Aerodynamics
2009/2010
Prof Andrew Rae
Learning Outcomes and Assessment Methods
Learning Outcomes  On successful completion of thisAssessment Methods
module, the student will be able to:
Fundamentals:
• Static dynamic and total pressure; Bernoulli’s principle; Speed of
sound and Mach number; ISA tables.
Lift generation:
• Circulation, lift and downwash; Kutta condition; KuttaJoukowski
theorem; spanwise lift distribution, loads and bending moment.
Subsonic Flows:
• Contributions to subsonic drag; zerolift drag, skinfriction;
‘Horseshoe’ vortex system; wing planforms in subsonic flow;
induced drag; span efficiency; tip devices; wing design through twist
and camber including “washout” and “washin”.
Aerodynamic methods;
• History of aerodynamic testing; Wind tunnel types; low speed and high
speed testing; Open and closed circuit (Eiffel/Goettingen) type tunnels;
Open, closed and slotted/porous working section type tunnels; Flight
testing; Model mounting systems; upwash, buoyancy and blockage
correction methods; Mach similarity; Methods of increasing Reynolds
number; Powered wind tunnel models; Pressurised, cryogenic, heavy gas
and water tunnels; Introduction to CFD; Description of CFD; Advantages
and disadvantages of CFD; Examples/demonstration of CFD usage.
Supersonic Flows:
• Critical Mach Number; formation of shockwaves; Normal and oblique
shockwaves; Effect of wing thickness and camber; Wave drag and methods
of reducing wave drag (Wing Sweep, Transonic Area Ruling, Supercritical
Aerofoil design, Wing design); Shockwave control and the Shockinduced
separation.
Swept wings:
• Swept wing flows; Effect of spanwise and normal velocity components;
qualitative description of 3D boundary layers on swept wings; Forward,
rearward and variable sweep wings; control surface effects; delta wings and
vortical flows; vortex flap; aerodynamics of aircraft at high incidences.
A ‘curve’ ball
Slice on a golf ball
Purposely ignoring cricket  polishing, seam, boot studs, etc. are all separation control (dimples on
a golf ball)….see later….
• The flow around a body produces changes in velocity and thus changes in pressure
– but the pressure variations are symmetrical, i.e. no lift
Γ Γ ∞
V=
4πh
─∞ V
y
• Whereas it should be:
(The local lift is the local height of the lift distribution and the total lift is the area under the lift distribution curve)
Γ2 b
Γ 1+
Γ1 2 Γ1
Γ2 Γ2 ∞
∞
Γ2
Γ1
Γ1
Γ2 ∞
b
− Γ1 ∞
2
& L
CL =
L 1 Mg
1 = ρ V 2C L = = WS g
ρ V 2
Takeoff and landing S performance S 2 S
•
2
Rearranging the equation for lift coefficient gives
–
and therefore
So for aircraft2with
g Wthe
S same lift coefficient at takeoff and landing (and in the same atmospheric
–
V =
conditions) the aircraft with the bigger wing will need lessV α at
speed Wtakeoff and landing, or less lift
ρ C L
coefficient at the same speed
S
=
1
ρ V 2 S C L − Mg
2
– And the vertical acceleration can then be found from
1 1
M av = ρ V 2 S CL − M g av = V 2 ρ CL − g
– So for the2 same lift coefficient the aircraft with the
2WSlower wing loading will have
the greater initial climb
2π
V2
ac =
R
L
MV2 1
= ρ V 2 C L S sin θ
R 2
θ
M 2 2 WS
R = =
S ρ C L sin θ ρ C L sin θ
∆L S ∆L
av = =
M WS
Moment arm
– Which gives ρU d
Re =
µ
– One of the most powerful parameters in fluid
dynamics
• Helps assess the similarity or
equivalence of differing flow conditions
• Scale effect
– High Re flows approach inviscid conditions
(thin boundary layers)
Reynolds
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 48
Viscosity (5)
• Reynolds number
• Reynolds number
– Some examples
X15
Re = 6 million
A380
Re = 80 million
Wind Tunnels
QinetiQ 5m
Viscosity (7)
ONERA S1MA
20
Lowspeed w/t 10
• Reynolds number 5
ONERA S2MA
100
DNWHST
ONERA S1MA
90 ARATWT
Transonic w/t 40
30
20
10
0
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40
Mach Number
80
Supersonic w/t 60
40
20
ETW (Cryogenic)
1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00
Mach Number
• Velocity profiles
– The rate at which the velocity increases from zero at the wall to freestream
velocity at the edge of the boundary layer
δ u=0.99U∞
Boundarylayer
U∞
y (v) velocity profile
– The boundarylayer depth (the distance from the surface where u = 0.99 U∞)
is defined as δ
• Shear Stress
– The assertion that the velocity at the surface is zero
– The action of viscosity tugs at the surface (rubbing hands together)
• Generates shear stress (τxy )
• Noslip condition
– The noslip condition maintains
that the flow at the surface is
stationary
• i.e. that u = 0 at y = 0
– This is difficult to justify
theoretically and is
demonstrably not true in many
cases
– But it is close enough to the
truth (and the convenience of it
as a boundary condition so
large) that its consequences
are accepted
– There is a general mean motion roughly parallel to the surface, but in addition there are local rapid, random fluctuations in velocity
direction and magnitude
– These fluctuations provide a powerful mechanism for mixing within the layer
– Just as viscosity give rise to shear stress, the turbulent fluctuations give rise to eddy shear stresses
– Consequently there a important differences between the characteristics of laminar and turbulent boundary layers
Steeper profile
– Boundary layers on a wing combine to form the wake (profile drag, CDo)
a & b – laminar
c  turbulent
Turbulent
Turbulent
V∞ u
η=y f ' (η ) =
υx V∞
• Blasius’ Equation
– The important result is that the solution of the
equation is a velocity profile and that it is a function
of η only
– This form of the velocity profile is independent of the
distance along a surface (x)
– Selfsimilar solutions
– If f’=u/Uo, the b.l. edge is at f’=0.99 and η =5.0
V∞ V∞
η=y =δ = 5.0
υx υx
5.0 x
δ=
Re x
– The reduction of the boundary layer equations to an
ODE is only valid for certain conditions
• E.g. flow on a flat plate
du
τ xy = µ
– dyat the wall (skin friction) is given
So shear stress
by
du
τ = µ
w local
coefficient
– And the
dy y =0 of skin friction (cf), the
skin friction at a point x along a surface, is given
by
du V∞
= V∞ f '' ( 0 )
2υ x
dy y =0local shear
– And so the stress is given by
τw 2 V∞
cf = = µ V∞ f ''
( 0)
1
ρ
2 ∞ ∞V 2
ρ V
∞ ∞
2
2 υ x
2 µ 2 f '' ( 0)
– Reference
''
( 0) = solution of the Blasius equation and tabulates the
c f = [2] describes af numerical
2 ρ V
results, giving f’’(∞0) = x
∞ 0.4696, so 2 Re x
– Where Re0x.664
is the local Reynolds
c f
number
=
Re x
1 Anderson ‘Fundamentals of Aerodynamics’, 3rd Edition,
Chapter 18.2
2 Schlichting, ‘Boundary Layer Theory’, 8th Revised and
Enlarged Edition, Page 158 and Table 6.1
1 c
C f = ∫ c f dx
c 0
– Substituting the previous expression for local skin friction coefficient gives
1 µ c 1.328 µ c
∫
−1
C f = (0.664) x dx =2
– And
c ρ ∞ V∞ 0 c ρ ∞ V∞
1.328
Cf =
– Where ReRe
c is the Reynolds number based on the wing chord
c
δ u=0.99U∞ u=0.99U∞
y (v)
δ*
– We now introduce the concept of displacement thickness, δ*
x (u)
δ u=0.99U∞ u=0.99U∞
y (v)
δ*
x (u)
– (b) The boundary layer displaces the flow around an object by acting as
additional volume
y1
∫ ρ u dy
The actual mass flow between y=0 and y=y1 is
–
The hypothetical mass flow between y=0 and y=y1 if the boundary layer were not present is
– 0
The difference between the two is the missing mass flow
–
y1
∫ ρ e ue dy
And this can be expressed in terms of δ*
–
∫ (ρ ue − ρ u ) dy
y1
e
0
ρ e ue δ *
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 70
Viscosity (27)
• Boundary layer displacement thickness derivations
– (a) Missing mass flow (continued)
– So
∫ (ρ ue − ρ u ) dy
y1
ρ e ue δ = *
e
0
– Or
y1 ρu
δ = ∫ 1 − dy
*
0
ρ e ue
. y1
– The mass flow at Station 1 m= ∫0
ρ e ue dy
– At Station 2, the mass flow between the surface and the . y1
m= ∫ ρ u dy + ρ e ue δ *
same streamline is
Or ∫
0
ρ e ue dy = ∫0
ρ u dy + ρ e ue δ *
y1 ρu
δ = ∫ 1 − dy as before
*
0
ρ e ue
ρ u ( ue − u ) dy
y1
Aerodynamics 2009/2010
∫0
Page 74
Viscosity (31)
Boundary layer momentum thickness
We can now introduce a thickness (θ) representing the missing momentum if it were crammed into a flow with the free stream characteristics, i.e.
•
– The missing momentum flow = ρ eue θ =
2
And so
ρ u ( ue − u ) dy
y1
–
–
This momentum thickness (θ) is the height of a hypothetical streamtube carrying the missing momentum flow at freestream conditions
The momentum thickness can be used to generate a similar effective or equivalent body, this time representing a body exhibiting an equivalent momentum loss
∫
0
y1 ρu u
θ =∫ 1 − dy
0 ρ e ue ue
– From Reynolds’ pipe flow experiment a critical Reynolds number was observed, below which the flow was laminar and above which it
was turbulent.
– The discovery that transition occurred on surfaces did not come until much later
ud
– Transition on a flat plate
Re crit = = 2300
υ crit
U∞ x
Re x crit = = 3.5 ×10 → 10
5 6
Aerodynamics 2009/2010
υ crit Page 77
Flow direction
Viscosity (34)
Factors affecting
transition
• Pressure gradient
– Positive pressure
gradients suppress Disturbances suppressed by positive pressure gradient
turbulence
– Adverse pressure
gradients amplify
them
Laminar
separation
Transition
– Addition of a trip wire
at the wire
Turbulent
separation
• Closed separations exist (laminar bubbles) but even these are unsteady
• Classic wind tunnel surface flow visualisation can indicate these regions
– Oil flow (time averaged)
– Tufts (point data)
Fixed leading
edge (Dnose)
Shroud
Vane
Main element
(γ = climb angle)
– Prior to 1972:
• Fresh momentum through the
slot
• High energy air from lower
surface to upper surface
– A.M.O. Smith
• LeadingEdge Slat Effect
• Circulation Effect
• Dumping Velocity
• OffSurface Recovery
• Fresh Start for the boundary
layer on each element
– Increased resistance
to main element
trailingedge flow
separation and a
resilience to high
angle of attack
– Vortex generators
• Small blades (rectangular or triangular) that create vortices close to the surface
m
m
m
m
a)
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No VGs
VGs on
Boeing 727
Gloster Javelin
Boeing 737
• The interaction between mechanical and thermal energy is weak which permits
use of a simplified version of the energy equation
– This assumption does not, however, match reality
• All fluids are compressible, even liquids
– If the pressure changes in a flow are sufficient to cause significant density
changes we have to abandon the incompressible flow assumption
– It is more likely to be of concern in a gas than in a liquid
• A pressure change of 500kPa (~72psi) causes a density change of 0.024% in
water but 250% in air
1
µ = sin1
M
– For a section of the shock wave, the area before and after the shock will be equal, i.e. A = A = A, so
1 2
– ρ 1u1 = ρ 2u2
The ideal gas law is
–
And we can write the velocity as
–
p
ρ=
→ or RT
u = Mc = M γ R T
p1 p2
M 1 γ R T1 = M 2 γ R T2
R T1 R T2
p1M 1 p2 M 2 M 2 p1 T2
= =
T1 T2 M 1 p2 T1
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 147
Supersonic flows (15)
Normal shock waves
• Now consider the forces acting across the shock wave
– The momentum equation gives
–
The force is equal to the pressure difference across the shock wave
– = pressure x area = p A = p A
1 2
or
and
p1 A − p2 A = ρ 2u22 A − ρ1u12 A
p1 − p2 = ρ 2u22 − ρ1u12
p1 (1 + γ M 12 ) = p2 (1 + γ M 22 )
p2 (1 + γ M 12 )
= u = Mc = M γ R T
p1 (1 + γ M 22 ) ρ=
p
RT
E2  E1 = Q  W
– The work and heat transfer depend on the process used to change the state.
– For the special case of a constant pressure process, the work done by the gas is given as the constant pressure p times the change in
volume V. i.e.
W = p (V2  V1 )
E2  E1 = Q – p (V2  V1 )
becomes
H2  H1 = Q
– From the definition of the heat transfer, we can represent Q by some heat
capacity coefficient Cp times the temperature T
H2  H1 = Cp (T2  T1)
~ ~
h2 − h1 = c p ( T2 − T1 ) ( ~
h2 = c p T2 )
– The specific heat capacity (cp) is called the specific heat at constant
pressure
– This final equation is used to determine values of specific enthalpy for a
given temperature
– Across shock waves, the total enthalpy of the gas remains a constant
~ ~ u 2
u 2
Q − Ws = m h2 − h1 + −
2 1
2 2
where Q is the heat transfer rate,
~ u12 ~ u22
h1 + = h2 +
2 2
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 154
Supersonic flows (21)
• Normal shock waves
– So we now have five equations:
Continuity ρ 1u 1 = ρ 2u 2 (1)
Momentum
p1 − p2 = ρ 2u 22 − ρ1u12 (2)
~ u12 ~ u22
Energy h1 + = h2 + (3)
2 2
~
Enthalpy h2 = c pT2 (4)
– And five unknowns, the flow conditions after the shock wave:
~
ρ 2 , u2 , p2 , h,2and T2
remember a = γ RT
a12 a22
– Substituting this pair into − = u2 − u1
γ u1 γ u2
2 2
– Gives γ + 1 a* γ − 1 γ + 1 a* γ − 1
− u1 − − u2 = u2 − u1
2 γ u1 2γ 2 γ u2 2γ
– Dividing by u2  u1 gives
γ + 1 *2 γ − 1
a + = u2 − u1
2γ u1 u 2 2γ
a* = u1u2
– This is called the Prandtl relation and is a useful intermediate relation for
shock waves
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 160
Supersonic flows (27)
• Normal shock waves
– The usefulness of the Prandtl relation is shown if we recall the equation
a2 u2 γ + 1 *2
+ = a
γ −1 2 2(γ − 1)
– Dividing through by u2 gives
2
(a / u ) 12
γ + 1 a*
+ =
γ −1 2 2(γ − 1) u
– And converting to Mach number
2
(1 / M ) 2 γ +1 1 1
= * −
γ −1 2(γ − 1) M 2
– And rearranging gives
2 *2 (γ + 1) M 2
M 2
= or M =
*2
((γ + 1) / M ) − (γ − 1) 2 + (γ − 1)M 2
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 161
Supersonic flows (28)
• Normal shock waves
– We now take the Prandtl relation and incorporate the characteristic Mach
number (M* = u/a*)
u1 u2 1
1= ∗ ∗ 1= M M *
1
*
2 M = *
*
2
a* = u1u2 becomes →
a a or M1
– On the previous page we derived the equation
2 (γ + 1) M
2
M* =
2 + (γ − 1)M 2
1
M = *
*
2
– Substituting this into M1
−1
(γ + 1) M 22 (γ + 1) M 12
=
– Gives 2 + (γ − 1) M 2 2 + (γ − 1) M 12
2
1 + [ (γ − 1) / 2] M 12
– And solving for M22 M =
2
2
γ M 12 − (γ − 1) / 2
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 162
Supersonic flows (29)
• Normal shock waves
1 + [ (γ − 1) / 2 ] M 2
– It shows that the Mach number after a normal shock wave is dependent only
upon the Mach number before it
– If M1=1, then M2=1 and this is an infinitely weak shock wave, or Mach wave
– If M1>1, then M2<1, i.e. the flow after the shock wave will be subsonic
– As M1 increases above 1 the shock wave becomes progressively stronger
and M2 becomes progressively less than 1
– As M1 → ∞ , M2 approaches a finite minimum value
M 2 → (γ − 1) / 2γ
*2 (γ + 1) M 2
– Substituting M = into the above equation
2 + (γ − 1)M 2
– Gives ρ 2 u1 (γ + 1) M 12
= =
ρ1 u2 2 + (γ − 1)M 12
– To give
u
p2 − p1 = ρ1u12 − ρ 2u22 = ρ1u1 (u1 − u2 ) = ρ1u12 1 − 2
u1
– Dividing by p1 and recalling that a1 = γ p1 ρ1 or a12 = γ p1 ρ1
p2 − p1 γ ρ1u12 u2 γ u12 u2 u
= 1 − = 2 1 − = γ M 12 1 − 2
p1 γ p1 u1 a1 u1 u1
T2 p2 ρ1
=
T1 p1 ρ 2
– Which gives
T2 h2 2γ 2 + (γ − 1)M 12
= = 1 + ( M 1 − 1)
2
T1 h1 γ + 1 (γ + 1) M 1
2
1 + [ (γ − 1) / 2] M 12
M =
2
2
γ M 12 − (γ − 1) / 2
ρ 2 u1 (γ + 1) M 12
= =
ρ1 u2 2 + (γ − 1)M 12
p2 2γ
= 1+ ( M 12 − 1)
p1 γ +1
T2 h2 2γ 2 + (γ − 1)M 12
= = 1 + ( M 1 − 1)
2
T1 h1 γ + 1 (γ + 1) M 1
2
γ −1 p2
lim M 2 = = 0.378 lim =∞
M 1 →∞ 2γ M 1 →∞ p1
ρ2 γ + 1 p2
lim = =6 lim =∞
M 1 →∞ ρ1 γ − 1 M 1 →∞ p1
2 p
(γ −1) γ
M1 =
2
0 ,1
− 1
γ − 1 p1
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 171
Supersonic flows (38)
• Measurement of velocity in compressible flow
– Using the relationship for Mach number
2 0,1
p
( γ −1) γ
M1 =
2
− 1
γ − 1 p1
– becomes
2
( γ −1) γ
2 a p
u1 =
2 1
0 ,1
− 1
γ − 1 p1
γ M 12 − [(γ − 1) / 2]
p2 2
= 1+ ( M 12 − 1)
p1 γ +1
γ ( γ −1)
p A p A p0 1 + [(γ − 1) / 2]M ∞2
= =
2
p∞ p∞ p0 1 + [(γ − 1) / 2]M A
p − p∞ where q∞ = 12 ρ ∞V∞2
Cp =
q∞
1 1 γ p∞
q∞ = ρ ∞V∞2 = ρ ∞V∞2
2 2 γ p∞
γ ρ∞ 2
= p∞ V∞
2 γ p∞
γ
= p∞ M ∞2 (a∞2 = γ p∞ ρ ∞ )
2
– So
2 p
Cp = − 1
γ M ∞2 p∞
2 2 γ
1 + [(γ − 1) / 2]M ∞
( γ −1)
C p ,cr =
2
− 1
γ M ∞ 1 + [(γ − 1) / 2]
– This equation allows us to calculate the
pressure coefficient at any point where
the local Mach number is 1 (i.e. along
the sonic line)
F102 F102A
Boeing 747400
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 202
Supersonic flows (69)
• Area rule
Convair CV990
Airbus A300
Trim Drag
Wave (Wing) Drag
Parasitic Drag
Nacelle Interaction Drag
Unaccounted Drag
Vortex (Induced) Drag
Profile drag
~ u12 ~ u22
Energy h1 + = h2 +
2 2
~ ~
Enthalpy
h1 = c pT1 , h2 = c pT2
(a* is the value of the speed of sound at sonic conditions and is constant)
a2 u2 γ + 1 *2
+ = a
γ −1 2 2(γ − 1)
V12n + V1t2 γ p1 γ + 1 *2
+ = a
2 γ  1 ρ1 2(γ − 1)
V22n + V22t γ p2 γ + 1 *2
+ = a
– From ρ 1V1n 2= ρ 2V2nγ and
 1 ρ2 γ − V1)1t =V2t
2(that
it follows
– i.e. the tangential velocity is the same on both sides of the shock
0= ρ V V −ρV V
– Since the tangential velocity doesn’t change we2 just
2 n need
2 t to determine
1 1n 1t the normal velocity after the shock
– Again using continuity we get
– Where p2/ρ 2 and p1/ρ 1 can be eliminated using the equations at the top of the slide
p2 p1
− = V1n − V2 n
ρ 2V2 n ρ1V1n
γ + 1 *2 1 1 γ − 1 Vt 2 Vt 2
a − + V1n + − V2 n + = V1n − V2 n
2γ V2 n V1n 2γ V1n V2 n
– Which we arrange to the form
γ + 1 a*2 γ − 1 Vt 2 γ + 1
− (V − V ) = 0
2γ V1nV2 n 2γ V1nV2 n 2γ 1n 2 n
– This equation is satisfied when either factor is zero
– The solution that the second factor is zero (i.e. V1n – V2n = 0, or V1n = V2n ) corresponds to a
shock wave of zero intensity, or a Mach wave
– Setting the first factor to zero gives a nontrivial solution:
∗2 γ −1 2
V1nV2 n = a − Vt
γ +1
sinβ a0 V1 γ + 1
– And we can replace a*/a0 and a0 /V1 for terms involving γ and M to give
V1 γ −1 2 2 1
V2 n = sin β +
sinβ γ + 1 γ + 1 M 12
– Or
1 γ −1 2 2 1
θ = β − tan −1
sin β +
2
sinβ cosβ γ +1 γ + 1 M 1
2 p
Cp = − 1
γ M ∞2 p∞
2 p
C pn = − 1
γ M ∞2 n p∞
– The variablesweep wing is most useful for those aircraft that are expected to function at both low and high speed, and for this
reason it has been used primarily in military aircraft
Messerschmitt Me P.1101
Grumman XF10F Jaguar
Bell X5
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 236
Swept wings (15)
• Variable sweep wings
– But the extra mechanisms are heavy
Tornado
Tupolev Tu160
Rockwell B1
Grumman F14
MiG23
Aerodynamics 2009/2010 Page 238
Swept wings (17)
• Delta wings
– Delta wings are a special form of swept wing pioneered by Lippisch
– The wing leading edge remains behind the shock wave generated by the nose of the aircraft when flying at supersonic speeds
– While this is also true of ordinary swept wings, the delta's planform carries across the entire aircraft which has structural advantages
– Another advantage is vortex lift
– Beyond a certain angle of attack, the wing leading edge generates a stable vortex which remains attached to the upper surface of the wing
– This gives delta wings a relatively high stall angle
Convair XF92
Lippisch P.13
– It occurs due to
adverse pressure
gradients acting
on the vortex
– When the vortex
burst occurs on
the wing (as
opposed to
downstream of the
wing) the lift drops
substantially.