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The Self as Cognitive

Construct
Two Aspects of Self
The

• The thinking, acting, and


feeling self
The

• The one who acts and


decide
The

• The phyical
characteristics as well as
the psychological
capabilities that makes
who you are
The

• What you think or feel


about yourself as an
object
Other Concepts of the Self
Identity
It is composed of personal characteristics,
social roles, and responsibilities, as
affiliations that define who one is.
Self Concept
It is what basically comes to your mind when
you are asked about who you are.
The self, identity, and self-
concept are not fixed in one
time
hobbies

family SELF religion

nationality
Theories generally see the
self, identity, and self-concept
as mental constructs.
The frontal lobe of the brain
as the specific area in the
brain associated with the
processes concerning the
self.
The theory of symbolic
interactionism says that the
self is created and developed
thru human interaction
(Mead)
3 Reasons
(self & identity as social products)
• We do not create ourselves
out of nothing. Society helps
the foundation of who we
are, even if we make our
own choices.
3 Reasons
(self & identity as social products)
• We need others to reinforce
who we think we are. They
serve as reference points
about our identity.
3 Reasons
(self & identity as social products)
• What we think is important
to us may also have been
influenced by what is
important in our society or
historical context.
Therefore

Social interaction and group


affiliation are vital factors in
creating our self-concept.
When we are aware of our
self-concept, it is called self-
awareness.
2 Types of Self-awareness

• private self
• public self
Self-schema of Self-awareness

• the actual
• the ideal
• the ought self
Actual self

It is who you are at the


moment.
Ideal self

It is who you like to be.


Ought self

It is who you think you should


be.
Self-awareness may be
positive or negative
depending on the
circumstances.
Self-awareness can keep you
form doing something
dangerous.
Self-awareness can be too
much that we are concerned
about being observed and
criticized by others (self-
consciouness)
Ex. With a large crowd, one
may experience
deindividuation.
Therefore

Group identity and self-


awareness have a great
impact on our self-esteem.
One way that affects our self-
esteem is through social
comparison.
Social comparison theory
tells that we learn about
ourselves, the
appropriateness of our
behaviors, as well as our
social status by comparing
aspects of ourselves with
other people.
The downward social
comparison is comparing
ourselves with others worse
off than us to create a
positive self-concept and
raise self-esteem.
The upward social
comparison is comparing
ourselves with those who are
better off than us.
While it may be a form of
motivation for some, a lot
feels lower self-esteem as
they highlight more of their
weaknesses or inequities.
Social comparison entails
self-evaluation maintenance
theory.
Self-evaluation theory

We can feel threatened when


someone out-performs us,
especially when the person is
close to us.
Reactions

• Distance ourselves from the


person or redefine our
relationship with them.
Reactions

• Reconsider the importance


of the aspect or skill in
which you were
ouperformed.
Reactions

• Strengthen or resolve that


certain aspect of ourselves.
Attempt to raise self-concept
may result to narcissism for
some people.