Dogs in society
‡ Mainly kept as working or companion animals ‡ Earned additional roles such as assisting police and military, handicapped ‡ Media portrayal increase lovability factor: Lassie, Beethoven, Benji, 101 Dalmations ‡ Humanization of pets
± Pet industry growth ± Pet bonding

Dogs in society
‡ In some societies, the consumption of dog meat is viewed as part of their traditional or contemporary culture ‡ While in others, the consumption of dog meat is generally viewed as offensive, such as most Western cultures ‡ Dogs are consumed in some parts of Latin America, China, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines

‡ Explore situation dog meat in Korean society in its historical, legal, and social context. ‡ Examine and analyze different angles
± Pro dog meat ± Anti dog meat ± Refuse-respect

‡ Identify factors that contribute to attitudes ‡ Increase knowledge about the issue to know how to approach the issue

Limitations ‡ Researcher bias at the beginning ‡ Changed attitude from anti-dog meat to refuse respect ‡ Other viable alternative hypothesis ‡ Not meant to reject other possible explanation for the phenomenon of interest .

and websites ‡ exploratory and the overall objective is to identify common themes in the attitude towards dog meat in Korea .Method ‡ Relevant information on the history and current status of dog use (as pets and as food) was sourced from academic literature. newspaper reports.

Pet ownership in Korea .

and one¶s birthday . beef. is the fourth mostconsumed meat after pork. Hoigap (anniversary of one¶s 60th birthday). dog meat.Dog meat in Korea ‡ In Korea. and chicken ‡ Part of traditional customs ± Farmers eat it during Boknal ± Offered to guests during funeral ceremony. which literally means Gaegogi ( ).

paving the way for the return of dog meat as food ‡ Confucians even nicknamed it ³Confucian¶s meat´ ‡ Justifying this label by pointing to the so-called Chinese Book of Rites where dogs are divided into three classes: hunting dogs.Dog meat in Korea BC 57 to ACD 676 918-1392 1392-1910 dog meat consumption in Korea can be traced back to the era of the three kingdoms not common during the Koryo Dynasty when Buddhism became the state religion Confucianism became the state ideology during Choson Dynasty. watchdogs. and food .

naughty. . ‡ A dog raised at Sodang for three years. insignificant.Dog meat in Korea ‡ Korean proverb referring to dogs (worthless. can chant Chinese lessons ‡ Even a fool can learn something after 3 years. and ungrateful) ± ‡ The dog that buried the shit rebukes the dog that buried the chaff ‡ A hypocrite tells another person not to do something that`s less serious than what they`ve been doing ± .

Dog meat in Korea ‡ Geographical conditions not suitable for farming livestock ‡ In an agrarian society cow was important as resource of labor ‡ It was an domestic animal that could not be eaten so instead the dog was taken as meat. .

and finally white furred dog. supplements marrow to warm our knees and waist. such as small and large intestines. and circulate the blood smoothly. In quality. strengthens our stomach. and raises vigour to make men virile when bodies are fatigued and damaged. it can help keep bodies healthy. followed by black furred dog. yellow furred dog is best.Dog meat in Korea ‡ Chosun dynasty encyclopedia ³The character of dog meat is warm with a salty and sour taste. Yellow furred dog is good for men and black furred dog for women. It comforts the digestive system.´ .

relatively large bodies. ± Not normally kept as pets ± ready to be sold at approximately 1 year of age . and black muzzles.Dog meat in Korea ‡ Nureongi ( ) ± Dogs bred by Korean farmers for suitabilty as livestock and share certain characteristics. including short tan hair.

The same vendor is also selling the meat-dogs (nureongi) pictured at the back .Dog meat in Korea Scene from a market in South Korea. denoting they are for sale as pets. Puppies to the fore are in a pink cage.

Pet ownership in Korea .

5 million pets dogs in South Korea in 2007 . standards of living rose. and people had more disposable income ‡ Pets springing up all over the country ‡ Smaller breeds are more common ‡ Encouraged by government to counter the negative image ‡ Korea Kennel Club (KKC) estimated that there were around 2.Pet ownership in Korea ‡ Pet culture took off 1990¶s when economy rapidly improved.

pet food. toys (58%) and collars (58%) ‡ Mega Pet. accessories. Ilsan: 11-storey building has a diverse variety of offerings including pets. not interested in kids.8% between 2003 and 2008 ‡ Popular dog care products: clothes (65%). have a pet instead ‡ Market for dog care in South Korea increased at a compound annual growth rate of 6. restaurants.Pet ownership in Korea ‡ Low birthrate. and services such as salons. and gym . hotel.

Pet ownership in Korea .

Protests against dog meat .

Protest against dog meat ‡ First attack against dog eating led by the Austrian-born wife of South Korea¶s first president Syngman Rhee ± Renaming of dog stew from gaejangguk to bosintang in 1945 ‡ Korean War 1950¶s food shortage ± disapproval declined ‡ Brigitte Bardot campaign in 1980¶s accused Koreans ³barbarians´ .

± Loophole: can still raise and slaughter ± Bottomline. Eradicated the beating of dogs and electrocution was adapted instead.Protest against dog meat ‡ Seoul City Regulation No. ‡ Livestock Processing Act ± dogs not recognized as livestock. it is not illegal to raise and slaughter dogs as long as it does not violate any anti-cruelty provisions of the Animal Protection Act (APA) . 94: Banned sale and consumption prompted by 1988 Seoul Olympics ‡ Animal Protection Law passed in 1991 prohibited the mistreatment of non-livestock animals.

Protest against dog meat ‡ 2002 World Cup ± FIFA president urged for immediate and decisive actions to be taken ‡ National Dog Meat Restaurant Association ± unveiled a plan to give free samples of bosintang to football fans ‡ Proposed that dogs be put on the list of livestock to ensure strict standards of slaughter and hygiene as well as separation of dogs into edible livestock and those that are pets ‡ A declaration was also proposed to demand that foreign countries not meddle in Korea¶s dog eating tradition .

Protest against dog meat ‡ Jay Leno joke ± Korean speed skater Kim Dong-sung being disqualified from the 2002 Winter Olympics because the Korean might have kicked his dog then eaten it ± Koreans. regardless of their attitude towards dog eating all came together to elicit an apology from Jay Leno .

as well as gullible and racist media. and prejudice harboured by so-called animal rights humanitarians. Joey Skaggs.Protests against dog meat ‡ May 1994. towards other cultures . intolerance. artist and sociopolitical satirist organized a hoax ‡ His point was to illustrate the hypocrisy.

Protests against dog meat .

Protests against dog meat .

Protests against dog meat .

Protests against dog meat .

Pet ownership in Korea .

I oppose dog meat´ .South Korean¶s attitudes ‡ 83% had eaten dog meat at some stage in their lives ± Haters: inhumanity ± Lovers: traditional food cuisine ‡ Consumption patterns were no different between pet owners and non-pet owners ‡ Only 9% of respondents thought it should be banned ‡ Protesters: ³I love Korea.

South Korean¶s attitudes ‡ Korean food in western countries is still considerably obscure ‡ Doosan is developing an odourless variety of Kimchi for the U.S. market ± prompted many Koreans to adopt an apologetic tone ‡ ³Industrialized countries do not allow its people to eat dogs´ ± World Cup ± Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) .

all of which are considerably hipper by Seoul standards ± Zagat survey: all the top winners were nonKorean restaurants . hamburger. and the old Korea ± Young Koreans nowadays favour the Dunkin¶ Donuts. pizza joints and cafes. the countryside.South Korean¶s attitudes ‡ Snobbery: Bosintang is by no means considered as haute cuisine ± dog soup is still associated with earlier traditions.

Even if this might be the eating habits of most people.South Korean¶s attitudes ‡ simply singling out dog meat as an illegal activity is not entirely justified ± ³However. forcing it onto the people remaining is nothing less than the µtyranny of the majority¶.´ . I¶m afraid that the issue of what to eat cannot be resolved by µlimiting the stomachs of others by what I¶m able to stomach¶.

± Teacup pigs are not gaining popularity .South Korean¶s attitudes ‡ No rational argument for saying that eating dogs is barbaric while eating pork or beef is fine ± eating a pork chop is reasonable but notion of eating dog is appalling ± generally. the notion of pigs as pets seems bizarre or repellent.

Pet ownership in Korea .

categories: cute/ugly.Analysis ‡ Dichotomization: Animals can be grouped into two distinct. dirty/clean. ± dogs are dichotomized as being either edible or inedible ± Westerners have a great abundance of alternate sources of animal foods and their geographical condition enables them to raise a large number of livestock ± Brigitte Bardot¶s statement ³cows are grown to be eaten. food/non-food. dogs are not´ . often diametrically opposed.

and useless though they provide humans with meat.pigs are dirty. and animals in laboratories are perceived as existing solely as objects for research ± anti-dog meat campaign often take a ³dogs are companions/friends´ perspective . and stupid. crude. frightened.Analysis ‡ Overgeneralization: individuality is unacknowledged ± generalized assumptions . chickens are supposedly weak.

dog consumption is acceptable since it is part of its culture and history ± Why single out dogs while the rest of the world continues to eat beef and lamb? ± it takes about 16 parts of grain to produce one part of meat. And valuable water resources are being used up for the livestock industry .Analysis ‡ Justification: defends meat consumption ± In South Korea. This means that the amount of food used to feed cattle is roughly enough to feed the whole world ± manure of cattle and sheep produces more greenhouse gases ± Forests are being destroyed to be turned into grazing land.

Analysis ‡ De-individualization: strip animals of their individual identities ± Americans recoil at the thought of eating dog meat. most of them have either lived with or known at least one dog on a personal level ± Dogs are individuals. pigs. ± Koreans consider pet dogs different from food dogs in the same way that Americans distinguish angel fish from canned tuna . fishes and chickens are not ± pigs are just as intelligent as dogs and yet countless numbers of pigs are slaughtered to be eaten as pork. whereas cows. familiars.

Analysis ‡ Cultural Relativism: ± concept of ³Han´ ± deeply felt sense of injustice ± calls from the West to ban the practice is viewed by South Koreans as an attack on their culture ± Majority did not believe that the consumption should be banned regardless of whether they eat it or not ± campaign against dog consumption has been going on for decades. . there has not been any effect on the practice ± Pet owners and non-owners had similar attitudes to dog eating.

Analysis ‡ Cultural Imperialism: ± Cows are sacred in India and it¶s illegal to slaughter and eat them there. Korea may somehow be reducing its sovereignty by showing submissiveness to another country¶s whims . but the Indian government doesn¶t put pressure on the American government to ban the eating of beef ± showing their displeasure with this practice by going as far as to boycott Korean products ± By giving in to the pressure.

not necessarily more moral.Analysis ± no one ideal or culture should be superior over the other ± Those who eat dog meat are not any less moral than those who don¶t ± The West isn¶t exactly more sophisticated. not entirely more advanced than countries in which dog meat is eaten ± Beef exporting countries are eager to block the legality of dog meat as well .

Analysis ± Dogs are a sign of wealth .the ban on dog meat is just a way of placating the rich and the powerful ± ban on eating dogs comes a lot from the µeducated class¶ ± don¶t want to be seen as hillbillies ± wealthier people want to westernize themselves. so their views on the dog situation will have the tendency to be the same in western countries .

the westerners can enjoy their superiority .Analysis ± racism and cultural superiority ± Barbaric and uncivilized just because they think of themselves as civilized and western ± There would be no difference between a Korean dog lover and a Korean dog eater because an Asian is just another Asian ± Fear that differentiation between the rich and poor will fade as well as the superiority and privilege that comes with it ± As long as dog meat eating continues to be labelled as barbaric.

mostly from Westerners ± This attitude mainly attributed to dichotomization and overgeneralization ± Internally. I oppose dog meat eating .Analysis ‡ Anti-dog meat: ± anti-dog meat campaign mainly comes from external sources. within Korea campaigners prone to discrimination and prejudice ± I love Korea.

e.Analysis ‡ Pro-dog meat: ± cultural confrontation between Korea and the West ± accepting dog meat as disgusting and barbaric is to lose the battle against the onslaught of Westernization ± Collectivism by standing up against attacks (i. World Cup. Jay Leno) ± It may not be good soup but it is our soup .

Analysis ‡ Refuse-respect: ± majority of people who would never eat dog meat and some would even be disgusted by it (many of whom express real love for their pet dogs) would nevertheless defend the practice ± Proposed ban and regulations do nothing to reduce the dog meat consumption (as campaigns are largely driven by Westerners) ± I refuse to eat it but I respect the right of others to do so. .

Summary Dichotomization EXTERNAL Cultural Imperialism Overgeneralization Anti Dog Meat INTERNAL De-individualization Cultural Relativism Justification Refuse Respect Pro Dog Meat .

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