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Curriculum Development

Daniel Stevens
Training and Education Manager
LESSON GOAL AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

• Lesson goal: At the completion of this training, the trainer will be capable of
demonstrating and creating a curriculum structure and content in accordance with an
instructional design model.
• Learning objectives: At the completion of this training, the trainer will:
• Define the purpose of training

• Demonstrate how to conduct a needs analysis based on the ADDIE model

• Identify the learning and skills outcomes for a training session while using Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives

• Demonstrate the construction of a lesson plan based on a given model

• Analyze and structure a lesson for foundational knowledge, followed by more advanced
procedural and product application knowledge per current best practices
LESSON GOAL AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

• Learning objectives: At the completion of this training, the trainer will:
• Articulate the different methods of learning transfer

• Identify and discuss different formative assessments for verification of student comprehension

• Be able to define and identify different summative assessments for verification of student
comprehension

• Be able to define how learning goals and objectives are used to develop a summative
assessment
NEEDS ANALYSIS

Take a few minutes and answer this question:

In as few a words as possible, what is the
purpose of training and education?
NEEDS ANALYSIS

• Case study: Jennifer is contacted by her VP and told that in a board meeting recently, they
discussed the need for field based personnel to feel more connected to the home office
and the history of the company. He asks her to build out a training, and execute on it as
she sees fit.

How does she proceed?
NEEDS ANALYSIS

• Training and education can only attempt to change three things:
• Knowledge (cognitive understanding)
• Skills (psychomotor, or tactile, and cognitive skills)
• Attitudes (behavioral reaction to circumstances)
• Sometimes referred to as “KSA’s”
• The critical first step prior to building a training plan, or curriculum is verifying that
training is a solution

The purpose of training is to change measurable performance

• Is there an identifiable lack of knowledge, skills or attitude?
• If the answer is no, then training is not a solution
• If yes, then begin the process of identifying current knowledge/ skills versus desired
knowledge/ skills (needs analysis)
NEEDS ANALYSIS

Outcomes based approach
• An outcomes-based approach is
dependent upon the identification
and communication of clearly
defined learning goals and
objectives, which describe the
essential and disciplinary
knowledge and abilities that
students should possess upon
completion of the program.
NEEDS ANALYSIS

Backward Design model

Identify
desired results
Determine
Primary knowledge
acceptable
and skills desired evidence
Plan learning
experiences
Summative and instruction
assessment for
competency
Plan the learning
event
NEEDS ANALYSIS

ASSURE Model
• Analyze
• State objectives
• Select method
• Utilize media/ materials
• Require participation
• Evaluate and revise
NEEDS ANALYSIS

Kemp Model for instructional design
• This model can be used as guiding principles for any method of curriculum design
• The Kemp Model has nine steps, or components:
• Determine the specific goals, and also identify potential instructional issues

• Identify characteristics of learners that should be taken into account during the planning
process

• Clarify course content, and analyze the proposed task components in relation to the
stated goals and purposes of the course

• Define instructional objectives and desired learning outcomes

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kemp, J. E., & Kalman, H. (2010). Designing effective instruction. John Wiley & Sons
NEEDS ANALYSIS

Kemp Model for instructional design

• Ensure that content for each instructional unit is structure sequentially and
logically to facilitate learning
• Design instructional strategies to enable individual learners to master the
content, and achieve desired learning outcomes
• Plan the instructional message and the appropriate mode of delivery
• Develop evaluation instruments suitable for measuring and assessing learners’
progress towards achieving course objectives
• Choose the appropriate resources that will support both teaching and
learning activities

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kemp, J. E., & Kalman, H. (2010). Designing effective instruction. John Wiley & Sons
NEEDS ANALYSIS

ADDIE model for curriculum development
• A- Analyze the need to determine the needs and tasks
• D-Design the structure (lesson plan models are helpful)
• D-Develop the content
• I- Implement the curriculum into a training session
• E- Evaluate the effectiveness of the instruction and the lesson
There are other models that detail student characteristics, problem
identification, messaging, etc.
NEEDS ANALYSIS

A- Analyze
• What is the change being requested?
• Who is being asked to change?
• What is currently taking place with those being asked to change?
• Who identified the problem or is requesting this change?
• Where will the solution or change need to take place?
• What is the solution to be developed?
NEEDS ANALYSIS

A- Analyze
• How is learning transfer going to happen?
• Scaffolding: The environment, instructional plan, support resources, and delivery all support the
learning process

• Schema theory: knowledge is organized into units. Within these units of knowledge, or schemata,
is stored information. A schema, is a generalized description or a conceptual system for
understanding knowledge-how knowledge is represented and how it is used

• Purposeful reflection: Asking students to take several minutes to think deeply about a subject
they learned, find relevance in their work, and discussion

• Repetition through multiple perspectives: Deliberate repetition of information in another
manner, with different variables, or in a different context
NEEDS ANALYSIS

VARK model1 learning inventory tool

An acronym for Visual, Auditory (aural), Read-write, Kinesthetic, which are
learning preferences that people use to process, assimilate, and integrate new
information

• V: The depiction of information in maps, diagrams, charts, graphs, labelled
diagrams, that people use to represent what could have been presented in words
• A: Students that learn best from lectures, group discussion, radio, email, using
mobile phones, speaking, web-chat and talking things through

1. Fleming, N. D., & Mills, C. (1992). Not another inventory, rather a catalyst for reflection. To improve the academy, 11(1), 137-155 .
NEEDS ANALYSIS

VARK model1 learning inventory tool

An acronym for Visual, Auditory (aural), Read-write, Kinesthetic, which are
learning preferences that people use to process, assimilate, and integrate new
information

• R: Students who have a preference is for information displayed as words
• K: Learning preference related to the use of experience and practice (simulated
or real. The key is that people who prefer this mode are connected to reality,
“either through concrete personal experiences, examples, practice or simulation”

1. Fleming, N. D., & Mills, C. (1992). Not another inventory, rather a catalyst for reflection. To improve the academy, 11(1), 137-155 .
NEEDS ANALYSIS

• Case study: Jennifer is contacted by her VP and told that in a board meeting recently, they discussed
the need for field based personnel to feel more connected to the home office and the history of the
company. He asks her to build out a training, and execute on it as she sees fit.

Is training a solution?

The purpose of training is to change measurable performance

What is the measurable behavior change?
NEEDS ANALYSIS

• Case study: Jennifer is contacted by her VP and told that in a board meeting
recently, they discussed the need for field based personnel to feel more connected
to the home office and the history of the company. He asks her to build out a
training, and execute on it as she sees fit.
• A - Needs and tasks?
• D – Design?
• D- Develop content
• I- Implement
• E- Evaluate
LEARNING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

• Prior to developing content you must identify the expected endpoint

“Begin with the End in Mind means to begin each day, task, or project with a clear vision of your desired direction
and destination, and then continue by flexing your proactive muscles to make things happen.”
- Stephen Covey- 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
Habit #2: Begin with the end in mind

• Curriculum development begins with task analysis
• Is this a knowledge, skills, or attitude based need?
• What foundational knowledge is needed? (A&P, Pathology)
• What is the most effective method of delivery?
• What is the appropriate sequencing with other courses?
NEEDS ANALYSIS

D- Develop content

Curriculum Plan for
follow-on
reinforcement

Lesson plan
LESSON GOALS

• Lesson goal: A general statement of the desired end state of training
• Sports analogy- What is the primary goal in football?

• Lesson goal: At the completion of this training the student will be able to demonstrate, and discuss the
features, functions, and application of the Cook Doppler for a flap procedure in an operative, and post-
operative setting in accordance with the IFU.

Who will perform what task in accordance with what standard?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES

• Learning objectives: Specific statements that define the interim steps toward
the learning goal
• Sports analogy- How does a team accomplish the primary goal in football
discussed previously?

• Learning objective: During a role-play scenario, the student will integrate components of
marketing material, video resources, as well as the Doppler monitor and cables, to
demonstrate features, functions and blood flow sounds.

Who will perform what task in accordance with what standard?
LEARNING GOALS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Bloom’s Taxonomy
• Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (first published in 1956) formulated
hierarchies in three domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
• In 2007, Robert Marzano and John Kendall published The New Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives

Read from the
bottom UP
LESSON GOALS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

• Different approaches to developing the Goals and Objectives
• BCC model

• Behavior: Identify the expected observable action to demonstrate learning
• Conditions: Describe the relevant conditions (location, type of scenario)
• Criteria: How well, and to what standard with the student be held?
• In accordance with the IFU is always recommended for products
• This helps us inline with ISO 13485 (currently only in EMEA)

Who will perform what task in accordance with what standard?
LESSON GOALS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

• ABCD model
• Audience: Identify and describe the learner
• Behavior: Identify the expected observable action to demonstrate
learning
• Conditions: Describe the relevant conditions (location, type of
scenario)
• Degree: How well, and to what standard with the student be
held?

Who will perform what task in accordance with what standard?
LESSON GOALS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

• At the completion of this training the student will be able to demonstrate, and discuss the features,
functions, and application of the Cook Doppler for a flap procedure in an operative, and post-operative
setting in accordance with the IFU.

• Given a diagram, the student will be able to discuss the relevant anatomical structures involved in the
formation of fistulas based on location.

• Given an abdominal wall model, the student will demonstrate the procedural steps for placement of a
gastrostomy enteral feeding tube in accordance with the product’s Instructions For Use (IFU).

• During a role-play scenario, the student will integrate components of marketing material, video resources, as
well as the Doppler monitor and cables, to demonstrate features, functions and blood flow sounds.
LESSON GOALS AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES

“You know nothing Jon Snow”

Knowing, Understanding, and Feeling are not observable, or demonstrable, no
matter how hard you try
CURRICULUM STRUCTURE- FRAMEWORK

Competitor review
Product
(As appropriate)
Application

Methods of
Correcting Pathology

Pathology

Anatomy & Physiology,Terminology
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION MODEL - FF B AD

Use this as a framework for product specific curriculum, and building the product elevator
speech (OPTIONAL- this is a sales tool)

FF BAD
• Features, functions, benefits, application, and differentiation: FF BAD
• Features: Length, width, diameter, and other dimensions
• Functions: This is how you use it (buttons, locks, and steps involved)
• Benefits: This is how it can improve your practice, reduce cost, reduce risk,
perform fewer steps, etc.
• Application: Where you would use it in your surgeries? What types of
cases, or patient population?
• Differentiation: This is how it is dissimilar to the competition.
ASSESSMENT METHODS

• Assessment: Procedures and techniques to determine if learning is occurring
to an expected standard
• Formative assessments: Occur during the course of instruction
(Knowledge checks)
• Teach-backs
• Definitions
• Scenarios
• Paraphrasing of product application sequential steps
• Matrix mapping
• Goal mapping
ASSESSMENT METHODS

Assessment: Procedures and techniques to determine if learning is
occurring to an expected standard

• Summative assessments: Occur at the completion of instruction
• Written tests (knowledge assessment)
• Skills demonstration (skills assessment)
• Field-based observation (change of attitude)
• Panel assessment (all of the above)
• Competency assessment (all of the above)

• The learning goals and objectives should all be addressed in the
summative assessment
• This is also in keeping with ISO 13485
ASSESSMENT METHODS

ADDIE model for curriculum development
• A- Analyze the need to determine the needs and tasks
• D-Design the structure (lesson plan models are helpful)
• D-Develop the content
• I- Implement the curriculum into a training session
• E- Evaluate the effectiveness of the instruction and the lesson
EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS -
KIRKPATRICK MODEL

Level 4
Results
Level 3 Behavior
change
Level 2
Learning
Level 1
Reaction
Kirkpatrick model for training effectiveness, Dr. Donald Kirkpatrick, 1956
EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS -
KIRKPATRICK MODEL

Reaction: Level 1-The student’s perception of how the course of instruction
was designed, delivered, and the setting.
• Generally done via survey (written or electronic version)
• Attempt to get honest feedback as soon as possible after the lesson

Learning: Level 2- The instructor’s perception if the students met the lesson
goals and learning objectives.
• Use assessments that define the expected outcomes of knowledge, skills or
attitude change
• Use the outcomes of the assessments as a guide if changes need to be made
to the lesson plan
EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS -
KIRKPATRICK MODEL

Behavior change: Level 3- This determines if learning transfer happened between the
lesson, and the workplace.
• Occurs 3-6 months after training
• Observation and interview is the most direct method

Results: Level 4- Determining if the lesson, and impact, had the desired business outcome
• Determined by business leaders for what, and how to measure
• Sales numbers within territories
• Sales volume
• Sales numbers comparing territories
• Measurable change in behavior or perspective
EVALUATION

• Evaluation: A process improvement method of the lesson plan as a whole to
assess if it is meeting the expected level of impact
• This also serves as an opportunity to update clinical information, best practices, or
any IFU changes

Lesson plan
Prework Instruction Summative Plan for
Assessment follow-on
Formative assessments

Evaluation
QUESTIONS??