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Dr. Tamer A. Tabet Course Code: KT20302 Sems.-1-2010 Wed. 28/7/2010 Lecture Room: DKP A1

Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet

Chapter 1 Getting Started: Introductory Concepts and Definitions

Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet

Nomenclature

A CP CV COP d E e F g H h h

area (m2) specific heat at constant pressure (kJ/(kgK)) specific heat at constant volume (kJ/(kgK)) coefficient of performance exact differential stored energy (kJ) stored energy per unit mass (kJ/kg) force (N) acceleration of gravity ( 9.807 m/s2) enthalpy (H= U + PV) (kJ) specific enthalpy (h= u + Pv) (kJ/kg) convective heat transfer coefficient (W/(m2K)

K k k kt M M m N n

L Lth

P Pa

Kelvin degrees specific heat ratio, CP/CV 103 thermal conductivity (W/(m-rC)) molecular weight or molar mass (kg/kmol) 106 mass (kg) moles (kmol) polytropic exponent (isentropic process, ideal gas n = k) isentropic efficiency for turbines, compressors, nozzles thermal efficiency (net work done/heat added) pressure (kPa, MPa, psia, psig) Pascal (N/m2)

3

R) internal energy (kJ) specific internal energy (kJ/(kg K)) volume (m3 ) volume flow rate (m3/s) velocity (m/s) specific volume (m3/kg) molar specific volume (m3/kmol) X X x Z Wnet wnet Wt I V [ distance (m) exergy (kJ) quality elevation (m) net work done [(§Wout §Win)other + Wb] (kJ) where Wb = for closed systems and 0 for control volumes Wnet /m.314 kJ/(kmolK) ) entropy (kJ/K) specific entropy (kJ/(kgK)) temperature ( rC. net work done per unit mass (kJ/kg) weight (N) inexact differential regenerator effectiveness relative humidity density (kg/m3) humidity ratio 4 .§Qout) (kJ) Qnet /m.Nomenclature con t u Qnet qnet S s T U u V V V T v v net heat transfer (§Qin . rF. K. net heat transfer per unit mass (kJ/kg) particular gas constant (kJ/(kgK)) universal gas constant (= 8.

adiabatic saturation value constant volume initial state finial state inlet state exit state per unit time 5 .Subscripts. superscripts actual boundary saturated liquid state saturated vapor state saturated vapor value minus saturated liquid value gen generation H high temperature HP heat pump L low temperature net net heat added to system or net work done by system other work done by shaft and electrical means A B F G fg P REF rev s sat v 1 2 i e constant pressure refrigerator reversible isentropic or constant entropy or reversible.

This review of thermodynamics is based on the macroscopic approach where a large number of particles. which involve heat and work. The macroscopic approach to thermodynamics does not require knowledge of the behavior of individual particles and is called classical thermodynamics. energy cannot be created or destroyed. energy can change from one form to another but the total amount of energy remains constant. is called statistical thermodynamics. based on the average behavior of large groups of individual particles. 6 .INTRODUCTION The study of thermodynamics is concerned with the ways energy is stored within a body and how energy transformations. may take place. That is. It provides a direct and easy way to obtain the solution of engineering problems without being overly cumbersome. A more elaborate approach. and actual processes occur in the direction of decreasing quality of energy. called molecules. We will approach the second law of thermodynamics from the classical point of view and will learn that the second law of thermodynamics asserts that energy has quality as well as quantity. This microscopic approach is rather involved and is not reviewed here and leads to the definition of the second law of thermodynamics. It simply states that during an energy interaction. make up the substance in question. One of the most fundamental laws of nature is the conservation of energy principle.

Tabet .Introduction: Chapter 1 Thermodynamics is the study of energy It covers a wide range of applications we choose the system of interest The surroundings are external to our system of interest Copyright © Tamer A.

wind to electrical etc. heat to electrical.Important Terms and Types of thermodynamic Systems Here are some important terms which are found frequently in the subject area of thermodynamics and various types of system. Tabet . Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics is the branch of science or physics that studies various forms of energies and their conversion from one to the other like electrical energy to mechanical energy. chemical to mechanical. Copyright © Tamer A.

There are three types of system: closed system. Surroundings or environment: Everything external to the matter or space. open system and isolated system. Copyright © Tamer A.System: A quantity of the matter or part of the space which is under thermodynamic study is called as system. Boundary: The boundary that separates the system and surrounding is called as system boundary. Tabet . The system boundary may be fixed or moving. which is under thermodynamic study is called surroundings or environment.

Isolated system: The system in which both the mass as well as energy content remains constant is called an isolated system. In this system no mass or energy transfer takes place across the boundary.Closed system: The system of fixed mass across the boundary of which no mass transfer can take place is called as closed system. Tabet . An example is fluid being compressed by the piston in cylinder. However. across the closed system the energy transfer may take place. Copyright © Tamer A. A special type of closed system that does not interact in any way with its surroundings is called an isolated system.

Tabet Figure 1: Closed system: A gas in a piston-cylinder assembly.Closed System (Control Mass) No mass can cross system boundary Energy may cross system boundary Volume is NOT fixed Copyright © Tamer A. .

An example is an air compressor. Figure 2: Example of a control volume (open system): An automobile engine .Open system: The system across the boundary of which transfer of both mass as well as energy can take place across the boundary is called as open system.

Open System/Control Volume Mass may cross system boundary (control surface) Volume may/may not be fixed Energy may cross system boundary Control Volumes may operate at steady state. or change with time (empty/fill) Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet .

Systems may be considered to be closed or open. The region outside the system is called the surroundings. or simply system. Copyright © Tamer A. depending on whether a fixed mass or a fixed volume in space is chosen for study. and Isolated Systems A thermodynamic system. Open. The boundary of a system may be fixed or movable. Tabet . is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary. Surroundings are physical space outside the system boundary.Closed.

However. The closed system boundary may move. Tabet . Copyright © Tamer A. Examples of closed systems are sealed tanks and piston cylinder devices (note the volume does not have to be fixed). energy in the form of heat and work may cross the boundaries of a closed system.A closed system consists of a fixed amount of mass and no mass may cross the system boundary.

called a control surface. turbines. or control volume. and heat exchangers. Tabet .An open system. Isolated System Boundary Heat = 0 Work = 0 Mass = 0 Across Isolated Boundary Work Surr 4 Mass Surr 1 Surr 2 System Heat Mass Surr 3 Copyright © Tamer A. has mass as well as energy crossing the boundary. An isolated system is a closed system with no energy crossing the boundaries and is normally a collection of a main system and its surroundings that are exchanging mass and energy among themselves and no other system. An isolated system is a general system of fixed mass where no heat or work may cross the boundaries. compressors. Examples of open systems are pumps. valves.

Intensive. Tabet . & Specific Temperature [T]) Specific: Extensive/mass (Specific Volume [v]) Copyright © Tamer A. Extensive: Depend on carries both a numerical mass/size of system value and set of units (Volume [V]) 3 Types of Intensive: Independent thermodynamics of system mass/size properties: Extensive. (Pressure [P].Properties System characteristic.

Copyright © Tamer A. Properties of the system: The characteristics by which the physical condition of the system is described are called as properties of system. volume etc and are called as properties of system. Tabet . temperature. The system properties are of two types: extensive and intensive properties.State of the system: The present status of the system described in terms of properties such as pressure. pressure. and volume is called the state of system. Some examples of these characteristics are: temperature.

Extensive properties of system: The properties of the system that depend on the mass or quantity of the system are called extensive properties. volume. internal energy. temperature of the system. entropy etc. density. enthalpy. Some of the examples of intensive properties are: freezing point temperature. specific volume etc. Tabet . boiling point. Intensive properties of the system: These properties do not depend on the quantity of matter of the system. Some examples of extensive properties are: mass. Copyright © Tamer A.

total energy d. and mass m. Some thermodynamic properties are pressure P. mass b. Properties may be intensive or extensive. temperature T. volume c. The property is independent of the path used to arrive at the system condition. it is extremely important that we recognize the type of system we have before we start analyzing it.Since some of the thermodynamic relations that are applicable to closed and open systems are different. volume V. mass © dependent property Copyright Tamer A. Extensive properties are those that vary directly with size--or extent--of the system. Some Extensive Properties a. Tabet . Properties of a System Any characteristic of a system in equilibrium is called a property.

color e. Tabet .Intensive properties are those that are independent of size. defined as Volume V ¨ m3 ¸ v! ! © ¹ © kg ¹ mass mª º Copyright © Tamer A. For example. Some Intensive Properties a. the specific volume v. temperature b. age d. any mass independent property Extensive properties per unit mass are intensive properties. pressure c.

Tabet .and density V. Copyright © Tamer A. defined as mass m ¨ kg ¸ V © 3¹ volume V ª m º are intensive properties.

Copyright © Tamer A.Question 1: Illustrate the difference between extensive and intensive properties. Tabet .

Definitions

State: Condition of a system as defined by its properties Process: Change a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another Cycle: Series of processes that return system to initial state

Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet

** Special Types of Processes:
**

± ± ± ± ± Isothermal Isobaric Isometric Isentropic Adiabatic

isometric process, or isovolumetric, is a Thermodynamic process during which the volume of the closed system undergoing such process remains constant. Adiabatic and Isothermal process: Adiabatic means without any transfer of heat, and isothermal means having only one constant temperature. isobaric- constant pressure

Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet

Many chemical reactions release energy in the form of heat, light, or sound. These are exothermic reactions. Exothermic reactions may occur spontaneously and result in higher randomness or entropy ( S > 0) of the system. They are denoted by a negative heat flow (heat is lost to the surroundings) and decrease in enthalpy ( H < 0). In the lab, exothermic reactions produce heat or may even be explosive.

Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet

Endothermic reactions are characterized by positive heat flow (into the reaction) and an increase in enthalpy (+ H). Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet . When endothermic reactions absorb energy. a temperature drop is measured during the reaction. Work must be done in order to get these reactions to occur. These are endothermic reactions.There are other chemical reactions that must absorb energy in order to proceed. Endothermic reactions cannot occur spontaneously.

Tabet .Examples of Endothermic and Exothermic Processes Photosynthesis is an example of an endothermic chemical reaction. plants use the energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. This reaction requires 15MJ of energy (sunlight) for every kilogram of glucose that is produced sunlight + 6CO2(g) + H2O(l) = C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) Copyright © Tamer A. In this process.

An example of an exothermic reaction is the mixture of sodium and chlorine to yield table salt. Tabet .5Cl2(s) = NaCl(s) Copyright © Tamer A. This reaction produces 411 kJ of energy for each mole of salt that is produced: Na(s) + 0.

Isentropic Process: In thermodynamics. a process involving change without any increase or decrease of entropy. During a reversible process the quantity of heat transferred is directly proportional to the system's entropy change. such processes are called adiabatic. Since the entropy always increases in a spontaneous process. For this reason the isentropic process is sometimes called the reversible adiabatic process. Copyright © Tamer A. one must consider reversible or quasistatic processes. Tabet . Thus during an isentropic process there are no dissipative effects and the system neither absorbs nor gives off heat. Systems which are thermally insulated from their surroundings undergo processes without any heat transfer.

relative to hotness and coldness Must use absolute temperature scales (oR. K) Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet .Pressure and Temperature P = Force/Area Types: ± Absolute ± Gage (Vacuum) ± Atmospheric Pabs ! Pgage Patm Measure of thermal energy.

Phase and Pure Substance Phase: The term phase refers to a quantity of matter that is homogeneous throughout in both chemical composition and physical structure. but its chemical composition must be the same in each phase. Homogeneity in physical structure means that the matter is all solid or all liquid. a pure substance can exist in more than one phase. or all vapor (or equivalently all gas). Tabet . Copyright © Tamer A. A pure Substance: Is one that is uniform and invariable in chemical composition.

or complete equilibrium. In thermodynamics. Tabet . In mechanics. equilibrium means a condition of balance maintained by an equality of opposing force. Equilibrium state: Copyright © Tamer A. including not only balance of forces but also a balance of another influences refers to a particular aspects of thermodynamics.Equilibrium The concept Equilibrium is fundamental. the concept is more far-reaching.

Copyright © Tamer A. If there are no changes. Tabet . we conclude that the system was in equilibrium at the moment it was isolated. Equilibrium state: We may think of testing to see if a system is in thermodynamics equilibrium by the following procedure: Isolate the system from its surroundings and watch for changes in its observable properties. Quasiequilibrium Process: Is the process in which the departure from thermodynamics equilibrium is at most infinitesimal .

The system of units selected for this course is the SI System..e. In SI. we must learn to use units carefully and properly. Since units present a major hindrance to the correct solution of thermodynamic problems. also known as the International System (sometimes called the metric system). We consider force to be a derived unit from Newton's second law. The unit check is the simplest of all engineering checks that can be made for a given solution. and time are the kilogram (kg). Tabet . and second (s). length. Force ! (mass)(acceleration) F ! ma Copyright © Tamer A. respectively. i.Units An important component to the solution of any engineering thermodynamic problem requires the proper use of units. meter (m). the units of mass.

Comparison of the United States Customary System (USCS). m 1N ! (1kg )(1 2 ) s This definition of the newton is used as the basis of the conversion factor to convert mass-acceleration units to force units. That is.807 m/s2 at sea level and 45rlatitude). Wt = mg where m is the mass of the body and g is the local gravitational acceleration (g is 9. Unlike mass. where V is density. the force unit is the newton (N). the engineer must work in other systems of units. or English System. Tabet . and its magnitude is determined from Newton's second law.In SI. and the slug system of units with the SI system is shown below. weight Wt is a force. Oftentimes. The weight of a unit volume of a substance is called the specific weight w and is determined from w = V g. Copyright © Tamer A. The term weight is often misused to express mass. and it is defined as the force required to accelerate a mass of 1 kg at a rate of 1 m/s2. Weight is the gravitational force applied to a body.

or English System. Tabet . and the slug system of units with the SI system is shown below. SI Mass Time Lengt h Force Kilogram (kg) Second (s) Meter (m) Newton (N) USCS Pound-mass (lbm) Second (s) Foot (ft) Slug Slug-mass (slug) Second (s) Foot (ft) Pound-force (lbf) Pound-force (lbf) Copyright © Tamer A.Comparison of the United States Customary System (USCS).

Time and Force SI Units: SI base units The SI is founded on seven SI base units for seven base quantities assumed to be mutually independent. Tabet . as given in Table 1 Copyright © Tamer A. Length.Measuring Mass.

Tabet .Table 1. SI base units Base quantity length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity meter kilogram second ampere kelvin Name m kg s A K Symbol mole candela mol cd Copyright © Tamer A.

Copyright © Tamer A. where it should be noted that the symbol 1 for quantities of dimension 1 such as mass fraction is generally omitted. called derived quantities. The SI derived units for these derived quantities are obtained from these equations and the seven SI base units. Examples of such SI derived units are given in Table 2. Tabet .SI derived units Other quantities. are defined in terms of the seven base quantities via a system of quantity equations.

Tabet Name square meter cubic meter meter per second meter per second squared reciprocal meter kilogram per cubic meter cubic meter per kilogram ampere per square meter ampere per meter mole per cubic meter candela per square meter Symbol m2 m3 m/s m/s2 m-1 kg/m3 m3/kg A/m2 A/m mol/m3 cd/m2 kilogram per kilogram. Examples of SI derived units SI derived unit Derived quantity area volume speed.Table 2. velocity acceleration wave number mass density specific volume current density magnetic field strength amount-of-substance concentration luminance mass fraction Copyright © Tamer A. which may be kg/kg = 1 represented by the number 1 .

Table 3. quantity of joule J N·m m2·kg·s-2 heat power. SI derived units with special names and symbols SI derived unit Expression Expression in terms of in terms of Derived quantity Name Symbol other SI units SI base units plane angle radian (a) rad m·m-1 = 1 (b) solid angle steradian (a) sr (c) m2·m-2 = 1 (b) frequency hertz Hz s-1 force newton N m·kg·s-2 pressure. pascal Pa N/m2 m-1·kg·s-2 stress energy. work. Tabet . radiant watt W J/s m2·kg·s-3 flux Copyright © Tamer A.

Tabet coulomb C - s·A volt V W/A m2·kg·s-3·A-1 farad ohm siemens weber tesla henry degree Celsius F C/V V/A m-2·kg-1·s4·A2 m2·kg·s-3·A-2 m-2·kg-1·s3·A2 m2·kg·s-2·A-1 kg·s-2·A-1 m2·kg·s-2·A-2 K S Wb T H °C A/V V·s Wb/m2 Wb/A - . electromotive force capacitance electric resistance electric conductance magnetic flux magnetic flux density inductance Celsius Copyright © temperature Tamer A.electric charge. quantity of electricity electric potential difference.

gray Gy specific energy (imparted). Tabet .luminous flux lume lm n lux lx cd·sr m2·m-2·cd = (c) cd lm/m2 m2·m-4·cd = m-2·cd s-1 illuminance activity (of a radionuclide) becq Bq uerel absorbed dose. kerma dose equivalent (d) siev Sv ert catalytic activity katal kat J/kg m2·s-2 J/kg m2·s-2 s-1·mol Copyright © Tamer A.

Tabet The radian and steradian may be used advantageously in expressions for derived units to distinguish between quantities of a different nature but of the same dimension.Copyright © Tamer A. personal dose equivalent. (a) . but the derived unit "1" is generally omitted. (c) In photometry. (b) In practice. the unit name steradian and the unit symbol sr are usually retained in expressions for derived units. directional dose equivalent. and organ equivalent dose. (d) Other quantities expressed in sieverts are ambient dose equivalent. the symbols rad and sr are used where appropriate. some examples are given in Table 4.

b) Find the weight of this object on the moon where the local gravitational acceleration is one-sixth that of earth. Tabet .8 N Note the use of the conversion factor to convert mass-acceleration units into force units.Example 1-1 An object at sea level has a mass of 400 kg. (a) Wt ! mg m 1N Wt ! ( 400kg )9. a) Find the weight of this object on earth. Copyright © Tamer A.807 2 s kg m s2 ! 3922.

Wt ! mg ! (180 lbm)(30 ! 167. Tabet 1 lbf ft )( ) 2 s 32.(b) Wt ! mg 9. Find the weight of this object at a location where the local gravitational acceleration is 30 ft/s2.8 N Example 1-2E An object has a mass of 180 lbm.2 lbm ft s2 .7 lbf Copyright © Tamer A.807 m 1N ! (400kg ) 6 s 2 kg m s2 ! 653.

Quiz time !!!! .

determine the distance between the two fluid levels of the manometer if the fluid is mercury. . whose density is 13. If the pressure gage reads 80 kPa.600 kg/m3.Both a gage and a manometer are attached to a gas tank to measure its pressure.

Specific volume may be expressed in: . The specific volume of a substance is equal to the reciprocal of its mass density. Copyright © Tamer A.Specific Volume Specific volume ( ) is the volume occupied by a unit of mass of a material. or where. V is the volume. Tabet is the density of the . m is the mass and material.

Specific volume may also refer to molar volume.T is the temperature and P is the pressure of the gas.For an ideal gas. Tabet . where. Copyright © Tamer A. is the Specific gas constant .

ice and liquid water. The properties can be measured or calculated throughout the entire system. in equilibrium) and chemical equilibrium. Equilibrium A system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium if it maintains thermal (uniform temperature). Copyright © Tamer A. Process. Tabet 52 .State. changing one property changes the state..g. At a given state all of the properties are known. This gives us a set of properties that completely describe the condition or state of the system. e. mechanical (uniform pressure). and Properties State Consider a system that is not undergoing any change. phase (the mass of two phases. Equilibrium.

In most of the processes that we will study. Tabet Property held constant pressure temperature volume entropy (see Chapter 7) Constant Pressure Process System Boundary F Water .Process Any change from one state to another is called a process. Some of these processes are Process isobaric isothermal isochoric isentropic Copyright © Tamer A. We study quasi-equilibrium processes because they are easy to analyze (equations of state apply) and work-producing devices deliver the most work when they operate on the quasi-equilibrium process. one thermodynamic property is held constant. During a quasi-equilibrium or quasi-static process the system remains practically in equilibrium at all times.

Tabet . then F is constant and the pressure is constant even when the water is heated. If the combined weight of the piston and bricks is constant. The force exerted by the water on the face of the piston has to equal the force due to the combined weight of the piston and the bricks.We can understand the concept of a constant pressure process by considering the above figure. We often show the process on a P-V diagram as shown below. Copyright © Tamer A.

State Postulate As noted earlier. But by experience not all properties must be known before the state is specified. but at any fixed point the properties remain the same during the entire process. The fluid properties can change from point to point with in the control volume. Once a sufficient number of properties are known. Copyright © Tamer A. intensive properties. The number of properties required to fix the state of a simple. homogeneous system is given by the state postulate: The thermodynamic state of a simple compressible system is completely specified by two independent. the state of a system is described by its properties. The term uniform implies no change with location over a specified region. The flow is often defined by the terms steady and uniform. the state is specified and all other properties are known. Engineering flow devices that operate for long periods of time under the same conditions are classified as steady-flow devices. Tabet . The processes for these devices is called the steady-flow process. The term steady implies that there are no changes with time.Steady-Flow Process Consider a fluid flowing through an open system or control volume such as a water heater.

and its unit is the pascal. Below is a cycle composed of two processes.Cycle A process (or a series of connected processes) with identical end states is called a cycle. Copyright © Tamer A. in the English system. P 2 Process B Process A 1 V Pressure Force per unit area is called pressure. the pressure and volume change from state 2 back to the initial state 1 along process B. lbf/in2 absolute. Keep in mind that all other thermodynamic properties must also change so that the pressure is a function of volume as described by these two processes. Tabet . A and B. in the SI system and psia. Then to complete the cycle. the pressure and volume change from state 1 to state 2. Along process A. N/m2.

In the English system the absolute pressure and gage pressures are distinguished by their units. respectively. Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet . psia (pounds force per square inch absolute) and psig (pounds force per square inch gage). However. called gage or vacuum pressures. however. the SI system makes no distinction between absolute and gage pressures. pressures are often measured relative to atmospheric pressure.P! Force F ! Area A N m2 N 1 MPa ! 106 2 ! 103 kPa m 1 kPa ! 103 The pressure used in all calculations of state is the absolute pressure measured relative to absolute zero pressure.

Tabet . Copyright © Tamer A. and vacuum pressures is shown below.These pressures are related by Pgage ! Pabs Patm Pvac ! Patm Pabs Or these last two results may be written as Pabs ! Patm s Pgage Where the +Pgage is used when Pabs > Patm and ±Pgage is used for a vacuum gage. gage. The relation among atmospheric.

see the text. Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet . 14. For further study of the manometer pressure relations.101325 MPa. and 29.325 kPa.Some values of 1 atm of pressure are 101. This pressure difference is determined from the manometer fluid displaced height as (P ! gh ( kPa ) The text gives an extensive review of the manometer pressure relations. 0.92 inches H2O.696 psia. Small to moderate pressure differences are measured by a manometer and a differential fluid column of height h corresponds to a pressure difference between the system and the surroundings of the manometer. Other devices for measuring pressure differences are shown below. 760 mmHg.

Tabet ! 98 kPa 30 kPa ! 68 kPa .Example 1-3 A vacuum gage connected to a tank reads 30 kPa at a location where the atmospheric pressure is 98 kPa. What is the absolute pressure in the tank? Pabs ! Patm Pgage Copyright © Tamer A.

3 psia 101.7 psia ! 340 kPa ! 49.3 kPa Pgage ! Pabs Patm What is the gage pressure of the air in the tire.3 psia 14. in psig? ! 49. What is the absolute pressure in the tire.6 psig Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet . in kPa and in psia? Pabs ! Patm Pgage ! 100 kPa 240 kPa ! 340 kPa The pressure in psia is Pabs 14.Example 1-4 A pressure gage connected to a valve stem of a truck tire reads 240 kPa at a location where the atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa.7 psia ! 34.

(P h! Vg 103 N / m2 80 kPa kPa h! 1N kg m 13600 3 9. If the pressure gage reads 80 kPa.600 kg/m3. What is the maximum allowed pressure? Is this pressure in gage or absolute values? Example 1-5 Both a gage and a manometer are attached to a gas tank to measure its pressure.807 2 m s kg m / s2 ! 0.Check the side walls of the tires on your car or truck. whose density is 13. determine the distance between the two fluid levels of the manometer if the fluid is mercury.6 m Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet .

The temperature scales used in the SI and the English systems today are the Celsius scale and Fahrenheit scale.´ it is not easy to give an exact definition of it.Temperature Although we are familiar with temperature as a measure of ³hotness´ or ³coldness. respectively. Two bodies are in thermal equilibrium when they have reached the same temperature. temperature is considered as a thermodynamic property that is the measure of the energy content of a mass. However. These two scales are based on a specified number of degrees between the freezing point of water ( 0rC or 32rF) and the boiling point of water (100rC or 212rF) and are related by Tr F 9 T r C 32 5 Copyright © Tamer A. Tabet . to flow from a hot body to a cold body. the body's energy content increases and so does its temperature. In fact it is the difference in temperature that causes energy. This simple fact is known as the zeroth law of thermodynamics. they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body. When heat energy is transferred to a body. called heat transfer.

The absolute scale in the SI system is the Kelvin scale.15 In the English system.67 Also. T = ( T r F 32) 5 5r C ! ( 212 32) r F ! 100r C 9 9r F Like pressure. note that TR Copyright © Tamer A. the absolute temperature scale is the Rankine scale.8 T K . Tabet 1. which is related to the Celsius scale by TK T r + 273. the temperature used in thermodynamic calculations must be in absolute units. which is related to the Fahrenheit scale by T R = T r F 459.Example 1-6 Water boils at 212 rF at one atmosphere pressure. At what temperature does water boil in rC.

K.975 K 373.975rC at 1 atm and not 100rC as was previously established.16 32.02 491.955 R 671.125 rF 211.69 Triple point of water -273. Copyright © Tamer A. 0.01 rC.Below is a comparison of the temperature scales. The magnitude of the kelvin.67 0 Absolute zero This figure shows that that according to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) the reference state for the thermodynamic temperature scale is the triple point of water.01 273. but the steam point is 99. The ice point is 0rC. Tabet .15 0 -459.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.625 Boiling point of water at 1 atm 0. rC 99. is 1/273.

eNd oF Lecture oNe THANK YOU .

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