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Activity 6 - Chemical

Test for Some


Important Drugs
Presented by Group 3
● A drug is in the broadest of terms, a chemical substance
that has known biological effects on humans or other
animals.
● Foods are generally excluded from this definition, in spite
of their physiological effects on animal species.
● In pharmacology, a drug is “a chemical substance used
in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of
disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental
well-being.”
● Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for limited duration,
or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.
● Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect
the function of the nervous system, altering perception,
mood or consciousness.
● Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are the most widely
consumed psychoactive drugs worldwide.
● Recreational drugs are drugs that are not used for
medicinal purposes, but are instead used for pleasure.
● Common recreational drugs include alcohol, nicotine
and caffeine, as well as other substances such as
opiates and amphetamines.
● Some drugs can cause addiction and habituation and
all drugs can cause side effects.
● Many drugs are illegal for recreational purposes and
international treaties such as the Single Convention
on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of legally
prohibiting certain substances.
Test for Caffeine:
Amalic Acid Test
● Amalic test is commonly used to detect xanthine.

● Xanthines are produced by all human cells, as well as by


certain plants and animals.

● Xanthines are found in coffee, tea, chocolate products


and anything caffeinated because caffeine is a kind of
xanthine.
Bruso (2015)
Test for Caffeine:
Amalic Acid Test
Procedure:

Evaporate a few drops of caffeine solution in a crucible jar


over the flame with 10mL of fresh bromine water and 2
drops of 10% nitric acid. Upon evaporation, what is the color
produced? Invert the cover over the mouth of the bottle
containing ammonium hydroxide. Observe the color
produced.
1mL Caffeine Solution 10mL Bromine 2 drops of 10%
Water Nitric Acid
Lid of crucible jar
after evaporation
Evaporation of
of solution
solution in crucible jar
Result: Formation of a dark
brown color on the lid of the
crucible jar

Positive Result: ORANGE to


VIOLET color

Trout (2007)
Test for Caffeine:
Microscopic Test for Caffeine

Procedure:
A drop of caffeine solution is treated
with a drop of 5% mercuric solution on
a slide. Focus under LPO.
1 drop of caffeine 1 drop of 5% mercuric Focus under LPO.
solution chloride
Positive result:
There’s a
formation of long
needle-like crystals
Test for Caffeine:
Microscopic Test for Caffeine

Result:
There’s a
formation of
amorphous
crystals
Test for Salicylic Acid
Introduction:
● Acetylsalicylic acid (C6H4OOCCH3COOH) is the
ubiquitous pain reliever known as aspirin.

● Chemically, aspirin is both an aromatic acid and an ester.

● Salicylic acid (C6H4OHCOOH; aspirin's parent


compound) and sodium salicylate (C6H4OHCOONa) are
useful for detecting iron compounds; they form colored
complexes with the Fe3+ ion.
Test for Salicylic Acid
Purpose in Clinical Setting:
● The test is used to monitor the condition of
patients who are undergoing aspirin therapy; the
test is also used to check the dosage of aspirin a
patient is receiving.
Test for Salicylic Acid
Procedure:
To 1ml of alcoholic solution of salicylic acid, add 1-2
drops of ferric chloride.
Procedure:

1mL of salicylic acid 2 drops of ethyl alcohol 1-2 drops of ferric


chloride
Test for Salicylic Acid
Result:
Formation of a violet solution.
Test for Salicylic Acid
Result:
● Iron (III) ions form a blue-violet complex with salicylate
dianions, and the intensity of the color depends on the
concentration of salicylate dianions

● With acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) a pale pink complex with


iron (III) is formed.

● These two reactions are used for detecting salicylate


presence and determining the purity of aspirin.
Test for Salicylic Acid
Result:
● Phenolic -OH's form deep purple
complexes with Fe3+.

● With aspirin, there should be no reaction


as there is no phenol group (-OH attached
to a benzene ring) for the iron (III) chloride
to react with. However, the phenol group
is present in salicylic acid, so a brightly
coloured violet-purple colour is seen.
Test for Salicylic Acid
Source
● https://practicum.melscience.com/experiments/salicylate-
color-test.html

● http://www.crscientific.com/article-aspirin.html

● http://www.medic8.com/blood-disorders/blood-
test/specific-blood-tests/salicylic-acid.html

● https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070917
Jorissen Test (NOT PERFORMED)

Procedure:
● Dissolve a small amount of salicylic acid in 10 mL of water by
heating.

● Cool, add 5 drops of 10% potassium nitrite, 2 drops of glacial


acetic acid and 1 drop of 10% copper sulfate.

● Boil for 2 minutes


Jorissen Test

● Jorissen reaction has been used for the identification of


small amounts of salicylic acid.

● Tea, coffee, fruit, and vegetable juices are high in


salicylates (salts and esters of salicylic acid)

● Positive result: RED color


Methyl Ester Test

● Methyl Ester Test or Esterification Test is used to


detect the presence of methanol

● Salicylic acid methyl ester (methyl salicylate) is


formed by heating methyl alcohol, salicylic acid,
and sulfuric acid.

● Methyl salicylate has a wintergreen minty odor.


Methyl Ester Test

Procedure:
In a small portion a salicylic acid in a test
tube containing a few drops of methyl
alcohol and concentrated sulfuric acid,
warm in a boiling water bath.
Procedure

Few drops of methyl


2mL Salicylic Acid
alcohol (1-3 drops)
Procedure

Few drops of
Concentrated Sulfuric Water bath
Acid (1-3 drops)
Methyl Ester Test

Result:
Produced a clear solution
with an alcoholic smell.
Microscopic Test

Procedure:
Place 3 drops of solution containing salicylic acid in a glass slide and
add a drop of freshly prepared bromine water.

Positive: A yellowish white crystalline precipitate of tri-brom-phenyl-


hydrobromide is formed and can be identified with the aid of
microscope.
Procedure:

Place 3 drops of solution containing Add a drop of freshly prepared


salicylic acid bromine water
Result:

● There was a formation of pinpoint crystals.


● Yellowish white crystalline precipitate.
Test Positive result
Amalic acid Orange-violet
Caffeine Microscopic for Amorphous/
caffeine irregular crystals
Salicylic acid Purple solution
Jorissen’s test Red color
Salicylic acid
Methyl Ester test Wintergreen minty
odor
Microscopic test Pin point/ needle-
for salicylic acid like crystals