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Piping Design Training

Day One

Training Outline
PTI Piping Design Training Schedule
Time Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
Introductions / Piping
8:00 - 9:00 Exchangers Compressors
Basic Components Vessel Orientation
9:00 - 10:00 Basic Pipe Supports Furnaces
Utility Stations /
Basic Piping Piperack and Offsites Towers
10:00 - 11:00 Safety Showers /
Instruments Piping
Miscellaneous Piping
11:00 - 12:00 Lunch Lunch Lunch Lunch
Pipe Drafting and Piperack and Offsites
12:00 - 1:00 Towers Basic Piping Stress
Design Piping
Basic Material
1:00 - 2:00 Plant Layout Drums Reactors
2:00 - 3:00 Break Break Break Break
3:00 - 4:00 Plant Layout Pumps Tanks Exercise
4:00 - 5:00 Exercise Exercise Exercise Close-out

At the end of today’s session:

Participants would be able to identify Basic Piping Components,
Supports, and Instruments

Participants will be familiar with the basic piping drafting standards

Participants will be able to perform basic plan layout

Basic Piping Components
▸What is the definition of a Pipe?

▸Pipe is a term used to designate a hollow, tubular body used to
transport any commodity possessing flow characteristics such as
those found in liquids, gases, vapors, liquefied solids, and fine

copper. aluminum. and steel alloys. cast iron.5 Basic Piping Components ▸Steel Pipe History ▸Using the natural resources available. ▸Today. brass. ▸Needing to move larger amounts of water. carbon steel. early humans probably fashioned the first pipe from bamboo. . lead. glass. they later hollowed out logs. Some of the materials include concrete. Egyptian and Aztec civilizations made pipe from clay. ▸The first metallic pipes were made by the Greeks and Romans from lead and bronze. plastic.

tubular body used to transport any commodity possessing flow characteristics such as those found in liquids. Material b. Method of Joining . and fine powders. liquefied solids.6 Basic Piping Components ▸What is the definition of a Pipe? ▸Pipe is a term used to designate a hollow. Size (NPS. vapors. Manufacturing Method c. Wall thickness) d. ▸There are four different ways to categorize pipes: a. gases.

near-molten. steel rod.7 Basic Piping Components ▸Pipe Manufacturing Methods ▸Seamless Pipe . with a mandrel to produce a pipe that has no seams or joints . called a formed by piercing a solid.

is formed by feeding hot steel plate through shapers that will roll it into a hollow circular shape .8 Basic Piping Components ▸Pipe Manufacturing Methods ▸Butt-welded Pipe .

similar to a barber's pole. then welding where the edges join one another to form a seam.9 Basic Piping Components ▸Pipe Manufacturing Methods ▸Spiral-welded Pipe – is formed by twisting strips of metal into a spiral shape. .

10 Basic Piping Components ▸Pipe Manufacturing Methods ▸In Summary: .

11 Basic Piping Components ▸Pipe Manufacturing Methods ▸In Summary: .

12 Basic Piping Components ▸Pipe Manufacturing Methods ▸In Summary: .

13 Basic Piping Components ▸Pipe Manufacturing Methods ▸In Summary: .

outside diameter. there are also different ways to categorize the size of a pipe. Pipe is identified by three different size categories: nominal pipe size.14 Basic Piping Components ▸Sizing of Pipe ▸Just as manufacturing methods differ. and inside diameter .

15 Basic Piping Components ▸Wall Thickness .

Nominal Pipe Size ▸DN – Diametre Nominal .16 Basic Piping Components ▸Sizing of Pipe ▸NPS .

17 Basic Piping Components ▸Method of Joining ▸Butt-weld Connections . but rather are cut or ground to have a tapered edge. Beveled ends (BE) indicate that the ends of the pipe are not cut square.made by welding the beveled ends of pipe together. .

Typically used on pipe 3" and smaller. . threaded connections are generally referred to as screwed pipe.18 Basic Piping Components ▸Method of Joining ▸Screwed or Threaded Connections . screwed pipe and screwed fittings can easily be assembled without welding or other permanent means of attachment. With tapered grooves cut into the ends of a run of pipe.

19 Basic Piping Components ▸Method of Joining ▸American Standard and API Thread Engagement .

the pipe is inserted into the fitting before welding. Inside the socket-weld fitting is a collar that prevents the pipe from being inserted too deeply into the fitting .20 Basic Piping Components ▸Method of Joining ▸Socket-Weld Connections . unlike a butt-weld connection that has the pipe and fitting placed end-to-end.

21 Basic Piping Components ▸Method of Joining ▸Forged Steel Socket Weld Fittings .

These specifications. or make a reduction in line size (reducer) . branch from a main more commonly called. may also require pipe smaller pipe (tee).22 Basic Piping Components ▸Fittings ▸Fittings are fabricated pieces of pipe that are used to connections. as they are make changes of direction (elbow). or specs.

23 Basic Piping Components .

24 Basic Piping Components .

25 Basic Piping Components .

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27 Basic Piping Components .

28 Basic Piping Components ▸Elbows ▸Of all the fittings. ▸ 2 Types of Elbows 90 Deg Ell 45 Deg Ell . the elbow. the elbow is the one most often used. Simply put. or ell. is used when a pipe changes direction.

29 Basic Piping Components ▸ 90 Deg Elbows ▸Turns at a 90 degrees ▸Ninety degree ells can be classified as one of the following: long-radius ell short-radius ell mitered ell reducing ell .

30 Basic Piping Components ▸ Long Radius 90 Deg Elbows .

31 Basic Piping Components ▸ Short Radius 90 Deg Elbows .

32 Basic Piping Components ▸ Mitred 90 Deg Elbows .

33 Basic Piping Components ▸45 Deg Elbows ▸The obvious difference between the 90° and 45° elbows is the angle formed by the turn .

34 Basic Piping Components ▸Branch Fittings ▸Fittings used for header to branch connections ▸Types: Welded Tees Stub-on O lets .

35 Basic Piping Components ▸Weld Tees ▸It is a three-way fitting used to make perpendicular connections to a pipe ▸2 Types of Welded Tees Straight Tee Reducing Tee .

36 Basic Piping Components ▸Stub-On ▸The stub-in is not an actual fitting but rather a description of how the branch connection is created .

It is slipped on to the branch pipe then welded to both branch and header. .37 Basic Piping Components ▸Stub-On Reinforcements ▸Reinforcing pad ▸Is a ring cut from steel plate that has a hole in the center equal to the diameter of the branch connection.

38 Basic Piping Components .

39 Basic Piping Components ▸Stub-On Reinforcements ▸Welding Saddle ▸The welding saddle has a short neck designed to give additional support to the branch .

40 Basic Piping Components ▸O lets ▸O-lets have one end shaped to the contour of the header and the other end manufactured to accept the type of end connections being used on the branch. ▸Types: Weldolet Sockolet Threadolet Latrolet Elbolet .

41 Basic Piping Components ▸O lets ▸Weldolet – butt-weld fittings .

42 Basic Piping Components ▸O lets ▸Sockolet – socket weld fittings .

43 Basic Piping Components ▸O lets ▸Threadolet – screwed fittings .

44 Basic Piping Components ▸O lets ▸Latrolet – Used when branch off is at an angle from the header .

45 Basic Piping Components ▸O lets ▸Elbolet – Used when branch off is at an elbow fitting .

46 Basic Piping Components ▸Reducers ▸Used when there is a requirement to reduce the diameter of a straight run of pipe ▸Types: Concentric Eccentric .

Basic Piping Components

▸Concentric - having a common centerline

Basic Piping Components

▸Eccentric - having offset centerlines.

Basic Piping Components
▸Miscellaneous Fittings


Basic Piping Components
▸Miscellaneous Fittings

▸Coupling - its primary use is to connect lengths of screwed and
socket-weld pipe together.

repair.Basic Piping Components ▸Miscellaneous Fittings ▸Union . .fitting placed within a piping configuration that will allow the assembly to be disassembled for inspection. or replacement.

.52 Basic Piping Components ▸Miscellaneous Fittings ▸Cap – It is used to seal an open end of pipe.

53 Basic Piping Components ▸Miscellaneous Fittings ▸Plug . like a cap. .The plug. is designed to close off the end of a run of pipe.

MTBE) . TBE. TOE. (PE. small lengths of pipe called pipe nipples are used between fittings.54 Basic Piping Components ▸Miscellaneous Fittings ▸Nipple – facilitate the assembly of screwed and socket-weld fittings.

900#.55 Basic Piping Components ▸Flanges ▸The flange is a ring-shaped device designed to be used as an alternative to welding or threading various piping system components used throughout the piping system. 400#. ▸Categorized into Rating. Face. ring type joint . and Type ▸Rating are 150#. 300#. 600#. ▸Face are flat face. raised face. 1500#. and 2500#.

56 Basic Piping Components ▸Flat face flange .

57 Basic Piping Components ▸Raised face flange .

58 Basic Piping Components ▸Ring Joint face flange .

59 Basic Piping Components ▸Flange ▸Types: Weld Neck Slip-On Threaded Lap-Joint Reducing Blind Orifice .

60 Basic Piping Components ▸Weld Neck Flange – the weld neck flange is the best-designed butt weld flange available because of its inherent structural value and ease of assembly. .

61 Basic Piping Components ▸Slip-on Flange – Has a low hub that allows the pipe to be inserted into the flange prior to welding .

but the bore is threaded .62 Basic Piping Components ▸Threaded Flange – similar to the slip-on flange.

63 Basic Piping Components ▸Lap-joint Flange – Attachment of the lap-joint flange to the piping system requires a lap-joint stub end. .

.64 Basic Piping Components ▸Reducing Flange – is used to make a reduction in the diameter of the pipe.

65 Basic Piping Components ▸Blind Flange – serves a function similar to that of a plug or cap. . It is used to terminate the end of a piping system.

66 Basic Piping Components ▸Orifice Flange – the function of the orifice flange is to measure the rate of the flow of the commodity through the piping system .

nozzles.67 Basic Piping Components ▸Bolts – holds mating flanges. or valves together .

68 Basic Piping Components ▸Gasket – Creates a leak-proof seal between two mating flanges .

69 Basic Piping Components ▸Spectacle Blind / Spacer – are similar to a blind flange but different because they fit between two flanges. .

▸Common Types of Valves Gate Valve Ball Valve Globe Valve Butterfly Valve Check Valve Relief Valve Needle Valve .70 Basic Piping Components ▸Valves ▸Is a device that controls the flow of a fluid.

71 Basic Piping Components ▸Gate Valve ▸most common type of valve in the industry ▸Opens by lifting a gate out of the route of the fluid ▸Main purpose is a “shut-off valve” meaning it is either fully open or close .

72 Basic Piping Components ▸Gate Valve .

and the rotating ball opens or closes the flow ▸Ball valves for manual control are therefore best suited for stopping and starting flow and moderate throttling .73 Basic Piping Components ▸Ball Valve ▸Uses a ball with a hole in it instead of a wedge shaped plug.

74 Basic Piping Components ▸Ball Valve .

It is customary to refer to the closure member as a disc.75 Basic Piping Components ▸Globe Valve ▸Closing down valves in which the closure member is moved squarely on and off the seat. irrespective of its shape ▸Globe valves are used for regulating flow in a pipeline instead of the “all or nothing” function of a gate valve .

76 Basic Piping Components ▸Globe Valve .

77 Basic Piping Components ▸Butterfly Valve ▸Also designed to regulate flow but with limited control capability ▸Has not generally been thought to give a positive shut-off .

78 Basic Piping Components ▸Check Valve ▸Also called Non Return Valves (NRV) ▸Permit fluid in one direction only ▸Purpose is to prevent backflow ▸Types are Lift (Ball type and Piston type). Diaphragm . Swing.

79 Basic Piping Components ▸Check Valve .

80 Basic Piping Components ▸Relief Valve ▸Also known as safety valve is an industrial valve and fitting installed to set a limit on the amount of pressure in a system. ▸This type of angle supply valve is strictly for preventing over- pressure that could cause damage to the system .

81 Basic Piping Components ▸Relief Valve .

82 Basic Piping Components ▸Needle Valve ▸Essentially a variation of the globe valve used for very fine control of flow ▸Needle valve contain a slender tapered plug as opposed to the globe valves larger and less accurate disc .

and Routing of Pipes shall be based on: ▸Economics ▸Safety ▸Maintenance ▸Operation ▸Construction .83 Plant Layout ▸Relationship of Units. Location of Equipment.