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Activity 6 - Chemical

Test for Some

Important Drugs
Presented by Group 3
● A drug is in the broadest of terms, a chemical substance
that has known biological effects on humans or other
● Foods are generally excluded from this definition, in spite
of their physiological effects on animal species.
● In pharmacology, a drug is “a chemical substance used
in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of
disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental
● Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for limited duration,
or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.
● Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect
the function of the nervous system, altering perception,
mood or consciousness.
● Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are the most widely
consumed psychoactive drugs worldwide.
● Recreational drugs are drugs that are not used for
medicinal purposes, but are instead used for pleasure.
● Common recreational drugs include alcohol, nicotine
and caffeine, as well as other substances such as
opiates and amphetamines.
● Some drugs can cause addiction and habituation and
all drugs can cause side effects.
● Many drugs are illegal for recreational purposes and
international treaties such as the Single Convention
on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of legally
prohibiting certain substances.
Test for Caffeine:
Amalic Acid Test
● Amalic test is commonly used to detect xanthine.

● Xanthines are produced by all human cells, as well as by

certain plants and animals.

● Xanthines are found in coffee, tea, chocolate products

and anything caffeinated because caffeine is a kind of
Bruso (2015)
Test for Caffeine:
Amalic Acid Test

Evaporate a few drops of caffeine solution in a crucible jar

over the flame with 10mL of fresh bromine water and 2
drops of 10% nitric acid. Upon evaporation, what is the color
produced? Invert the cover over the mouth of the bottle
containing ammonium hydroxide. Observe the color
1mL Caffeine Solution 10mL Bromine 2 drops of 10%
Water Nitric Acid
Lid of crucible jar
after evaporation
Evaporation of
of solution
solution in crucible jar
Result: Formation of a dark
brown color on the lid of the
crucible jar

Positive Result: ORANGE to

VIOLET color

Trout (2007)
Test for Caffeine:
Microscopic Test for Caffeine

A drop of caffeine solution is treated
with a drop of 5% mercuric solution on
a slide. Focus under LPO.
1 drop of caffeine 1 drop of 5% mercuric Focus under LPO.
solution chloride
Positive result:
There’s a
formation of long
needle-like crystals
Test for Caffeine:
Microscopic Test for Caffeine

There’s a
formation of
Test for Salicylic Acid
● Acetylsalicylic acid (C6H4OOCCH3COOH) is the
ubiquitous pain reliever known as aspirin.

● Chemically, aspirin is both an aromatic acid and an ester.

● Salicylic acid (C6H4OHCOOH; aspirin's parent

compound) and sodium salicylate (C6H4OHCOONa) are
useful for detecting iron compounds; they form colored
complexes with the Fe3+ ion.
Test for Salicylic Acid
Purpose in Clinical Setting:
● The test is used to monitor the condition of
patients who are undergoing aspirin therapy; the
test is also used to check the dosage of aspirin a
patient is receiving.
Test for Salicylic Acid
To 1ml of alcoholic solution of salicylic acid, add 1-2
drops of ferric chloride.

1mL of salicylic acid 2 drops of ethyl alcohol 1-2 drops of ferric

Test for Salicylic Acid
Formation of a violet solution.
Test for Salicylic Acid
● Iron (III) ions form a blue-violet complex with salicylate
dianions, and the intensity of the color depends on the
concentration of salicylate dianions

● With acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) a pale pink complex with

iron (III) is formed.

● These two reactions are used for detecting salicylate

presence and determining the purity of aspirin.
Test for Salicylic Acid
● Phenolic -OH's form deep purple
complexes with Fe3+.

● With aspirin, there should be no reaction

as there is no phenol group (-OH attached
to a benzene ring) for the iron (III) chloride
to react with. However, the phenol group
is present in salicylic acid, so a brightly
coloured violet-purple colour is seen.
Test for Salicylic Acid



Jorissen Test (NOT PERFORMED)

● Dissolve a small amount of salicylic acid in 10 mL of water by

● Cool, add 5 drops of 10% potassium nitrite, 2 drops of glacial

acetic acid and 1 drop of 10% copper sulfate.

● Boil for 2 minutes

Jorissen Test

● Jorissen reaction has been used for the identification of

small amounts of salicylic acid.

● Tea, coffee, fruit, and vegetable juices are high in

salicylates (salts and esters of salicylic acid)

● Positive result: RED color

Methyl Ester Test

● Methyl Ester Test or Esterification Test is used to

detect the presence of methanol

● Salicylic acid methyl ester (methyl salicylate) is

formed by heating methyl alcohol, salicylic acid,
and sulfuric acid.

● Methyl salicylate has a wintergreen minty odor.

Methyl Ester Test

In a small portion a salicylic acid in a test
tube containing a few drops of methyl
alcohol and concentrated sulfuric acid,
warm in a boiling water bath.

Few drops of methyl

2mL Salicylic Acid
alcohol (1-3 drops)

Few drops of
Concentrated Sulfuric Water bath
Acid (1-3 drops)
Methyl Ester Test

Produced a clear solution
with an alcoholic smell.
Microscopic Test

Place 3 drops of solution containing salicylic acid in a glass slide and
add a drop of freshly prepared bromine water.

Positive: A yellowish white crystalline precipitate of tri-brom-phenyl-

hydrobromide is formed and can be identified with the aid of

Place 3 drops of solution containing Add a drop of freshly prepared

salicylic acid bromine water

● There was a formation of pinpoint crystals.

● Yellowish white crystalline precipitate.
Test Positive result
Amalic acid Orange-violet
Caffeine Microscopic for Amorphous/
caffeine irregular crystals
Salicylic acid Purple solution
Jorissen’s test Red color
Salicylic acid
Methyl Ester test Wintergreen minty
Microscopic test Pin point/ needle-
for salicylic acid like crystals