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Historical Foundation of

Education

LET Review 2018


Central Themes on the History of
Education
– The history of education is in itself
the story of man. According to
Rousseau: “Our instruction begins
with our birth; and our first
teacher is our nurse.”
– Since the history of education is
the history of mankind, its scope
is as vast as man’s racial
experience.
– The history of education acquaints
students of the wide spectrum of
educational ideas and practices at
different periods and places. It
depicts the system or kind of
education then prevailing, the
nature of education, the theories or
philosophies of education, the
educational programs offered, the
methods of teaching and learning,
and the significant contributions of
the great minds of education.
–In general, education developed
from the informal to formal
–History of education covers
three main periods: ancient,
medieval and modern.
Primitive Education
– Its general theme or goal is
education for security, survival or
self-preservation. It is highly
conservative and superstitious.
Primitive
Education

–There is definitely no formal


education. It is informal. There is
no system of reading and writing.
Cultural contacts are limited to the
family and tribe. Tribes grow out of
kinship
Primitive
Education
– Basic activities are
confined to the necessities
of life – food, clothing, shelter and
protection.
– The simplest methods of teaching and
learning exists observation of elder’s
activities, simple telling and
demonstration, trial and error, and actual
participation in survival activities.
Primitive Education
–The closest to an educational
program is the participation of
the young in initiation activities.
The earliest form of
apprenticeship can
be deduced
from such
rites.
Ancient Education
China:
• The ancient Chinese education -
earliest in human history.
• Taken mostly from the teachings of
philosophical masters like Confucius,
Mencius, and Lao Tzu.
China

• Confucianism and Taoism teach the ethical


life and love of nature respectively
China
• Chinese have given us filial piety, close
family ties, respect for elders, selfless and
honest service in the government (civil
service), The Golden Rule, reverence for
teachers, scholarship (earnest learning),
and the earliest form of education for all
or democratic education.
China
• Chinese ethical education is the forerunner
of our present day character education
(GMRC and Values Education) in our
schools.
Ancient Education
Japan:
• Educational activities were patterned
mostly from the Chinese.
• Ethical teaching of Confucianism and
the religious beliefs of Zen Buddhism
were assimilated into the Japanese
way of life.
Japan
• It develop its own religion called
Shintoism (worship of the “kami”),
educational ideas are dominantly Chinese.
The Japanese ideal is the “warrior” with
his “samurai” ethic of respect for authority,
determination and hard work.
• Unlike the Chinese, the Japanese open
themselves to foreign influences and
made foreign ideas into what are uniquely
Japanese.
The Samurai Warrior
Ancient Education
India:
• Deep spiritual and rigid social
stratification (Caste System).
• Hinduism is a spiritual way of life tied
to the rigid caste system. The highest
class (Brahmins or priests) receive the
highest or complete education while
the “sudras” and the untouchable
receive the least education.
Hindu God: Rama Sita
India

• The Indians were educated for the


ideal (Nirvana) based on the “Vedas” and so
their education developed along the lines
of religion and not in the direction of
science, art and practical aspects of life.
Teaching was done orally by the master
called “guru” including their great epics,
the “Mahabharata,” and “Ramayana”
which contains the “Bhagavad-gita.”
Ancient Education
Egypt:
• Ancient Egypt as the oldest civilization in History.
• Egyptians already showed the evidence of skilled
labor, craftsman, knowledge of practical arts and
sciences, and true apprenticeship programs.
• They already possessed a system of writing called
“hieroglyphics” and originated the modern paper
from “papyrus” which grows abundantly along the
Nile River.
Egypt
The Egyptian practical education is
perhaps the origin of present day
vocational education in our
schools. They were very much
ahead of their time;,
knowledgeable in arithmetic,
algebra, trigonometry, astronomy,
medicine, chemistry, and other
practical sciences.
WESTERN EDUCATION
in Greece • The Age of Pericles created
a concern for formal
education
• What were the differences
between Athens and Sparta?
• The 3 great Greek
philosophers were ____, ____,
and ____.
• Remember – females and
slaves were not considered
intelligent enough to
warrant an education
Ancient Greek
Education
Spartan Education
• Sparta was a military socialistic
state and it stressed military
education. Its aim was to prepare
the boys for citizenship and military
service, and the girls for family life
as healthy wives and mothers.
Spartan education
• Spartan education was for the
state and not for the individual. The
“paidonomous” (school) took care of the
early military training and physical training
of the young Spartan until he becomes a
military recruit and eventually a real
soldier.
• Spartan military education is the
forerunner of military training in our
schools.
Ancient Greek Education
Athenian Education
• Athens was a democratic state and it stressed
liberal education – education for the
gentleman, charming in person and graceful
in manners.
Ancient Greek Education
• Education was a family prerogative. For
seven years, the home took care of the
first child’s education. At seven, the boy
was entrusted to the “paidogogus,” a
learned slave. (The term pedagogy was
derived from this name).
Acropolis, Athens
Athenian Education
At 14, his education was over. The boy
could then go to the “palaestra”
which was a public gymnasium for his
physical training. There were other
schools and teachers: “kitharist”
(teacher of music), the “grammatist”
(teacher of letters), and the
“paedotribe” (teacher of gymnastics).
Greeks’ Contributions to
Civilization and Education
– Discovery of reason (philosophy)
– Arts and sciences
– Knowledge towards virtue
– Democracy
– Discovery of, which means many
things – reason, science, idea or
even God
– Olympics
– The Greek Triumvirate – Socrates,
Plato, Aristotle
WESTERN EDUCATION
in Rome
• Rome conquered
Greece in 146 BCE &
adopted many Greek
ideas about
education
• Latin Grammar
Schools – taught
Latin, literature,
history,
mathematics, music,
& dialectics
WESTERN EDUCATION
in Rome
• Institutions of higher learning
were also available (law,
medicine, math, mechanics)
• Many people united with
common language, religion, &
government
WESTERN EDUCATION
in Rome

• Education was still limited to


wealthy boys
Ancient Roman
Education
The Republic
• Mixture of oligarchy and democracy
with two distinct classes of people –
“patricians” and “plebians”; the
former were the aristocrats and the
latter were soldiers, traders, farmers,
artisans, and other Romans
The Roman
Republic

• Romans are noted with their


political organization and law.
They also practice the electoral
system, legislation, political
machineries, veto, lobbying,
taxation, and other political ideas
that we have today.
Ancient Roman Education
The Empire (Graeco-
Roman)
• The Republic engaged in
continuous conquests and
eventually became powerful
empire. In 146 B.C., Greece itself
is conquered. However, the
Roman poet, Horace, wrote,
“captive Greece took captive her
capturer”. Thus the pure Roman
became Graeco-Roman.
The Empire (Graeco-Roman)
Schools were established offering both
Greek and Roman (Latin) languages.
The “ludus” was for elementary
education where the child learned the 3
R’s. This lasted for six years.
Secondary education was offered in the
grammar school where the young
Romans learned two languages – Greek
and Latin.
Latin Grammar School
The Empire (Graeco-
Roman)

• Later the “quadrivium” was offered consisting


of arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy.
Earlier, the “trivium” consisting of grammar,
rhetorics, and dielectric was learned.
• After the secondary level, the young Roman
proceeded to military service, a calling to
rhetorical school and become a statesman.
Later, higher education was established and
this was called “Athenaeum” which first offered
oratory and law.
The Empire (Graeco-Roman)

A public school system was also


established (during the reign of
Emperor Theodosius, 383-395 B.C.)
Roman Contributions to Education
and Civilization
• Practical Education (utilitarian
education)
• The Latin Language
• Bilingual Education
• Cross-cultural studies
• Socio-political organization and law
• Roman educators like Cato, Cicero,
Plutarch and Quintillian
Jewish Education
• Patriarchal period, from the call of
Abraham to Moses
• Tribal period, from Moses to the
monarchy
• Royal period, from King Saul to the
Babylonian Captivity
• Period of Restoration, from the
Babylonian Captivity to the birth of
Jesus Christ
Goal: Religious Conformity
(Obedience to Torah)
Jewish Education under Jesus
Christ
• Jesus Christ was born in 4 B.C. during
the reign of Emperor Augustus with
Jewish parents. Christianity came
from Christ, the Greek word for
“Messiah,” Jesus taught new
principles of human relationships
based on universal love. The most
frequent title of Jesus in the Gospels
is “teacher” (rabbi, master). He
taught practically anywhere.
Jewish Education under Jesus
Christ
• The persistent theme of His teachings is
salvation or liberation from sin to gain eternal
life in the Kingdom of God. Among others, his
more popular methods are:
• Gnomic method – from gnomes (proverbs)
• Use of parables – Parables used, comparison or
analogy
• Conversional/dialectic method – use of dialogue
• Personal example (modeling)
Early Christian Education
• In the first two centuries after Christ,
the Christians gained followers but
they were still persecuted. It was
only in 313 A.D. through the Edict of
Milan when Emperor Constantine
recognized Christianity and made in
the official state religion. Thus,
began the rise of Christianity.
Early Christian Education

• The first school were called


“catechumenal” schools for
prospective converts, then came
the catechetical schools for
advance training, and then the
cathedral schools under the
bishoprics.
Goal: Moral regeneration
THE MIDDLE AGES
476-1300 CE • 476 – Fall of Roman Empire
• Catholic Church became more
powerful in government and in
education
• Dark Ages – 400-1000
– Human knowledge regressed
– Some progress evident –
especially under reign of
Charlemagne who used his
position to establish schools
& encourage scholarly
activity
– Alcuin – Charlemagne’s
educational advisor
THE MIDDLE AGES
476-1300 CE
• Revival of Learning – 1000-
1300 – people began to thirst
for knowledge
• Thomas Aquinas helped
influence education
• Medieval Universities began
– Bologna – law
– Paris – theology
– Oxford
– Salerno
– By 1492 = about 80
• Influenced by Arab scholars
(esp. in math and science)
Monasticism and the Dark Ages
• Monasticism arose during the Dark
Ages (400 A.D. to 750 A.D.) The
term “monasticism” came from
the word “monos” meaning alone
or one who lives a solitary life.
The regular clergy called the
monks strictly adhered to their
vows of monastic life such as
obedience, simplicity, and industry
(chastity in others).
Monasticism and the Dark Ages
• The “Dark Ages” was so-called because
invasions and destructions of barbarians spread
throughout the empire until it finally fell. Only
the church was spared and remained the bastion
of education. The monks established the
“monastic schools” in addition to the cathedral,
parish, and other schools already existing. They
instilled religious discipline for the clergy and lay
people.
• The parish schools taught the 4 R’s – reading,
writing, arithmetic, and religion. Monasticism
reached its peak in St. Benedict, founder of the
Benedictine Order.
Goal: Religious Discipline
MEDIEVAL EDUCATION
Scholasticism and Intellectual
Discipline
• The term scholasticism refers to the particular method of
scholarly, intellectual, and philosophical pursuit of
universal truths. Its aim was to support the doctrines
(truths) of the church by reason.
• This is to justify faith by reason and in the strictest
sense, scholasticism designates a special system of
philosophy that reached its peak in
Thomism of St. Thomas. Aquinas (1224-1274).
Scholasticism and Intellectual
Discipline
• Scholastic education led to the rise of
universities with University of Paris, a
former cathedral school as the first
university founded. The word “university”
then meant a number, a plurality, or
aggregate or persons. The entire student
body was known as stadium generale.
The term “universitas” meant a
corporation of teachers and students.
MEDIEVAL EDUCATION
Education for Chivalry and Social
Discipline
• This kind of education as a result of
feudalism, a system of political,
social, and economic relationship
based on landlord-vassal relation.
Chivalric education was the response
to the increasing educational needs
of the sons of the nobility. Chivalry
and other social manners are
stressed.
MEDIEVAL
EDUCATION

• The boy goes through the following stages:


Page -an attendant at the noble courts at age
7
Squire -an attendant to a knight at age 14
Knight -a full-pledge warrior whose duties are
to protect the women and poor, defend the
church and the state, attack the wicked/evil
elements, and shed blood for the sake of the
country and his comrades.
MEDIEVAL EDUCATION
The Dominicans
• The most notable educators of this order
were the 13th century brilliant scholars
St. Albert the Great and his pupil St.
Thomas Aquinas. St. Dominic (1170-
1221), a well-educated Spaniard,
founded the order of the preachers
(O.P.) in 1216. The “Summa
Theologica” of St. Thomas Aquinas has
contributed much to theology and
philosophy.
MEDIEVAL EDUCATION
The Franciscans
• St. Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) is recognized
as the founder of the Franciscan Order. This
group initially started as a movement for the
moral regeneration of society. In 1208, the
group was known as the Franciscan Friars
Minor. The early Franciscans were proponents
of ecology. The Englishman Roger Bacon
sought the revival of scientific studies.
MEDIEVAL EDUCATION
The Jesuits
• The society of Jesus (S.J.) was founded by St.
Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556). The order played a
crucial role in the church’s counter reformation
movement in the late Middle Ages. The Jesuit motto
is “Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam (A.M.D.G) which means
“to the glory of God.” The Jesuits’ education
apostolate was well-planned. They came up with a
program of studies and scholarly investigations. They
made advances in sciences and letters. They are
known for their dramatic compositions and
productions.
Saracenic Education

• A religion continued by
Mohammed was born in Arabia,
came to exist six hundred years
after the birth of Jesus Christ.
This came to be known as Islam
among the Arabs. Roman and
Greek writers called the
wandering Arabs as Saracens.
Saracenic Education

• The whole world owes them the


scientific method of investigations
and its application to the affairs of
daily life. Saracenic education
aimed at the development of
individual and social welfare
through scientific knowledge.
Saracenic
Education
• Saracenic schools in the Middle Ages were
the most adequate and complete at the
time. Their elementary, secondary, and
higher level schools were more advanced
then than their European counterparts.
They made advances in astronomy,
geometry, trigonometry, Hindu system
notation, algebra, chemistry, physics,
medicine, and surgery.
The Guild System of Education
• Toward the end of the medieval
period, economic forces brought
about considerable social and cultural
changes. Earlier, the “crusades” (first
sanctioned by Pope Urban II) led to
the growth of trade and commerce.
With this development, free cities
came to exist along with a new social
class – the burghers, bourgeoisie,
pre-middle class.
The Guild System of Education

• This new social class demanded a


different kind of education.
Related to the growth of
commerce was the strengthening
of the guild, an organization of
person with common interests
and mutual needs for security and
welfare..
The Guild System of Education
• There were two types: the merchant guild
and the craft guild. These types of
schools were established to meet their
educational needs:
– Chantry schools – established through
foundation under the clergy
– Guild schools – served the children of the
members of the craft guild.
– Burgher schools – served the children of the
members of the merchant guild.
The Guild System of Education

• The stages of development


under these systems are:
apprentice, journeyman, and
master craftsman
• Subsequently governmental regulation and the
licensing of polytechnics and vocational
education formalized and bureaucratized the
details of apprenticeship.
THE RENAISSANCE
BEGAN IN 1300
• People began protesting the power the church had
over social and intellectual life.
• Common people rebelled against the control of the
wealthy and the Church.
• Humanism began – a revival of classical learning
• Da Feltre believed people could be educated and be
Christians
• Erasmus also lived during this period.
THE REFORMATION
BEGAN IN 1517
• Began when Luther released his
95 Theses
• Melanchthon worked with
Luther – they believed
education should be available to
all children
• Loyola also an influence
• Comenius produced textbooks –
esp. in science – made easier
because of printing press
• De La Salle founded an order of
teachers that focused on
elementary school – he was one
of the first to use student
teaching
Portrait of Martin Luther

Martin Luther dealt


the symbolic blow that
began the Reformation
when he nailed his
Ninety-Five Theses to
the door of the
Wittenberg Church.
Martin Luther
• That document contained an attack on
papal abuses and the sale of sins by
church officials.
• Reformation was more important than a
revolt against ecclesiastical abuses.
• He believed it was a fight for the gospel.
• The gospel--the teaching that Christ's own
righteousness is imputed to those who
believe, and on that ground alone, they
are accepted by God.
Martin Luther: Educational
Theory
• Universal literacy (Translated Bible into
German)
• Vocational education: religious, political, &
economic
• Parents needed to cultivate literacy, religion,
& character
• Vernacular schools taught religion, writing,
arithmetic, music, & gymnastics.
• State officials supervised elementary,
secondary, & colleges.
John Calvin (1509 – 1564)

• Calvinism is a
system of Christian
theology and an
approach to
Christian life and
thought within the
Protestant tradition
articulated by John
Calvin, a Protestant
Reformer in the
16th century.
Calvinism

• Calvin's system of theology and Christian


life forms the basis of the Reformed
tradition, a term roughly equivalent to
Calvinism.
• God chose numerous people for eternal
salvation.
• People are innately corrupt (Adam & Eve)
• Disciplining children (corporal punishment)
Calvinist Schools

• Dual track school system


• Vernacular schools taught catechism,
reading, writing, arithmetic, & history
• Classical Latin grammar schools prepared
ministers, lawyers, & future leaders (Latin,
Greek Hebrew)
• Once children were nurtured in the right
values & Christian duties, then they were
ready for more formal schooling.
Anglican Reformation

• Adopted a laissez-faire educational policy


• Upper class students attended humanist
schools and received a classical education.
• Academic freedom was affected-Thirty-
Nine Articles of the Anglican faith.
• Act of Supremacy of 1562-required
teachers to swear an oath.
Saint Ignatius of Loyola
• Inigo Lopez de Loyola, who
later took the name Ignatius,
was the youngest son of a
nobleman of the mountainous
Basque region of northern
Spain.
• Trained in the courtly manner
of the time of King Ferdinand.
(Virgin Mary-chivalry devotion)
• Graduated from University of
Society of Jesus 1540

• Ignatius and a small band of friends


extended prayer and meditation according
to his Spiritual Exercises.
• The first Jesuits were ordained to the
Catholic priesthood in Venice and offered
themselves in service to Pope Paul III.
• Ignatius was elected General Superior and
served in that post until his death in 1556
at the age of 65.
Jesuit Method
• Stressed classroom management.
• Lesson Plan Cycle:
– Praelectio =introduction
– Repetitio =repetition of subject matter
– Exercitatio =written exercise
– Concertatio =oral & public exam
(contest)
– Argumentum scribendi =elaborate on
classical themes
AGE OF REASON
BEGAN IN EARLY 1700s

• Revolt against superstition and ignorance


• Rationalism – believed in rational power of humans and
human ability to reason – based on ideas of Descartes and led
by Voltaire
• Frederick the Great – leader of Prussia – supported education
by opening schools and creating teacher training and
licensing laws
• Emergence of Common Man – thinkers like Rousseau began
to argue that common people deserved a better life –
Pestalozzi, Herbart, and Froebel applied this to education
MODERN EDUCATION
16th-17th Centuries:
Education of this
World
The down-to-earth of this
world became the focus of
education during this
period. Various labels were
attached to this period:
humanism, renaissance,
realism, naturalism and
modernism.
MODERN EDUCATION

The religious called it


Reformation and the rise of
Protestantism under Martin
Luther. The outstanding
educators were:
16th-17th Centuries: Education of this
World
– Francis Bacon (1561-
1621) – introduced the
inductive method of
Teaching
– Wolfgang Ratke (1571-
1635) – initiated repetition
to ensure mastery
16th-17th Centuries: Education of this
World

John Amos Comenius (1592-


1670) – regarded as father of
modern education; wrote “Orbis
Pictus Sensualism” or the World of
Sensible Things Pictured, the first
illustrated book that led to the use
of visual aids in the classroom.
16th-17th Centuries: Education of this
World
– John Locke (1632-1704) – known as the
father of English empiricism, foremost
exponent of “disciplinism” (education as
based on discipline), and authored the “tabula
rasa” theory (the mind of the child at birth is
a blank tablet).
16th-17th Centuries: Education of this
World
– Richard Mulcaster (1531-1611) –
suggested that teachers be required to
obtain university training and developed
teacher training schools (normal schools).
16th-17th Centuries:
Education of this World
• Francois Fenelon (1651-1715) – French
theologian who pioneered in the education of
women.
16th-17th Centuries: Education of this
World

• St. John Baptiste De Lassalle – patron


saint of teachers
- founded the La Salle schools
Modern Education
18th-19th Centuries: Child Centered Education
The shift in aim of education is very evident –
from the external end to the development of
the child himself. Thus, the new aim of
education is to allow the child to develop
according to natural capabilities. The child
becomes the center of the educative process.
The main proponents are Rousseau,
Pestalozzi, Herbart, and Froebel
18th-19th Centuries:
Child Centered
Education

– Jean Jacques Rousseau


(1712-1778) – best known for
his work, “Emile,” which laid out
his naturalistic philosophy of
education; also wrote “Social
Contract” that advocated a
democratic government.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jaques Rousseau
• Children are naturally good
• People develop through various stages
– As a result education must be individualized
• Mental activity is a direct development of
bodily activity
• Educators should control the educational
environment
• People should reason their way through
their own conclusions (Discovery Learning
Today)
Rousseau’s Five Stages of
Development
• Stage 1: Infancy (birth to two years)
• Stage 2: ‘The age of Nature’ (two to 12)
• Stage 3: Pre-adolescence (12-15)
• Stage 4: Puberty (15-20)
• Stage 5: Adulthood (20-25)
18th-19th Centuries: Child
Centered Education
–Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
(1746-1827) – advocated the
following: object study with language,
education for societal regeneration,
learning through observation and
experience, avoidance of bookish
learning, discipline based on love, and
education as contact of souls.
Pestalozzi (1746-1827)

• Pestalozzi (1746-1827) Swiss


educator who put Rousseau’s
theories into practice… educators
from all over the world came to view
his schools…unlike most teachers of
his time, he felt students should be
treated with love and kindness
18th-19th Centuries:
Child Centered Education
– Johann Friedrich Herbart (1779-
1841) – advocated the theory of
appreciation and the inductive
method of teaching which came to be
known as “Herbatian Method.” This
consists of the following steps: (1)
Preparation; (2) Presentation; (3)
Comparison and Abstraction; (4)
Generalization; and (5) Application.
Herbart (1776-1841)

•Herbart (1776-1841)
studied under Pestalozzi,
organized the educational
psychology…preparation,
presentation, association,
generalization, application
18th-19th Centuries: Child
Centered Education
–Friedrich Wilhelm August
Froebel (1782-1852) –
known as the father of the
kindergarten (Garden of
Children) and advocated the use
of play or games in the school
program.
Froebel (1782-1852)

•Froebel (1782-1852),
kindergarten, social
development, cultivation of
creativity, learning by
doing…women best suited
to teach young children
Modern Education
19th-20th Centuries:
Democratization of Education

Democratization of education
stood out among the manifold
aims of education during this
period. The following were the
best known educators:
19th-20th Centuries:
Democratization of Education
– John Henry Newman (1801-
1890) – advance a new concept
of a university in his book, “The
idea of a University,”
that a university should
offer universal knowledge.
19th-20th Centuries:
Democratization of Education
–Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) –
attempted to compile all knowledge in
his “Synthetic Philosophy.” He and
Darwin popularized the evolution
theory. He authored the ethical
concept, “survival of the fittest,” before
Darwin. He defined education as
“preparation for complete living.”
Spencer: “Survival of the fittest”
19th-20th Centuries:
Democratization of Education
Pedro Poveda (1878-1936) –
modified the past Christian
education with his own Christian
Humanism which commits
Christianity to the upliftment of
the poor and marginalized
people. He also pioneered on
the establishment
of Teacher Formation Centers.
19th-20th Centuries:
Democratization of Education
– Maria Montessori (1869-1952) – an Italian
doctor of medicine who turned to education of the
handicapped and underprivileged youth; later, she
introduced a new pedagogy for young children
which has
three main features:
freedom (independence) and
individuality,
prepared environment,
and specific goals for each
child.
19th-20th Centuries:
Democratization of Education
–Paolo Freire – a Brazilian who
criticized contemporary education as
the education of the oppressed. He
wrote “The Pedagogy of the
Oppressed” in 1968. He described
conventional education as the banking
concept of education responsible for
the culture of silence among the
masses.
Paulo Freire

• "There is no such thing as a neutral education process.


Education either functions as an instrument which is
used to facilitate the integration of generations into the
logic of the present system and bring about conformity
to it, or it becomes the ‘practice of freedom’, the
means by which men and women deal critically with
reality and discover how to participate in the
transformation of their world."
• —Richard Shaull, drawing on Paulo Freire
19th-20th Centuries:
Democratization of Education
– John Dewey and other American
educators like Horace Mann, William
James, J. Stanley Hall, Francis Parker,
and Edward Lee Thorndike, among
others – also made great contributions to
education. John Dewey believes that
education is life, a continuous process
(i.e., never complete) and it aims is social
efficiency.
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN
AMERICAN EDUCATION

• Benjamin Franklin – opened the


American Academy in Phil. In 1751 – had a
more practical focus than Lat. Grammar
schools
• Thomas Jefferson – wrote a plan for a
public school system in VA –
founded the University of Virginia
• Noah Webster – favored the
creation of an American
curriculum – wrote textbooks
– created the American
Dictionary of the English
Language
The Common School
Movement
• Forces in the growth of public
schools
– Larger & more urban population
– Demands of larger working class
– Social control
– Needs of the frontier
– Increased suffrage
– Educational journals &
organizations
The Common School
Movement
• People involved
– Horace Mann (1796-1859) – Sec. of Board of
Ed. in Mass.
• helped begin educational awakening in
US
• helped establish common schools in
Mass
• est. 1st professional journal for educ.
• leading proponent of common elementary
schools, the forefather of the contemporary
public school
– Henry Barnard – 1st US Comm. Of Ed.

• founded the American Journal of
Ed.
• supporter of elem. ed. for all
children
Development of Universal
Elementary Education
• Early schools focused on
religion (until late 1800s)
• Became more secular as states
passed compulsory ed. laws
• Harsh discipline
• Formal & impersonal
• Teachers generally poorly
prepared
• Basic curriculum = reading,
writing, & arithmetic
• Lancasterian (monitor) schools
– used in many places
– large no. of students taught
at same time by one teacher
– more advanced students
taught others
– relied on rote memorization
– popularity ended in mid-
• Horace Mann – pioneer the
“common school” (forerunner of
the public school system)
- “education is the great
equalizer.”
• Edward Lee Thorndike –
authored the laws of learning
- father of the statistical
movement in education
Filipino Educators

• Camilo Osias – school has an


important role in the development
of dynamic nationalism and
internationalism in relation to
democracy
• Francisco Benitez – function of
school is neither to fit the
individual for the past which is
dead and gone, nor to prepare
him for a remote future which is
problematical, rather it is to train
the individual so that he will be a
member of the world as it is
Filipino Educators

• Pedro Orata – all Filipinos esp the


out of school youth and adults have
the right to education particularly
those living in the far flung areas of
the country where school resources
maybe scarce, inadequate, limited or
inappropriate (He pioneered the
barrio high school)
• Salvador Araneta – education must
fight intellectual indolence among
students, eradicate moral turpitude,
subject them to educational crucible
of discipline, disciplining their
muscles, their hearts, their minds,
and their character and crowning
their education with the fire of love
for God and nation
Filipino Educators

• Rafael Palma – “diploma


is by no means conclusive evidence
of one’s ability until he has
demonstrated by actual
performance that he has fully
done the tasks expected of him
for the good of the country”
• Manuel L Quezon – “show me a people
composed of vigorous, sturdy individuals,
of men and women healthy in mind and
body, courteous, industrious, self – reliant,
purposeful in thought as well as in action,
imbued with sound patriotism and
profound sense of righteousness,
• with high social ideals and
• strong moral fiber,
Manuel L Quezon
• and I will show you a great
nation, a nation that will not
submerged, a nation that will emerge
victorious from the trials and bitter
life of a distracted world, a nation
that will live forever, sharing the
common task of advancing the
welfare and promoting the happiness
of mankind.”
• Lourdes R. Quisumbing –
believes that education must
strengthen the dignity of the
learner as a human person. As
such, various dimensions of
man’s personhood has to be fully
developed by the school through
an effective and
systematized values
education