1

Objectives
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to complete the following tasks:
Distinguish the use and operation of static and dynamic routes Configure and verify a static route Identify how distance vector IP routing protocols such as RIP and IGRP operate on Cisco routers Enable Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Enable Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) Verify IP routing with show and debug commands
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Routing
The process of transferring data from one local area network to another Layer 3 devices Routed protocol Enables to forward packet from one router to another Ex IP, IPX Routing protocol sends and receives routing information packets to and from other routers Ex RIP, OSPF , IGRP Routing protocols gather and share the routing information used to maintain and update routing tables. That routing information is in turn used to route a routed protocol to its final destination
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Routing
From
Raj House #213, 4th Street Jayanagar, Bangalore

To
Ram House #452, 2nd Street Dadar, Mumbai

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What is Routing?
10.120.2.0 172.16.1.0

To route, a router needs to know: Destination addresses Sources it can learn from Possible routes Best route
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2.120.120.) 10.2.16.What is Routing? (cont.0 Network Protocol Connected Learned Destination Network 10.16.0 172.0 E0 S0 172.1.1.0 Exit Interface E0 S0 Routed Protocol: IP Routers must learn destinations that are not directly connected 6 .

They are used to reduce overhead and for security.Route Types Static routing . static routing does not have the scalability of dynamic routing. Because of the extra administrative requirements. and routing protocols adjust routes automatically.information is learned from other routers. 7 .network administrator configures information about remote networks manually. Dynamic routing .

8 .0.0.1 10.0.0.2  Step-by-step what happens when Host A wants to communicate with Host B on a different network  A user on Host A pings Host B s IP address.1 E0 E1 20.0.0.0.2 A B 20.0.IP Routing Process 10.

LAB Configuration 20.0.2 A B 30.0.0.0.1 10.0.0.0.2 9 .0.0.2 S0 E0 30.0.0.1 10.0.1 E0 S0 20.

1 10.0.0.0.0.2 S0 E0 E0 S0 40.1 20.0.0.0.2 A B 40.1 S1 30.0.0.2 10 .LAB 10.0.0.1 Interface Configuration 20.0.0.0.0.2 S0 30.0.

Test The Connection Host A can ping router R1 and R2 To enable Host A to Ping Host B we need to configure Routes 11 .

IP Routing The different types of routing are:  Static routing  Default routing  Dynamic routing 12 .

Static Routes Benefits  No overhead on the router CPU  No bandwidth usage between routers  Adds security Disadvantage  Administrator must really understand the internetwork  If a network is added to the internetwork. the administrator has to add a route to it on all routers  Not feasible in large networks 13 .

Static Route Configuration R1(config)#ip route network [mask] {address | interface}[distance] [permanent] ± R1(config)# iproute DestAddress SNM Nexthop address 14 .

0.0.Static Route Configuration ip route [destination_network] [mask] [next-hop_address or exitinterface] [administrative_distance] [permanent     ip route The command used to create the static route.0 20.0. static routes have an administrative distance of 1 (or even 0 if you use an exit interface instead of a next-hop address)  permanent If the interface is shut down. or the router can t communicate to the next-hop router. This is a router interface that s on a directly connected network. such as a WAN  administrative_distance By default.0. next-hop_address The address of the next-hop router that will receive the packet and forward it to the remote network.0. Choosing the permanent option keeps the entry in the routing table no matter what happens. mask The subnet mask being used on the network.2 15 .0 255.0. but it s got to be on a point-to-point link. the route will automatically be discarded from the routing table. destination_network The network you re placing in the routing table.  exitinterface You can use it in place of the next-hop address if you want. R1(config)#ip route 30.

0.0.0.0 255.0.0.1 16 .2 R3# config t R3(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0.0.0 30.0.0.0.0.0 255.2 A B 40.0.0.0.2 10.1 E0 S0 40.2 S0 E0 10.0 255.0 20.0.0.0.0.0 20.0.0.0.0.0.2 R1# config t R1(config)#ip route 30.0.0.0.0.2 S0 30.0.0.LAB Static Route Configuration 20.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.1 20.0.0 255.1 R2(config)#ip route 40.1 S1 30.0.1 R2# config t R2(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0.2 R1(config)#ip route 40.1 R3(config)#ip route 20.0 255.0.0.0.0 30.0.0 30.0.0.0.0 255.0 20.0.0.

17 . The show ip route command is used to make sure that the static route is present in the routing table. The command show running-config is used to view the active configuration in RAM to verify that the static route was entered correctly.Verifying Static Route Configuration After static routes are configured it is important to verify that they are present in the routing table and that routing is working as expected.

0.2 R1# config t R1(config)#no ip route 30.0.0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0.1 E0 S0 20.0.0.0.1 10.0 30.0.0.1 18 .0.0.0.0.0.0 255.0.2 R1(config)#no ip route 40.Removing IP Route 20.0 20.0.0.0.1 S1 30.0.0.0.0.0.0.2 S0 30.0 255.0.0.0.0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0.1 R3(config)#no ip route 20.0.0 20.0.0.0 255.0.0.0.0 20.0.0.0 30.0.2 S0 E0 40.0.0.0.2 A B 40.0.0.1 R2(config)#no ip route 40.1 R2# config t R2(config)#no ip route 10.2 10.2 R3# config t R3(config)#no ip route 10.0 30.0 255.0.

0.0.0.0.0.1 E0 S0 S0 30.Default Routes Can only use default routing on stub networks Stub networks are those with only one exit path out of the network The only routers that are considered to be in a stub network are R1 and R3 20.0.0.1 30.0.1 10.0.0.1 20.2 19 .0.2 10.0.0.0.2 A B 40.0.2 S1 S0 E0 40.0.

1.0 172.16.0.0.16.16.2.0.2 This route allows the stub network to reach all known networks beyond router A.0 0.0.0.1 ip route 0. 20 .0 A SO B B 172.2 172.2.Default Routes Stub Network 172.16.0 Network 10.2.0.

0 0.0.0.0. A default route is actually a special static route that uses this format: ip route 0.Configuring Default Routes Default routes are used to route packets with destinations that do not match any of the other routes in the routing table.0.0.0 0.0.16.0 [next-hop-address | outgoing interface] This is sometimes referred to as a Quad-Zero route.0 172.0.0 0.0.0 s0/0 21 .0.0. Example using next hop address: Router(config)#ip route 0.1 Example using the exit interface: Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.4.

0.2 S1 S0 40.LAB Configuration 20.0.1 E0 S0 S0 30.2 10.0.2 22 .0.0.0.0.1 E0 20.0.0.0.2 A B 40.0.0.1 10.0.1 30.0.0.0.

1 23 .2 R1# config t R1(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0.0 30.0.0 20.0.2 A R2# config t R2(config)#ip route 10.0.0.0.0.1 R2(config)#ip route 40.0 255.0.0.0 0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.1 30.0.2 R3# config t R3(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0.2 S1 S0 40.1 10.0.0.0 20.0.0.0.Default Route LAB Configuration 20.0.0 255.0.1 E0 20.0.1 E0 S0 S0 30.0 30.2 10.0.2 B 40.

What is a Routing Protocol? 10.2.0 Routing protocols are used between routers to determine paths and maintain routing tables.3.16.2.16.0 172.17.1.120.3.0 Routed Protocol: IP Routing protocol: RIP. Network Protocol Connected RIP IGRP Destination Network 10.2. Once the path is determined a router can route a routed protocol.0 172.0 E0 S0 172.17. IGRP 24 .120.0 Exit Interface E0 S0 S1 172.

Fig. 67) 25 . 48 IGP and EGP (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer.Routing Categories Autonomous System An Autonomous System (AS) is a group of IP networks. Group of routers which can exchange updates AS are identified by numbers All Routing protocols are categorized as IGP or EGP EGP Exterior Gateway Protocols are used for routing between Autonomous Systems AS 1000 AS 3000 IGP AS 2000 Interior Gateway Protocols are used for routing decisions within an Autonomous System. which has a single and clearly defined routing policy.

67) 26 . 49 The use of IGP and EGP protocols (TI1332EU02TI_0004 The Network Layer.Routing Categories Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) AS 1000 EGP EGP IGP EGP AS 3000 AS 2000 Fig.

IGPs operate within an autonomous system. 27 . EGPs connect different autonomous systems.Autonomous Systems: Interior or Exterior Routing Protocols An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain.

Types or Classes of Routing Protocols 28 .

Types or Classes of Routing Protocols Distance Vector  RIP V1  IGRP  RIP V2 Link state  OSPF Hybrid  EIGRP 29 .

Within the same network. Examples of classful routing protocols: RIP Version 1 (RIPv1) IGRP 30 . Summary routes are exchanged between foreign networks. consistency of the subnet masks is assumed.Classful Routing Overview Classful routing protocols do not include the subnet mask with the route advertisement.

Classless routing protocols support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) and subnetting Examples of classless routing protocols: RIP Version 2 (RIPv2) EIGRP OSPF IS-IS 31 .Classless Routing Overview Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask with the route advertisement.

32 .Distance Vector Routing Protocols ‡ Routers pass periodic copies of routing table to neighbor routers and accumulate distance vectors.

1 192.168.1 33 .20.Distance Vector Uses Bellman Ford Algorithm It needs to find out the shortest path from one network to other How to determine which path is best? 192.168.10.

Both uses different metric RIP Hops IGRP .20.1 192.1 There are two Distance Vector Protocol.168.Distance Vector 192.10.Composite 34 .168.

168.1 1 DV protocol are known as Routing by rumor RIP uses only Hop count RI routing table metric for 192.168.20.1 network will be 3 2 35 .20.168.1 3 0 2 192.Distance Vector 2 1 R1 192.10.

1 network will be 30 60 36 .10.1 30 30 192.1 56 kbps R1 IGGRP uses bandwidth and delay as Metric RI routing table metric for 192.20.168.168.Distance Vector 1 Mbps 10 1 Mbps 1 Mbps 10 10 192.1 56 kbps 192.20.168.10.168.

Routing Loops A network problem in which packets continue to be routed in an endless circle 37 .

38 .Sources of Information and Discovering Routes ‡ Routers discover the best path to destinations from each neighbor.

Inconsistent Routing Entries ‡ Each node maintains the distance from itself to each possible destination network. 39 .

) ‡ Slow convergence produces inconsistent routing.Inconsistent Routing Entries (Cont. 40 .

0 is through router B.Inconsistent Routing Entries (Cont.4.) ‡ Router C concludes that the best path to network 10.0. 41 .

Inconsistent Routing Entries (Cont. 42 .) ‡ Router A updates its table to reflect the new but erroneous hop count.

0. 43 .0 counts to infinity.Count to Infinity Hop count for network 10.4.

0 bounce (loop) between routers B and C.0. 44 .4.Routing Loops ‡ Packets for network 10.

Defining a Maximum ‡ Define a limit on the number of hops to prevent infinite loops. 45 .

RIP permits a hop count of up to 15.Maximum Hop Count One way of solving routing loop problem is to define a maximum hop count. so anything that requires 16 hops is deemed unreachable The maximum hop count will control how long it takes for a routing table entry to become invalid 46 .

47 .Split Horizon ‡ It is never useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which the original information came.

48 .4.0 in its update to Router C. Router B would not have included information about network 10.Split Horizon Solution to the Routing Loop problem Split Horizon is a rule that routing information cannot be sent back in the direction from which it was received Had split horizon been used in our example.0.

Usually used in conjunction with split horizon Route poisoning involves explicitly poisoning a routing table entry for an unreachable network Once Router C learned that network 10.Route Poisoning Route Poisoning.4.0 was unavailable it would have immediately poisoned the route to that network by setting its hop count to the routing protocol s infinity value In the case of RIP. that would mean a hop count of 16.0. 49 .

ensure that all routers know of failed routes. 50 . Triggered updates. used in conjunction with route poisoning. RIP updates occur every 30 seconds However a triggered update is sent immediately in response to some change in the routing table. in turn.Triggered Updates New routing tables are sent to neighboring routers on a regular basis. generate triggered updates notifying their adjacent neighbors of the change. The router that detects a topology change immediately sends an update message to adjacent routers that.

Triggered Updates Graphic 51 .

Holddowns Holddowns are a technique used to ensure that a route recently removed or changed is not reinstated by a routing table update from another route Holddown prevents regular update messages from reinstating a route that is going up and down (called flapping) Holddowns prevent routes from changing too rapidly by allowing time for either the downed route to come back up Holddowns make a router wait a period of time before accepting an update for a network whose status or metric has recently changed 52 .

Solution: Holddown Timers 53 .

10.20.Pinhole Congestion 1Mbps 1Mbps 192.1 192.168.168.1 56kbps 56kbps 54 .

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