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Group 1:

• Kupmin Rambe
• Siti Maesaroh
• Sumarno Adi
Language Skill as a
Pragmatic Expectancy
What are we going to be discussed?

1. What is pragmatics about?

2. The Factive aspect of language use
3. The emotive aspect
4. Language learning as grammar
5. Tests that invoke the learner’s grammar
One definition of “language” is “a
system of symbols that permit people
to communicate or interact. These
symbols can include vocal and written
forms, gestures, and body language.”
Teaching Adults, An ESOL Resource Book, Developed by ProLiteracy America
Another way to describe language is in terms of the
four basic language skills: listening, speaking, reading,
and writing. In your teaching, you will need to address
each of these skills. And, whenever possible, you
should utilize activities that integrate all four
skills since each reinforces the other.
Language Skills
 Listening: When people are learning a new language
they first hear it spoken.
 Speaking: Eventually, they try to repeat what they
 Reading: Later, they see the spoken language
depicted symbolically in print.
 Writing: Finally, they reproduce these symbols on
What is pragmatics about?
 Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics
that studies the ways in which context contributes to
 Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory,
conversational implicature, talk in interaction and
other approaches to language behavior in
philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology.
Pragmatics is about how people communicate
information about facts and feeling to others feeling,
or how they merely express themselves and their
feeling through the use of language for no particular
audience, except possibly an omniscient God. It is
about how meaning is both coded and in a sense
invented in the normal intercourse of words and
experiences (dewey, 1929)
Two aspect of language in use need to be distinguished:

1. The Factive (cognitive)

Aspect of language use has to do with the coding of
information about states of affairs by using words,
pharases, clauses and discourse.
2. The Emotive (afective)
aspect of language has to do with the coding of
information about attitudes and interpersonal
relationship by using facial expression, gesture, tone
of voice, and choice of words.
These two aspects of
language use are
Intricately Interrelated
Two major kinds of contexts are
1. Linguistic Context
consist of verbal and gestural aspects

2. Extralinguistic Context
similarly consist of objective and subjective aspect
The systematic corespondences
between linguistic and
extralinguistic context are referred
to as pragmatic mappings
Pragmatics asks how utterances
(and of course other forms of
language in use) are related to
human experiences
In relation to the factive aspect of coding information
about states of affairs outside of language, it is asserted
that language is always an abbreviation for a much
more complete and detailed sort of knowledge
An important aspect of the coding
of information in language is the
anticipatory planning of the
speaker and the advance
hypothesizing of the listener
concerning what is likely to be said
A pragmatic expectancy grammar
Is defined as a psychologically real system that
sequentially orders linguistic elements in time and in
relation to extralinguistics context in meaningful ways
As linguistic sequences become
more highly constrained by a
grammatical organization of the
sorts illustrated, they become
easier to process
 Newscaster smiled cheerfully while speaking of traffic
fatalities, floods, and other calamities
 He was expressing an entirely different attitude toward
the facts he was referring to than his friends and
relatives victims.
 Many disagreement on his attitudes to the facts were
 But the other’s accounts for it’s his career as the the
station’s anchorman
Two aspect of language
1. Language is used to convey information about people,
things, event, ideas, states of affairs
2. Attitudes toward all of the foregoing.
 The fact on his speaking is a manner of speaking (
including his choice of words)
 The attitudes conveyed it that probably shortened his
Lingusistic Analysis
mainly two aspects
 Factive (cognitive) aspect
Physical stuff of language: codes factive information of
sequences fo distinctive sounds which combine to
form syllables, which form words, which get hoked
together in highly conntrained ways to form phrases,
which make up clauses, diversity of human discourse
 Emotive (affective, attitudinal) aspect
consist of facial expression, tone of voice and gesture.
sociologists and psychologists often been interested
more in the emotive aspect of language than factive
aspect because it more logic.
the two aspect are intricately interrelated, but often
useful and sometimes essential to distinguish them

“some of Richard’s lies have

been discoverd”
“some of Richard’s lies have been discoverd”
 There is a certain person named Richard
 Richard ( whom we may infer to be a male human)
 Who is a guilty of lying more than one or two
 Whose lies have been found out
In the statement :

 It remaks implies that there are other lies told by

Richard which maybe uncovered later.
 such a statement relates in systematic ways to a
speaker asserted beliefs concerning certain states of
 The speaker maybe lying, or sincere but mistaken, or
sincere and correct, and these are only some of the
many possibilities.
ln any case, however, as persons who know English. we
understand the remark about Richard partly by
inferring the sorts of facts it would take to make such a
statement true. Such inferences are not perfectly
understood. but there is no doubt that language users
make them. A speaker (or writer) must make them in
order to know what his listener (or reader) will
probably understand. and the listener (or reader) must
make them in order to know what a speaker (or writer)
For instance. the Speaker may appear to hate Richard. and
to despise his lies (both those that have already been
discovered and the others not yet found out), or he may
appear detached and impersonal. in speaking, such
emotive effects are achieved largely by facial expression,
tone of voice, and gesture, but they may also be achieved in
writing by describing the manner in which a statement is
made or by skillful choice of words… The latter. of course, is
effective either in spoken or written discourse as a device
for coding emotive information. Notice the change in the
emotive aspect if the word lies is replaced by hri/ftruths:
Some of Richard‘s half-truths have been discovered. The
disapproval isweakened still further if we say: Some of
Richard“: mistakes have been discovered, and further still if
we change mistakes to errors of judgement. *
In the normal use of language it is possible to
distinguish two major kinds of contacts first there is
the physical style of language which is organized into a
more or less linear arrangement of verbal elements
skillfully where is the physical stuff of language which
is organized into a more or less linear arrangement of
verbal elements skillfully and intricately interrelated
with a sequence of rather precisely time change
language test of voice facial expression body posture
and so on to call attention to the fact that the human
being even the later so called “paralinguistics” devices
of communication are an integral part of language use.
 Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and
involves an analysis of language form, language
meaning, and language in context.
 Extra linguistic context to refer to states of affairs
constituted by things, events, people, ideas,
relationship, feelings, perception, memories, and so
 We may say that linguistic contexts are pragmatically
mapped onto extralinguistics contexts and vice versa.
Pragmatics is about how people communicate
information about facts and feeling to others feeling,
or how they merely express themselves and their
feeling through the use of language for no particular
audience, except possibly an omniscient God. It is
about how meaning is both coded and in a sense
invented in the normal intercourse of words and
experiences (dewey, 1929)
 This point, we have concerned primarily with the
factive aspect of language and cognition.
 There are two types of contrast in the coding
of information.
 1. Factive information is coded primarily in
distinctly verbal sequence.
 2. Emotive information is coded primarily in
gesture, tone of voice, facial expression and

Whereas the verbal sequences consist of a finite
set of distinctive sounds or (features of sounds),
syllables, words, idioms, and collocations and
generally of discrete and countable sequences of
elements, the elements, the emotive coding device are
typically non-discrete and are more or less
continuously variable.
Aloud shout means a stronger degree of emotion
than a softer tone. In the kinds of devices typically
used to code emotion information, variability in the
strength of the symbol is analogically related to similar
variability in the attitude that is symbolized.
In both speaking and writing, choice of words also
figures largely in coding the attitudinal information.
For the example:
(1) some people say it is better to explain our point of
view as well as give the news.
(2) (2) Some people say it is better to include some
propaganda as well as give the news. Clearly, the
presupposition and implications of the two sentences
are different, but they could conceivably be used in
reference to exactly the same immediate states of
affair extra linguistic context.
According to Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson
(1967) point out in their book on the Pragmatic of
Human communication, it is part of the function of
emotive messages to provide instructions concerning
of the interpretation of factively coded information.
Watzlawick and friends contend that that emotive
message concerning such abstract aspect of
interpersonal realities are probably much more
important to the success of communicative exchanges
than the factively coded message themselves.
What is very interesting for a theory of pragmatic
expectancy grammar is that in normal
communication, ways of expressing attitudes are
nearly perfectly coordinated with ways of expressing
factive information. As a person speaks, bounderies
between language segment are hearly perfectly
synchronized with change in bodily postures, gesture,
tone of voice. And it is reseacrhed by the expert.
According to Condon and Ogston (1971) has
shown that the coordination of gesture and verbal
output is also finely grained that even the smallest
movement of the hands and finger are nearly perfectly
coincident with boundaries in linguistic segment clear
down to the level of the phoneme.
moreover through sound recordings and high
resolution motion photography they have been able to
demonstrate that when the body movements and facial
gesture of a speaker and hearer are segmented and
displayed consecutively, the speaker and hearer look
like puppet moved by the same set of strings’.
In a sense language is something that we learn,
and in another it is a medium through which learning
There are several opinions from the experts about
learning language:
 Collin Cherry (1957) has said that we never feel we
have fully grasped an idea until we have “jumped on it
with both verbal feet.”
it seems to imply that language is not just a mean of
we have not expressing ideas that we already have, but
rather that it is also a means of discovering ideas that
we have not fully discovered
 John Dewey argued that language was not just a means
of expressing antecedent thought.
rather that it was a basis for the very act creative
thinking. He observed that the thing that a person says
often surprise himself more than anyone else
 Alice in “Through the Looking Glass” seems to have
the same thought instilled in her own creative
imagination through the genius of Lewis Carrol. She
asks, How can I know what I am going to say until I
have already said it?
It is because of the nature of human limitations
and because of complexities of our universe of the
diversity, it categorizes and systematizes elements into
hierarchies and sequences of them.
If one carefully examines language teaching
method and language learning setting which seem to
be conducive to success in acquiring facility in the
They all seem to have certain things in common.
Whether a learner succeeds in acquiring a first
language because he was born in the culture where
the language was used. Or he was transported there
and forced him to learn it as a second language.
Whether the learner acquires a second language by
hiring the tutor and speaking language incessantly, or
by marrying the tutor,
or by merely maintaining a prolonged relationship
with someone who speak the language. Whether the
learner acquires the language through the command
approach used successfully or by silent method or
through a set of film of communicative exchange or by
joining in a bilingual education experiment.
Key points
 - To understand the problem of constructing valid
language test, it is essential to understand the nature
of the skill to be tested
 - two major kinds of context are distinguished :
linguistic context consists of verbal and gestural aspect
: extra linguistic context similarly consist of objective
and subjective aspect
A. Why is it important to understand the nature of
the skill you are trying to test?
B. Can you think of examples of test that have been
used for educational or other decisions but which
were not related to a careful consideration of the
skill or knowledge they purported to acces
C. How can you tell if the test is a measure of what it
purports to measure?
 D. consider the sentences : (a) the boy was bucked
off by the pony, and (b) the boy was bucked off by
the barn (example from woods, 1970). Why does
the second sentence require a mental double-
take? Note similar examples in your reading for
the next few days. Write down examples and be
prepared to discuss them with your class
Example of speech error test
 Addition: adding a unit
 optimal number→ moptimal number"
Anticipation: a later speech unit takes place of an
earlier one
 "reading list→leading list" Blends: two speech
units are combined
 Exchange: two units swap positions
 thunder and lightning→lunder and thightning
Misdeviation: a wrong unit is attached to a word
 Intervening node→intervenient node
These riddles will make sure they've got their listening ears on! If they don't
they're sure to miss out on the details they need to get the answers right. Be
sure to read the riddles quickly to really test them out!

 Q. Why can’t a man living in New York be buried

in Chicago?
A. Because he’s still living!
 Q. How can a man go eight days without sleep?
A. He sleeps during the night.
 Q. A man is six feet tall, he's an assistant at the
local deli and wears size nine shoes. What does he
A. Meat.
 Q. What do these words have in common: Madam, civic, eye,
A. If you read them all backwards, they make the same word.
 Q. When you have me, you feel like sharing me. If you do share
me, you don't have me. What am I?
A. A secret.
 Q. I am an insect. The first part of my name is the name of
another insect. What am I?
A. Beetle.
 Q. Which part of a boat does a shopaholic like the most?
A. The sail (sale)
Example of pragmatics
 The Day You Went Away“

Well I wonder could it be

When I was dreaming 'bout you baby
You were dreaming of me
Call me crazy, call me blind
To still be suffering is stupid after all of this time

Did I lose my love to someone better

And does she love you like I do
I do, you know I really really do
 Well hey
So much I need to say
Been lonely since the day
The day you went away
So sad but true
For me there's only you
Been crying since the day
The day you went away

I remember date and time

September twenty second
Sunday twenty five after nine
In the doorway with your case
No longer shouting at each other
There were tears on our faces