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Mechanical Properties of Metals

and Alloys: Definitions and Units


• Stress  = F/A, MPa = 106 N/m2
• Strain  = L/Lo (engineering strain)
• Elastic Modulus or Young’s Modulus
E =  /  when  << 1
• Poisson Ratio  = - L / A
L

A

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Mechanical Properties of Metals
and Alloys: Definitions and Units
• Shear Stress  = F/A, MPa = 106 N/m2
• Shear Strain  = tan 
• Shear Modulus G =  /  when  << 1
F
E
A G
2(1  )
for linear elastic materials
F
F 

F 2
Young’s Modulus
• Measure of resistance against elastic
deformation
• Direction-dependent
– For iron, average E = 205 GPa;
– E(111) = 280 GPa; E(100) = 125 GPa

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Yield Strength
• Measure of the stress level at which
permanent or plastic deformation begins
• 0.2% offset yield strength defined for
metallic systems
Material Yield Strength (MPa)
Annealed 1100 Al alloys 35
Annealed 304 SS 200
Aged 7075 Al alloys 500
Ti-6Al-4V 800
17-7PH SS 1200 4
A “Typical” Stress-Strain Curve
True stress/strain
u Ultimate tensile strength
Eng. stress/strain
y Yield strength

QuickTime™ and a

Stress
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

0.2% strain
Strain

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Plastic Strain

     
tot el pl E pl


Stress

1 2 3

Strain

plastic strain elastic strain

total strain 6
Hardness
• Rockwell
• Vickers
• Knoop
• …..

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Vickers Hardness
• (4-face) Pyramidal diamond indentor
• Indent at load P
• Measure area Atotal = Aproj / cos 68o
• HV = P / Atotal

Indentor ( = 136o) Projected indented area 8


Plastic Deformation
• When stressed beyond elastic limit, metals
often develop slip bands
• Slip band due to sliding of crystallographic
planes

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Slip Bands
Side view

Top view

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

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200 
Critical Shear Stress
~0.5 R

2R

• Expect shear stress to initiate permanent or plastic


deformation to be about 1/4 G
• More precise analysis gives about 1/10 G
• Experiment: 1/100 to 1/1000 G
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Critical Shear Stress
Why is the actual shear strength so much smaller?
Reason: Presence of dislocations

• Atoms do not have to slide all at the same time


• Dislocation-free solids are much stronger (whiskers,
thin films, and small particles) 12
Key Points
• Low stress  elastic (reversible) deformation
• High stress  plastic (permanent)
deformation)
• For design  yield strength (0.2% offset YS),
which is related to hardness
• Strength less than expected  presence of
dislocations

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Strengthening Strategies
• Solid-solution strengthening
• Work- or strain-hardening
• Precipitation strengthening
• Grain refinement

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Solid-Solution Strengthening
• Impurity atoms tend to collect around dislocations
- reduction of elastic strain energy
• It costs energy to detach dislocations from
impurity atoms ---> solid-solution strengthening

400

Tensile
Strength
(MPa)

200
0 50 Ni %
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Advantage: no major loss of ductility
Work- or Strain-Hardening
• Plastic deformation increases the concentration of
dislocations
• Dislocations interfere the motion of other
dislocations
• Straining --> hardening Disadvantage: loss of ductility
400

Tensile
Strength
(MPa)

% cold work
200 16
0 50
Precipitation Strengthening
• Hard precipitates are obstacles against dislocation
motion
• Dislocations loop around hard precipitates
• Shear stress needed to loop around hard
precipitates is inversely proportional to the
distance between precipitates
• Yield strength  precipitate concentration
• Possible to increase strength without major loss of
ductility

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Lake Villa Bridge
using NUCu70W Steels

S. Vaynman and M.E. Fine


Steel Comp. Wt. %: 0.07 C, 1.36 Cu,
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0.89 Ni, 0.69 Mn, 0.40 Si, 0.04 Nb
Composition - 3D atom probe

Box dimension: 14  14  101 nm3


Composition: 1.36 Cu, 0.85 Ni, 0.45 Mn, 0.06 C
Solution-treated and directly aged to maximum strength at 500 C
Cu Ni (Fe not shown)

Precipitate is Cu-Fe alloy


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Isheim, Gagliano, Seidman and Fine
Grain Refinement
• Grain boundaries act as obstacles against
dislocation motion (due to different grain
orientations)
• Some grains less strained than others
• For grain size ~ 10 nm or less, no dislocation
• Ductility maintained

Hall-Petch relationship
y   o  kd1/ 2
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Enhanced Hardness in
Nanocrystalline Cu

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Creep
• Continued elongation at constant load
• High-temperature phenomenon for most structural
alloys (T ~ 0.3 - 0.5 Tm)
• For low Tm materials (Pb, Sn, In, polymers etc),
room temperature is high temperature

strain

time
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Coble Creep
applied stress

direction of
atomic
diffusion

grain boundary
under tension

grain boundary
under
compression
applied stress
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Nano or Not Nano
• Fine-grained metals are stronger than
coarse-grained metals at room temperature
• At high temperatures, fine-grained metals
are weaker because of creep

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Creep due to Dislocation Climb

• Dislocation-vacancy interaction
• Occurs even in single crystals
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Larsen-Miller Parameter
Useful for prediction of creep life at one temperature
based on data at another temp
 Q 
Ý K exp
n

 kBT 

1  Q 
tr  exp 
K ' n
kBT 


Q
 T(log 10 tr  log 10 K 'n log 10  )  T(log 10 tr C)
 B
2.3k
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Recovery of Plastically
Deformed Materials
• After mechanical deformation (cold-working),
many defects/dislocations are produced
• Recovery by annealing
• Recovery temperature depends on impurity
content and concentration of defects

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600
Recryst. Temp (C)

550
Ti
500

450 Fe
Co
400

350

300
0 0.04 0.095 0.19 0.385 0.48
concn (at. %)

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Toughness

failure
brittle material

failure
stress

ductile
material

strain

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Toughness
• Often measured using the Charpy test, as
the amount of energy required to break a
sample with certain geometry
• Toughness decreases with temperature
• Slower decrease in FCC metals compared
with BCC metals, due to more slip systems
available at room temperature

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Toughness of Steels: Effect of Grain Size
FCC metals

Fine-grained steel

Toughness
Coarse-grained steel

Temperature

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Toughness of Steels: Effect of Carbon

Increasing carbon content

Toughness

Temperature

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Flaws
• Previous discussion: actual strength < theoretical
strength due to the presence of dislocations
• Another reason: surface or internal flaws

o
Local radius = r

Region of 2a Region of
amplified amplified
stress stress
o

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Stress Amplification by Flaws
 a 1/ 2
   o 1 2  
 r  
 

Revised failure criterion



 a 1/ 2 E
 o1 2  
 r  
  10

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
Crack Propagation
With a pre-existing crack of length 2a, the critical
stress for propagation c is given by:

GE 1/ 2

 c   
 a 
where E = elastic modulus, G = 2 (s + p),
energy required to create a new surface

Parameter controlling crack propagation  (a)1/2.
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Fracture Toughness
Define stress intensity factor K as:
K  Y a

where Y is a geometric factor. The critical


stress intensity factor Kc is known as

fracture toughness

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Fracture Toughness
Kc depends on how the crack is opened -
mode (I, II, III)

I II

III
II
III

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Fracture Toughness for Selected Materials
Materials KIc (MPa-m1/2)

7075-T651 24

2024-T3 44

Ti-6Al- 4V 55

4340 tempered @425C 87

Concrete 0.2-1.4

Soda-lime glass 0.7-0.8

Alumi na 2.7-5.0

Polyca rbona te 2.2

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Fatigue Failure
• Load varying with time
• Failure occurs at stress levels below ultimate
tensile strength
• Common failure mode in dynamic structures
(aircraft, bridges and machine components)

Applied
stress Time

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S-N Curve

Stress
Endurance limit

Number of
cycles to failure

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Slip Irreversibility

Forward slip
Reverse slip

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Coffin-Manson Relationship

N f   p  between -0.5 and -
1 (depends on test
environment)

Nf


p
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Environmental Effects
• Fatigue life can be ten times longer in
vacuum than in air
• Ductility of certain intermetallics (e.g.,
Ni3Al) depends on moisture
• Tin whisker formation in air

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Ductility of Ni3Al vs. Pressure
50

Ductility to Fracture (%)


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Ion gauge off

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Ion gauge on
20

10

0 -12
10 10-9 10-6 10 -3 100 103
Testing Pressure (Torr)
Ref: E. P. George, C. T. Liu and D. P. Dope, Scr. Met., Vol 30, 37 (1994).
Moisture-induced Embrittlement

Grain boundary cracks


Water vapor dissociates
to produce H
Tensile loading
H diffuses to crack tips,
resulting in embrittlement
Tin Whiskers

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Material Selection Example
Consider the choice of materials for a wire of
length L and radius r that is being used to
support a load W.
Requirements: Wire length L
1. Strain less than max and radius r

2. Mass as small as possible

W
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Material Selection Example
W
1.  E max
r 2

2. m  ( r 2 L )

W LW 
3. m  L 
E max  max E


---> Maximize E/


 48
Lessons Learned from Chapter 4
• Plastic deformation due to motion of dislocations
• Four strengthening strategies and examples of applications
• Creep
• Concept of toughness and examples
• Fatigue
• Environmental effects
• Materials selection

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