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Research is accomplished by

Dr. Abu Rayhan Md. Ali.

Nidul Chandra Ghosh.(Now in Oklahoma state university) Tanvir-E-Alam(Now in University of South Florida)

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering.

Justification :

Pressure vessels are widely used in the nuclear, chemical , military industries and also for fluid transmission and storage applications. Now a days we are facing world wide scarcity of materials and higher cost. Which caused the researchers not to confine themselves to the customary elastic regime.

Justification :

And attracted their attention to the elastic plastic approach . Which offers a more efficient use of materials. In recent decades, various methods have been proposed for strengthening the pressure vessels.

There are two basic different elastic- plastic techniques to increase the pressure capacity of thick walled cylinders. Autofrettage. Compound pressure cylinder.

Our main highlight is on autofrettage process.

Autofrettage

The idea of this method is to load a vessel by internal pressure Pa up to the appearance of plastic regime. After releasing the pressure residual stresses developed. Whose combined action with stresses caused by working pressure Pw decreases the total level of stresses. Thus the pressure capacity of the cylinder increases.

Residual stress development

Key problem

In autofrettage, the key problems are:

1. The optimum radius of elasto-plastic junction opt r , & 2. The optimum autofrettage pressure, opt p . Where the equivalent von mises stress is minimum.

Stress distribution

A simple case study: Here the mat. is aluminum

Mat. Al σy (MPa) E(GPa) Ep (GPa) 90 72 1.75 ν 0.33

a = 0.01 m. b = 0.02m. Now we see how the stress varies along the cylinder radius.

**Design/methodology/appro ach:
**

1.

Optimum radius opt r is determined by using Zhu Yang analytical approach. ANSYS is used for numerical simulation to determine optimum autofrettage pressure opt

p.

2.

**Residual stress pattern
**

After applying autofrettage pressure the wall goes plastic regime up to elastic plastic junction. Residual compressive hoop stress at near-bore region Residual tensile hoop stress occurs at outer portion.

**Total stress pattern
**

Fig: comparison of stress with and without autofrettage

Because of compressive residual hoop stress at inner bore, the resultant hoop stress becomes significantly lower. Maximum stress occurs at elastic plastic junction rather than inside radius.

**Evaluations of optimum elastic plastic radius
**

Ghomis equn s are used to deduce stresses at different radius of elastic plastic junction by the help of C++. Here opt r in between 0.015 m and 0.016 m. Fig: : Stress At Different Radius Of Elasto Plastic

Junction

Equations we used

Zhu Yang has developed an equation to determine opt r which we can calculate just using a pocket calculator. ropt = a exp(√3pw/2σy) In our case ropt is 0.0156 m Ghomi also deduce ropt by using MATLAB.

Difference between two methods vary between 5-7%. So we consider Zhu Yang model for calculating opt r.

**Optimum autofrettage pressure
**

We have to generate such a pressure that the cylinder goes plastic regime up to Optimum elastic plastic radius. Then we obtain the best possible autofrettage effect. but

how much pressure ??

Parameters

Two pressure that limits the autofrettage process. Py1 = pressure at which yielding commences at inner surface. Py2 = pressure at which plasticity has spread throughout the cylinder.

Significance

So if the pressure < Py1 then there will be no autofrettage effect as any portion of the cylinder does not go to plastic regime. Again if the pressure > Py2 then there will be converse effect. That means the pressure capacity of the cylinder will decrease, instead of increasing,

**Numerical simulation using ANSYS 10.0
**

stress pattern For

Autofrettage pressure 500 MPa Working pressure 200 MPa

**Simple case study
**

Here the mat. is steel; a=0.1 m ; b=0.2m ; E= 207 Gpa; Ep =4.5 Gpa ; σy =800 Mpa ; ν= 0.29; Py1 = σy (1-1/k2 )/√3; =347 MPa Py2 = σy ln(k) =555 MPa

Stress pattern

Fig: After applying autofrettage pressure

Fig: After Unloading Autofrettage Pressure

Fig: After applying working pressure

Variation of position of maximum stress (for constant working pressure 200MPa)

Fig : AP 450 MPa

Fig : AP 500 MPa

Fig : AP 550 MPa

Fig : AP 600 MPa

**Evaluation of optimum autofrettage pressure
**

Autofrettage pressure < 347 (Py1 ) No effect Pressure at which maximum von mises stress is minimum that’s the Opt. autofrettage pressure. Autofrettage pressure > 555 (Py2 ) converse effect

Fig: stress at different autofrettage pressure

**On our research work we will analyze the effect of
**

1. 2. 3.

4.

Working pressure Value of k (b/a) Material model ( elastic perfectly plastic and elastic plastic with different slope of strain hardening segment ) Autofrettage Stages

On optimum autofrettage pressure

**Effect of working pressure on Optimum opt p autofrettage
**

pressure is not a constant value rather it depends on the working pressure. The optimum autofrettage pressure increases along with the increase of

Fig: optimum autofrettage pressure for different working pressure

**Effect of working pressure on opt p
**

In case of 400 and 450 MPa the developed von mises stress starts to decrease only after exceeding working pressure. segment. Auto pressure < working pressure then the flow stress remains unchanged thus no autofrettage effect.

( for same k) % reduction of von mises stress is higher at higher working pressure

**% Reduction of von mises stress for different working pressure
**

Working von mises von mises pressure stress stress Without After autofrettage autofrettage % Reduction of von mises stress

100 200 300 400

225 450 676 840

193 348 496 615

14.22 22.67 26.62 26.78

All the datas are on MPa

For constant Effect of k (b/a) inner radius optimum autofrettage pressure obtain a higher value for thicker cylinder. For constant outer radius the developed MVS and Optimum autofrettage

on opt p

Fig: optimum autofrettage pressure for different K value

**Effect of material model on opt p
**

Fig: comparison of maximum von mises stresses for different material model

Optimum autofrettage pressure is higher at higher slope of strain hardening segment. The resultant von mises stress is minimum for higher slope of strain hardening segment.

**Effect of autofrettage stages
**

Working pressure of 300 Mpa, where autofrettage pressure is 500 Mpa

Stage 1 (Mpa) 500 Mpa Stage 2 (Mpa) 0 Mpa Stage 3 (Mpa) 300 Mpa

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Stage 6 Stage 7 Stage 8 Stage 9 (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa) (Mpa)

350

0

400

0

450

0

500

0

300

Fig: 3 stage autofrettage

Fig: 9 stage Autofrettage

Conclusion

Opt p increases along with the working pressure. For same working pressure , increasing the K value leads to an increase in the optimum Opt p. If the slope of strain hardening segment increases, Opt p also increases. % Reduction of von mises stresses are higher at higher value of K and higher slope of strain hardening segment. Number of autofrettage stages has no effect.

Practical implications:

The results can be used for high pressure vessels such as Artillery tubes & gun barrels Diesel engine components (such as fuel rails and fuel lines) Hydraulic cylinders Oil filled components and so on.

Future development

Autofrettage is a temperature dependent technique. At low- temperature autofrettage is more efficient than autofrettage at room temperature. In this paper optimization is done by assuming bi-linear material model. For further study temperature and non linear mat. model could be taken under concern.

Thanking you

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