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Theories of

MGT 231
Human Behavior in Organization
Group 1
D. Balon • T. Contreras • K. Dayo • K. Garcia
E. Pelicano • P. Pumar
What is Motivation?
The process that initiates guides and maintains goal
oriented behaviors.
David McClleland’s
Theory of Needs
Brief History about the Theory
• It was developed after Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in 1940
• Theory follows the work of Henry Murray on personality
• Developed by David McClleland, an American psychologist
• Built on this theory work in his 1961 book “The Achieving Society”, wherein he
identified the three motivators that he believed we all have: a need for
achievement, a need for affiliation and a need for power
• The aim was to attempt to explain how these needs affect the actions of
people from a managerial context.
* The theory also states that every person has one of the three main driving
motivators which are not inherent but are developed through culture and life
experiences. *
Need for Achievement
• Has a need to excel and accomplish challenging goals
• Takes calculated risks to accomplish their goals
• Likes to receive regular feedback on their progress and achievements
• Prefers to work alone
Need for Affiliation
• Has a need to belong to the group

• Conforms to the norm

• Favors collaboration over competition

• Doesn't like high risk or uncertainty

• Prefers work with significant personal interaction

Need for Power
• Has a need to control and influence or motivate others

• Likes to win arguments

• Enjoys competition

• Enjoys status and recognition

• Two Types of Power : Personal and Institutional

Need for Need for
Achievement Need for Power
Need for Power NeedAffiliation
for Power

• drive to excel • To control others

• friendship
• achieve in relation to • To get desired things
a set of standards done • good relationship
• strive to succeed
Applications of Theory
• Managers providing feedback to his or her personnel

• Head of a respective department assigning a specific workload

to a personnel
Strengths and Limits
Strengths Limitations
• Specific and effective motivator • Requires extensive knowledge of
for individuals with different the subordinates needs or
needs motivators
• Provides better understanding of • Requires a close relationship with
subordinates and how they react subordinate
to feedback
Bates, B. and McGrath, J. (2017). The Little Book of Big Management Theories and How to
Use Them. Pearson, UK
Charnov, B. and Montana, P. (2008). Management. Barron’s Educational Series
Daft, R. (2007). The Leadership Experience. Cengage Learning
McClelland’s Human Motivation Theory. (nd). Retrieved from
McClelland’s Theory of Needs. (2010). Retrieved from
McClelland’s Theory of Needs (Power, Achievement and Affiliation). (nd). Retrieved from
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
• Born on April 1, 1908, in Brooklyn, New York.
• Studied law at City College of New York (CCNY).
• He received his BA in 1930, his MA in 1931, and his PhD
in 1934, all in psychology, all from the University of
• Professor in Alliant International, Brandeis, Brooklyn
College, New School for Social Research, and Columbia
Historical Background
• Abraham Maslow was an American psychologist perhaps best known as
one of the founders of humanistic psychology and for his famous hierarchy
of needs.

• Maslow felt that Freud's psychoanalytic theory and Skinner's behavioral

theory were too focused on the negative or pathological aspects of
existence and neglected all of the potential and creativity that human
beings possess.
Historical Background

• Maslow's hierarchy of needs suggested that people have a number of

needs, and as these needs are met they are able to go on to pursue
other needs. The needs at the base of his hierarchy are more basic in
nature, gradually moving up into more social, emotional and self-
actualizing needs as one moves up the hierarchy.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
• What motivates human behavior?

• According to humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow, our actions are

motivated in order to achieve certain needs.

• Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology

comprising a five-stage model of human needs, often depicted as
hierarchical levels within a pyramid.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Deficiency needs vs. Growth needs

• The five-stage model can be divided into deficiency needs and growth

• The first four levels are often referred to as deficiency needs (D-
needs) and the top level is known as growth or being needs (B-
Deficiency needs vs. Growth needs

• Deficiency needs arise due to deprivation and it can motivate people when
they are unmet. Also, the motivation to fulfill such needs will become
stronger the longer the duration they are denied.

• On the other hand, growth needs do not arise from a lack of something
but rather from a desire to grow as a person. Once these growth needs
have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level
called self-actualization.
Deficiency needs vs. Growth needs
Managerial Application

• The theory is able to suggest how managers can lead their employees
to become self-actualized. This will enable organization to fully utilize
employees’ ability and potentials, in which way enhance the overall
productivity and effectiveness of the business. Therefore, it is
important to develop self-actualized employees by helping them
meet their needs.
Managerial Application
• Promote a healthy work force: Companies can help in keeping their
employees physiological needs by providing incentives to keep them
healthy both physically and mentally.

• Provide financial security: Financial security is an important type of safety

need. In order for the organizations to motivate their employees, they
need to make them financially secured by involving them in profit sharing
of the organization or giving them a good retirement plan.
Managerial Application
 Provide opportunities to socialize: Socialization is one of the factors
that keep employees feel the spirit of working as a team. When
employees work as a team they tend to increase their performance.
Also, socialization promotes a good work-life balance.
 Recognize employee’s accomplishments: Recognizing employee’s
accomplishments is an important way to make them satisfy their
esteem needs.
Theory in Action
• Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is intuitive. The basic idea of the theory is
that our needs are constantly changing. As one need is met, we desire
other needs.

• The theory provides a useful summary of human needs, which can be used
in product design, product positioning and pricing.

• It also helps marketers to focus their advertising appeals on specific needs.

• According to Graham & Messner (1998, p.196) there are generally three
major criticisms directed to the need theory and other content theories of
(1) There is scant empirical data to support their conclusions,
(2) they assume employees are basically alike, and
(3) they are not theories of motivation at all, but rather
theories of job satisfaction.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor