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Material Handling and

November 8, 2002


• Recognize material handling hazards
– Manual material handling
– Industrial trucks
– Conveyors
– (Cranes will be addressed later)
• Become familiar with basic methods of
controlling these hazards


cuts and bruises from improper storage 3 .000 overexertion injuries.000 injuries caused by lifting – 93. Hazards • 600.000 pushing/pulling – Strains and sprains from loads that are too heavy or large – Fractures . 27% of all lost.workday cases – 370.

General Work Practices • Get help for large loads • When blocking a raised load: – Keep hands from underneath before releasing load – Use blocking materials of adequate strength – Look for cracks. eye protection. • Attach handles or holder to loads • PPE – Gloves. rounded corners. splintered pieces. etc. safety boots (for heavy loads) 4 .

Mechanical Material Handling • Do not overload equipment • Refer to equipment rated capacity • General forklift procedures – Center load on forks and close to mast – Do not overload – Do not add extra weight to counterbalance – Travel with load at lowest position 5 .

Materials Storage • Stacked loads correctly piled and cross- tiered • Stored material must not create hazard • Areas free of accumulated material • In buildings. no stored materials within 6 feet of hoist ways or 10 feet of exterior building walls • Store non-compatible material separately 6 .

on racks. blocked or interlocked to keep it from sliding. hopers or tanks equipped with lifeline and safety harness • Bound material stacked. falling or collapsing • Don't exceed load capacity for the structure – Post load limits • Stacking height – Mark walls or posts to indicate maximum height 7 . Materials Storage • Employees in silos.

taper stacks 2 inches per foot 8 . Lumber and Brick Storage • Lumber – Maximum stack height • 16 feet (manual handling) • 20 feet (forklift) – Remove nails from used lumber – Stacks stable and self-supporting • Bricks – Maximum 7 feet high – Above 4 feet.

ceilings. taper stacks 2 block per tier • Bags and bundles – Stack in interlocking rows – Step back at least every 10 layers – Remove from top of stack first – Keep baled paper and rags at least 10 inches from walls. or sprinkler heads 9 . Block and Bag Storage • Masonry blocks – Above 6 feet .

etc. use planks. between each tier • Block cylindrical material (bars. pallets. poles. kegs – Stacked symmetrically – If stored on side. etc.) • Use bins or shelves for materials that cannot be stacked 10 . Box and Drum Storage • Boxed materials – Hold in place using cross-ties. or shrink plastic • Drums. block bottom tiers to prevent rolling – If stacked on ends. barrels.

Manual Lifting • Avoid manual lifting when possible • Limit vertical lifting (knuckle-to-shoulder height) • Be in good physical shape • Plan the lifting operation • Get a good grip • Keep the load close to the body • Do not twist or bend sideways • Get help for large or heavy loads 11 .

Manual Lifting • Recommendations for specific tasks – Grasp opposite corners on boxes. cartons & sacks – Use mechanical assistance for barrels and drums – Wear leather gloves when handling sheet metal – Plate glass • Carry with bottom edge in gloved palm. other hand on top edge • Never carry plate glass under the arm – Use a team for long objects 12 .

don't lean it too far • Walk forward . 2-wheeled hand trucks • Tip load forward and slip tongue underneath • Keep center of gravity low • Let the truck carry the load .keep load height low enough to see • Secure bulky items to the truck • Use specialty equipment – Drums – Appliances 13 .

interlocked 14 . Conveyers • Hazards – Nip points (rollers. near frame) – Material may fall from conveyor – Persons may be caught in the conveyor • Controls – Emergency stop button or pull cord • Must be reset after use • Never ride on conveyor – Guards over aisles or work areas – Screw conveyors covered.

95. Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts) • 100 annual deaths.000 injured • Cause of fatality: – 42% crushed by vehicle tipping – 25% crushed between vehicle and surface – 11% crushed between two vehicles – 10% struck or run over by vehicle • 8% struck by falling material • 4% fall from platform or forks • 2% accidental activation of controls 15 .

1992-1996 120 114 95 86 89 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 .Forklift Fatalities.

Industries Where Powered Industrial Truck Accidents Occurred .

Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts) • ANSI Approved – Identifying label • Owner modification – Only with mfg. Approval – New label required • Front-end attachments – Should have new label 18 .

Counter-Balanced Trucks (Solid and Pneumatic Tires) • Class 2CElectric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks (Solid Tires) • Class 3CElectric Motor Hand Trucks or Hand/Rider Trucks (Solid Tires) • Class 4CInternal Combustion Engine Trucks (Solid Tires) • class 5CInternal Combustion Engine Trucks (Pneumatic Tires) • Class 6CElectric and Internal Combustion Engine Tractors (Solid and Pneumatic Tires) • Class 7CRough Terrain Forklift Trucks (Pneumatic Tires) 19 . Sit-down Rider. Classes of forklifts • Class 1CElectric Motor.

Trucks for Hazardous Locations • D--Diesel . minimum safeguards • ES--additional safeguards • EE--completely enclosed electrical equipment • EX--for atmospheres with flammable vapors or dusts • G--Gasoline-powered with minimum safeguards • GS--additional safeguards • LP--similar to the G.additional safeguards 20 . minimum safeguards against fire hazards • DS--Diesel-powered with additional safeguards • DY--Diesel-powered. but liquefied petroleum gas fuel • LPS-. no electrical equipment • E--Electrically powered.

EE. Hazardous Examples • OSHA specifies which type of truck is acceptable for hazardous locations: • Examples – Flammable gases or liquids handled. but contained • DS. EX only – Suspended combustible dusts • EX only 21 .

wheel chocks (trucks) – Wheel stops (railroad cars) 22 . – Mechanical battery handling equipment – No smoking • Trucks and Railroad cars – Brakes set.liquid or gas – Handled in accord with NFPA standards • Batteries – Specially designated battery charging area – Spill control. Powered Industrial Truck Safety • Fuel . etc. fire protection. ventilation.

etc. rail cars. etc. • Use overhead guard to protect from falling objects • Use load backrest when necessary 23 .) • Maintain headroom under lights. sprinkler systems. Powered Industrial Truck Operation • Never drive toward a person standing in front of a fixed object • No person under any elevated portion • Do not place arms or legs in the mast or outside the truck • Unattended trucks must be shut off with lowered load • Set brakes and wheel blocks when loading vehicles (trucks.

drive forward up ramps • Operate at safe speed. avoid quick turns • Personnel on loading platform must have an emergency for truck power • Secure dockboards and bridge plates • Loads must be stable and safely arranged • Disconnect battery before repairing electrical system • Replacement parts must be equivalent to original 24 . Powered Industrial Truck Operation • Cross railroad tacks on the diagonal • Sound horn at blind intersections • Back down ramps.

• Formal training program • Initial training before use • Refresher training (based on observations) • Employer must certify 25 .training required by Dec. 1999 . 1919. operation.178(l) – Effective March 1. 1999 • OSHA specified topics – Stability. Forklift Training • New OSHA standard. 1. etc.

When the vehicle is loaded. . the combined CG should never be at line B-C. the combined center of gravity (CG) shifts toward line B-C. The addition of additional counterweight will cause the truck CG to shift toward point A 26 and result in a truck that is less stable laterally. Theoretically the maximum load will result in the CG at the line B-C. In actual practice. Forklift Training Vehicle Center of Stability Triangle: B Gravity (Unloaded) A C Center of Gravity of Vehicle and Maximum Load (Theoretical) Notes: 1. 2.

Forklift Training Stability Triangle Load CG Load CG Vertical Stability Line Combined CG (Line of Action) Combined CG Vertical Truck CG Stability Truck CG Line (Line of Action) The vehicle is stable This vehicle is unstable and 27 will continue to tip over .