You are on page 1of 30

DRAFT IS:800

Section 13 FATIGUE

Dr S R Satish Kumar
Department Of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
Chennai 60036
FATIGUE DESIGN OF
STEEL STRUCTURES
Introduction
Mechanism of Fatigue Fracture
Factors Affecting Fatigue Strength
Design Strength & Cumulative Fatigue
Damage
IS:800 Design Provisions
Prudent Design Practices
Summary
INTRODUCTION
Modes of Failure of Steel Structures

• Yielding or excessive plastic deformation.


• Elastic or inelastic buckling or instability.
• Fatigue fracture due to repeated cyclic loading.
• Brittle fracture.
INTRODUCTION
Definition of Fatigue Fracture
Process of progressive localised permanent
structural change occurring in a material
subjected to conditions which produce
fluctuating stresses and strains at some
point or points and which may culminate in
cracks or complete fracture after a
sufficient number of fluctuations - ASTM E206-62T
MECHANISM OF FATIGUE FRACTURE
‘a’
(1) Subcritical range Crack Size (2)
(3)
(2) Stabl crack propagation
IV
(3) Unsstable Crack a cr, plastic Stress
Propagation Range= 1
III
acr, elasto-plastic
I

acr, elastic
Stress
(1)
I Stress Range Range = 2
II
II Quality Control
III Toughness ‘N’ Number of Cycles
Elastic – Elastoplastic
Fig. 1 Fatigue Crack Growth
IV Toughness
Elastoplastic - Plastic
FACTORS INFLEUNCING
FATIGE STRENGTH
• Material Toughness

• Stress Range max - min


• Number of Cycles Life

• Stress Concentration Increases stress range


• Residual Stress Compressive

• Corrosive Environment Decreases life


• Frequency of Loading Negligible effect
• Member Size Only in small spec.
Locations of fatigue failure
• Stress concentrations
• Welds, Heat affected zones
FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF
STRUCTURAL DETAILS
• Structural Member
– Tension, welding, cover plate, splices, stiffeners
• Riveted Connections
– Stress concentration, steel strength, details,
rivet tension
• Bolted Connections
– Bearing/ friction, prying effect, eccentricity
• Welded Connections
– In the weld metal
– In the line of fusion
– In the heat affected zone (HAZ)
– At the toe edge of the weld.
DESIGN STRENGTH
Maximum R = 0
Log S Stress in
cycle
n1 R=1
R = -1
Endurance n2
limit

Log. N _ 0 +
Minimum Stress in Cycle

Fig.2 S-N Curve Fig. 3 Modified Goodman Diagram


SECTION 13 FATIGUE - Contents
13.1 General
13.2 Definitions
13.3 Design
13.3.1 Reference Design Conditions
13.3.2 Design Spectrum
13.3.2.1 Stress Evaluation
13.3.2.2 Design Stress Spectrum
13.3.2.3 Low Fatigue
13.3.3 Partial Safety Factors
13.3.3.1 Partial Safety Factor for Actions and their effects(mft=1.0 )
13.3.3.2 Partial Safety Factor for Fatigue Strength
13.4 Detail Category
13.5 Fatigue Strength
13.6 Fatigue Assessment
13.7 Necessity for Fatigue Assessment
SECTION 13 FATIGUE
S-N Curve for normal Stress

(Conti….)
SECTION 13 FATIGUE
S-N CURVE FOR SHEAR STRESS

(Conti….)
DETAIL CATOGORY
CLASSIFICATION

(4)
(8)

((1) (
(3) (
1 8
2 )
)
)
(2) (5) (9)

( (
(
3 9
5
) )
)
(6)
(7)

118 103 92
DETAIL CATOGORY CLASSIFICATION
1:4 < Taper
1:2.5

(10)

(22)

(11)
(12)

(19) (20)

(14)

(17)
(16)
(21)

66 59
83 (18)

Transverse butt welds


Reference Design Condition
Redundant load path (fail-safe)
Stress range evaluated by conventional
method
Load cycles not highly irregular
Detail amenable for inspection
Welded plate thickness < 25 mm
FATIGUE STRENGTH
Normal Stresses

f f  f fn 3
5  10 / n
6 n<5x106
n>5X106
f f  f fn 5
5  10 / n
6

Shear Stresses

 f  fn 510 / n
5 6
DESIGN STRENGTH

f  f fd   c f f /  mft
  fd  c  f / mft

c = correction factor for type of section


mft based on fail-safe and inspection
Partial Safety Factors

Consequence of failure
Inspection and Access
Non-fail-
Fail-safe
safe
Periodic inspection and
maintenance, accessibility 1.00 1.25
to detail is good

Periodic inspection and


maintenance, poor 1.15 1.35
accessibility for detail
MODIFICATION FACTORS

• Weld in plates thicker than 25 mm


t = (25/tp)0.25  1.0
CUMULATIVE FATIGUE DAMAGE
Variable Repeated Loading
Load

time

Minors Hypothesis

ni n1 n2 n3
     ..  1
Ni N1 N 2 N 3
VARIABLE STRESS RANGE
Normal Stress Range
r

 n
5

 ni f i
5
3
j fj
j
i 1
  1.
5  10  f fn /  mft  5  10  f /  mft 
5
6 3 6 5
fn

Shear Stress Range

 5  10   fn /  mft 
r

n 
5 6 5
i fi
i 1
Prudent Design Practices
in Fatigue
• Avoid details that produce severe stress
concentrations or poor stress
distribution.
• Provide gradual transitions in sections
and avoid reentrant notch like corners.
• Avoid abrupt changes of section or
stiffness of members or components.
• Align points so as to eliminate
eccentricities or reduce them to a
minimum.
Prudent Design Practices
in Fatigue
• Avoid making attachments on parts
subjected to severe fatigue
loadings. If attachments in such
locations are unavoidable, the weld
profile should merge smoothly into
the parent metal.
• Use continuous rather than
intermittent welds.
• Avoid details that introduce
localized constraint.
Prudent Design Practices
in Fatigue
• During fabrication provide suitable
inspection to guarantee proper
riveting, adequate clamping of
high-strength bolts, and proper
deposition of welds.
• Provide for suitable inspection
during the fabrication and erection
of structures.
• Intersection of welds should be
avoided.
Prudent Design Practices
in Fatigue
• Edge preparation for butt-welding should
be designed with a view of using
minimum weld metal so as to minimize
warping and residual stress build up.
• Ask for pre and post heating, if
necessary to relieve the build-up of
residual stresses.
• Fillet welds carrying longitudinal shear
should not be larger in size than
necessary from design considerations.
Prudent Design Practices
for Fatigue
• Deep penetration fillet welds should be
used in preference to normal fillet
welds.
• Structures subjected to fatigue loading,
especially critical locations in such
structures, should be regularly inspected
for the presence of fatigue cracks and
when such cracks are discovered,
immediate steps to prevent them
further propagation into the structure
should be taken.
Prudent Design Practices
for Fatigue
• Any repair measures taken should be
designed to avoid introduction of more
severe fatigue condition.
• Provide multiple load path and/or
structural redundancy in the structure
to avoid overall collapse of the structure
due to failure of one element in the
structure in fatigue.
• Provide crack arresting features in the
design at critical locations to avoid
propagation of cracks into the entire
member.
FITNESS FOR SERVICE
Weld Defect Acceptance Criteria
Effect of defect on stress concentration
FEA of weld defects & Fracture Tests
Critical Defects
Under cut, centre line notch, overlap, convexity, concavity
Lack of weld penetration
SUMMARY
• Mechanism of Fatigue Fracture
• Design Under Fatigue loading
• Inspection, Rehabilitation, Maintenance
• Acceptance Criteria
THANK YOU