intergroup
Conflict
Functional
Conflict DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT
Confrontation between From the organization’s standpoint, confrontation between
groups that enhances and groups that hinders organizational performance.
benefits the organization’s
performance.
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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence
Conflict and Organizational
Performance
Conflict may have either positive or negative
effect on organizational performance, depending
on the nature of the conflict and how it is
managed.
 Optimal Level of Conflict
Helps generate positive performance
 Low Level of Conflict
Performance can suffer
 High Level of Conflict
Chaos can threaten its survival
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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Level of organizational performance
Figure 1
Situation II

High

Low High

Level of intergroup conflict


Situation I Situation III
Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence
Level of organizational performance
Level of Probable Impact on Level of
Intergroup Organization Organization Characterized By Organizational
Conflict Performance
o Slow adaptation to environment
o Little stimulation of ideas
Situation I Low or none Dysfunctional o Apathy Low
o Stagnation

o Positive movement toward goals


o Innovation and Change
Situation II Optimal Functional o Search for problem solutions
o Creativity and quick adaptation to High
environmental changes

o Disruption
Situation II High Dysfunctional o Interference with activities
o Coordination difficult Low
o Chaos

Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Views on Intergroup
Conflict in Practice

Anti Conflict

Have historically been reinforced in INTRAGROUP CONFLICT
the home, school, and church. AND GROUP PRODUCTIVITY

3 Types of Conflict
 Managers are often evaluated on Task Conflict
and rewarded for the lack of conflict
in their areas of responsibility. Relationship Conflict
Process Conflict
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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


WHY INTERGROUP
CONFLICT OCCURS
Four factors:
o Work interdependence

oDifferences in goals

o Differences in
perceptions

o Increased demand for


specialists.
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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


WORK INTERDEPENDENCE
Two or more organizational groups depending on one another to complete their task.

Pooled Interdependence
Requires no interaction among groups except through
the total organization.
Reciprocal Interdependence
Requires each group’s output to serve as input to other
groups in the organization.

S e qRequires
u e n one
t i agroup
l Itoncomplete
t e r ditse task
p ebefore
ndence
another group can complete the task.

Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


DIFFERENCE IN GOAL
Develops dissimilar goals.

INCREASED IN DEMAND
FOR SPECIALISTS
Limited Resources
Win – lose competition that can easily result in Increased sophistication, specialization, and
dysfunctional conflict if groups refuse to collaborate. complexity in most organizations make line – staff conflicts a
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major concern in managing organizational behavior.
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 Perceived diminution of line authority

Reward Structure  Social and physical differences


Performance are viewed as an independent variable  Line dependence on staff knowledge
even while group’s performance is in reality very
independent.  Different loyalties.

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTION
Disagreements over what constitutes reality.

Different Goals Status Incongruency

Different Time Inaccurate


Horizons Perceptions

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Consequences of Dysfunctional Intergroup Conflicts
Groups placed in a conflict situation tend to react with fairly predictable changes within groups and between
groups.

 Increased Group Cohesiveness

Changes within  Rise in Autocratic Leadership

Groups  Focus on Activity

 Emphasis on Loyalty

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Consequences of Dysfunctional Intergroup Conflicts
Groups placed in a conflict situation tend to react with fairly predictable changes within groups and between
groups.

 Distorted Perceptions

Changes between  Negative Stereotyping


Groups
 Decreased Communication

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


MANAGING INTERGROUP CONFLICT THROUGH
RESOLUTION
Techniques for resolving intergroup conflict that has reached levels dysfunctional to the organization.

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


RESOLUTIONS
Choice of an appropriate conflict resolution methods depends on many factors, including reasons why the conflict
occurred and the specific relationship between the manager and the conflicting groups.

1 2 3
Problem Solving Superordinate Goals Expansion of Resources
Reduce tensions through face Common set of goal and Because a major cause of
– to – face meetings of the objectives that can’t be attained intergroup conflict is limited
conflicting group. without the cooperation of the resources.
groups involved.

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Avoidance
Neither effectively resolves it nor eliminates it. But in some circumstances, avoidance may be the best
temporary alternative.

Smoothing
Stressing shared viewpoints on certain issues facilitates movement toward common goal.

Compromise Authoritative Command


Traditional method for resolving intergroup conflicts. Subordinates will abide by a superior’s decision,
With this, there is no distinct winner or loser, and the whether or not they agree with it.
decision reached probably not ideal for either group.

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Changing group Changing the formal Negative side of
members behavior. structure of the subordinate goals.
organization

Altering Human Altering the Identifying a Common


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Variable Structural Variables Enemy
Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence
MANAGING INTERGROUP CONFLICT THROUGH NEGOTIATION
Entails having two sides with differing or conflicting interests come together to forge an agreement.

Cross – Cultural Negotiations Group Negotiation


Takes place whenever one group’s work depends on
One of many specialized areas within wider field of the cooperation and actions of another group over which the
cross cultural communications. first group’s manager has no control.

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


P r e n e g o t i a t i o n Tas k s

Thoroughly understanding the other side’s needs


and positions regarding the issues to be resolved. Accumulating all the information needed may be
used in developing, understanding, and evaluating options
to resolve the conflict.

Understanding the Knowing All the


Other Side Options

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


N e g o t i a t i o n Tac t i c s
Different situation call for different tactics. A manager should be aware of the options available and strive to
understand the rationale behind the options.

1. Good – Guy/Bad – Guy Team


5. Splitting the Difference
Bad – guy member of the
negotiating group advocates
3. Joint Problem Solving When two groups come to an
The more one side wins, the impasse.
positions so much out of line that
whatever the good guy says sound more the other loses.
reasonable. 6. Low – Balling
4. Power of Competition Ridiculously low offers and/or
2. The Nibble
Tough negotiators use concessions are often used to
Getting an additional lower the other group’s
competition to make opponents
concession expectations.
think they don’t need them.

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Effect of Personalities on the Negotiation Process
Most common types of personalities a manager will face at the
negotiation table:

The Power Seeker The Reliable Performer


A good decision Dependent on past precedents
maker. for confidence in decision
making.

The Persuader The Limited Performer


A dangerous Likely to crack under
opponent. pressure.
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The degree of manager’s ability to successfully understand and handle
people will determine his/her success at negotiating.
Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence
The Role of Trust
A high level of trust between two conflicting parties will lead to greater openness and sharing of
information.

Alternatives to Direct Negotiations

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


R e s o l v i n g G r o u p C o n f l i c t t h r o u g h Tea m B u i l d i n g
Encouraging people who work together to meet as a group in order to identify common goals, improve
communications, and resolve conflicts.

5. Group members want


to assume reasonability
1. The work is 3. Working as for the processes and
extremely complex. individuals has not products of their effort.
been productive.
6. The work requires 7. External demands from
Where Team 2. Group members 4.External people in different parts competition and
Building Might Work in who do the work demands or other of the organization to technology requires a
Reducing Intergroup have the knowledge circumstances interact frequently and more flexible and
Conflict and expertise about often require quick often one group does responsive organization.
how it should be responses and not know what the other
done. decisions. is doing.

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


P u r p o s e o f Tea m B u i l d i n g
Enables work groups to more effectively get their work done, improving their performance.

Involves people who work together meeting as a group in order to examine such issues
as these:
 Is there an understanding of and commitment to common goals?

 Are we utilizing all of the skills and abilities of group members?

 Is there trust and communication among group members?

 Are we continually improving our performance as a group?


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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Tea m B ui ldi ng as a Proc ess

It is not a short – term strategy to reduce intergroup conflict. Thus, the ultimate
purpose of the diagnostic phase is to openly confront issues and problems that
previously were talked about in relative secrecy.
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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Management’s Role in B u i l d i n g Tea m s
Team requires resources and authority if they are to gain the flexibility and commitment from members.

Management Commitment Sharing Information


It requires the commitment of A willingness to share information is critical to successful team
management to understand the early – stage building.
problems that often occur in any transition,
such as resistance to change, as well as to Training
ensure the availability of the necessary It requires training because individuals are being asked to put
resources. aside personal concerns and contribute to a group effort.
Trust
Mutual trust between managements and Union Partnership
employees is a prerequisite for success in The union must be an active participant and partner in the team
team building. – building effort.
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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Managing Intergroup
Conflict through
Stimulation

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Communication Management can carefully place information in formal
channels to create ambiguity, reevaluation, or confrontation.

Carefully planted rumors can


serve a useful purpose:

 To stimulate new ideas on how to


more effectively carry out the
mission of the hospital.

 To reduce apathy among the staff.

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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


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Bringing
Outside To bring stagnant organization or subunit of an organization “back
Individuals to life” is to hire or transfer in individuals whose attitudes, values, and
backgrounds differ from those of group’s present members.
into the
Group
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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence


Altering the Organizations Structure
Changing the structure does not only
resolves conflict; it also creates conflict.

Stimulating Competition
Incentives, such as awards and bonuses for
outstanding performance.

Managing intergroup conflict through stimulation is a difficult


challenge for a manager. It can easily backfire and quickly become
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Behavior within Organizations: Groups and Interpersonal Influence
Thank you!
CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION