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INDM 4005

Lecture 12

27/02/04

Continuation of Lecture 11

5.1.4. Factors influencing oxygen supply

5.1.4. (a) process factors

5.1.4. (b) transfer through an interface (KLa)

5.1.4. (c) determination of KLa;

5.1.4. (d) factors affecting bubble size

5.1.4. (e) gas hold-up :

5.1.4. (f) economics of oxygen transfer

Oxygen supply

• Oxygen is normally supplied to microbial cultures in the

form of air, i.e cheapest source

compare lab and industrial process design

be delivered to the biological sysytem (OTR) and the rate

at which it is utilised (COD)

enriching the inlet air with O2 and increasing agitation and

aeration

Oxygen Transfer Rate

• Rate of O2 transfer from air bubble to the liquid phase may be described as

dt

CL = Is the concentration of dissolved O2 in broth in mmoles L-1

t = Is time in hours

dCL = Is the change in O2 conc over time in mmoles O2 L-1 hr-1

dt

-1

KL = Is the mass transfer coefficient gas to liquid phase, (cm h )

a = Is the gas/liquid interface area per liquid volume (cm2 cm-3)

Csat = Is the saturated dissolved oxygen conc in mmoles dm-3

KLa

KL = Is the mass transfer coefficient (cm h-1)

a = Is the gas/liquid interface area per liquid volume (cm2 cm-3)

linked to give

fermenter and must be maintained above a minimum

critical level to satisfy oxygen requirements

5.1.4.(d) FACTORS AFFECTING BUBBLE SIZE

(a) Influence of gas velocity on bubble formation:

.

:::

::

.

..

::..

...

..

low medium ::..

high

Very little backmixing

backmixing

slug flow

Slug Flow - flow alternates between high-liquid and high-gas composition.

• b) Influence of liquid properties on bubbles;

B bubbles coalesce

A B

for mass transfer in different media. Will this property of liquids

influence Kla - why?

5.1.4.(e) GAS HOLD-UP

Represents air volume retained in the liquid

Vh = V - V0

Where Vh = hold-up volume, V = vol. of gassed liquid, V0 = vol

of ungassed liquid.

No air

Air

That is the amount of gas retained in the liquid

Correlations exist that relate hold-up to power input , for

example,

(P/V)0.4 . Vb 0.5

P/V = power input per unit vol ungassed liquid, V = linear velocity of air bubble

(ascending velocity). b

V = FH /H V

b l 0

depth, V = liquid volume.

CASE STUDY:

Review the literature on determination of gas hold up.

Show an application of optimising hold-up in a reactor

i.e. through mixing or length to width ratio (increasing

path length)

How does height (h) of a reactor vary with radius (r)

when volume (v) is kept constant?

volume of a cylinder is v = r 2 h

Let us fix the volume as 1 then

h = 1/ r 2

If r = 1 then h = 1/

r = 2 then h = 1/4

r = 3 then h = 1/9

length) decreases as the square of the radius

5.1.4.(f) ECONOMICS OF OXYGEN

TRANSFER

Fermentation e.g Penicillin - high KLa

Waste treatment - economy

dissolved

per unit volume (P/V)

CASE STUDY

Compare a pumped air, sparged system of

aeration with a surface aerator (as used in

waste treatment i.e.

The balance between OXYGEN DEMAND and SUPPLY

Must consider how processes may be designed such that O2 uptake rate of

the culture does not exceed the oxygen transfer rate of the fermenter

QO2 = O2 uptake rate, X = Biomass

dC/dt = KLa(Csat - CL ) = supply rate

Dissolved O2 conc. should not fall below the critical dissolved O2 conc

(Ccrit)

A fermentation will have a max Kla dictated by operating conditions thus it

is the demand that often has to be adjusted.

Achieved by:

Control of biomass conc

Control of specific O2 uptake rate

Combination of both

Mixing and agitation

Overview

5.2. Mixing and agitation

5.2.1. Measurement of mixing

5.2.2. Function of agitation - mixing assists oxygen transfer

5.2.3. Mixing patterns arising from agitator design /agitation etc

5.2.4. Types of impellers

5.2.5. Impeller design and reactor design

5.3. Fluid dynamics

5.3.1. Fluid shear rate

5.3.2. Non-newtonian fluids

5.3.3. Reynolds number (nre)

5.3.4. Reynolds number of an agitator

5.3.5. Relationship between power consumption and operating

variables

5.4. Agitation / aeration and scale-up

5.2. MIXING and AGITATION

5.2.1. Measurement of mixing;

distribution (RTD) of a tracer dye e.g.

calculating scale-up factors

/types of fermenter?)

Residence time distributions are important when calculating scale-up factors

added at the base of the reactor,

Add dye as product etc exits at the top

a pulse

Examine pattern of appearance of the pulse of dye in exit stream I.e

plot concentration versus time

T T T T

Plug flow Normal Channelling Back mixing

5.2.2. FUNCTION OF AGITATION -

Mixing assists Oxygen transfer

(a) Increases interfacial area (between gas and liquid) by

dispersing air in the form of small bubbles

(b) Increases hold-up time of bubbles in the liquid

(c) Prevents coalescence of air bubbles

(d) Decreases thickness of interfacial area

design of agitator,

Rheology / power /energy input

5.2.3. MIXING PATTERNS ARISING FROM AGITATOR

DESIGN /AGITATION etc.

Axial flow

Radial flow

Propeller Impeller

Influence

of baffles

Vortex fermenter

High Density Low Density

Bubbles impart velocity

Air

5.2.4. TYPES OF IMPELLERS

vaned disc

open turbine (variable pitch)

CASE STUDY:

Draw each type of impeller

P125 Stanbury & Whitaker

5.2.5. IMPELLOR DESIGN AND REACTOR DESIGN

Impellor diameter and spacing

Rotational speed (tip speed)

Geometry e.g. size of blade

Position of impellor

Spacing:

Di < Hi, 2Di

Number

(HL - Di)/Di > Number of impellors > (HL - 2Di)/Di

Di = impellor diameter

Hi = spacing

HL= height of liquid in fermentor

REYNOLDS NUMBER

This influences the level of shear experienced by a cell.

Case study

Design an impeller type agitation system for a 1000l

fermenter used to grow bacteria

5.3. FLUID DYNAMICS

have a major impact on mass transfer

• Fluids may be described as Newtonian or non-Newtonian

depending on whether their rheology (flow) characteristics

obey Newtons law of viscous flow

shear rate or velocity gradient

A rheogram of a Newtonian fluid

Plot of shear rate against shear stress

Shear

stress

Slope = viscosity

Shear rate

The viscosity of a Newtonian fermentation broth will not vary

with agitation rate

Rheograms of fluids of different rheological properties

Bingham plastic

Newtonian fluid

Shear

Casson

stress body

Dilatant Pseudoplastic

Shear rate

Newtons law of viscous flow will vary depending on shear rate

i.e agitation rate

5.3.1. FLUID SHEAR RATE:

EQUAL POWER

PUMPING

VELOCITY HEAD

Ratio of velocity head to pumping + shear rate of fluid (is the

velocity gradient)

shear damage plant cells require large, slow impeller i.e.

liquid layers by velocity gradient

Fluid shear rate

Fluid shear stress (= applied force) is Viscosity X Fluid shear

rate (ratio of shear stress to shear rate = viscosity in

Newtonian fluid). In a general way one can think of viscosity

as "resistance to mixing" (i.e stir a jar of molasses compared

with jar of water !)

(viscosity decreases as force is applied), Bingham plastic

(once fluid yields viscosity is constant) , Newtonian (viscosity

is constant - i.e. slope).

Case study:

Outline the problems encountered in

growing fragile cells and what strategies

are used to optimise productivity

5.3.2. NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS

Many fermentation broths (e.g. mycelial, polymer production etc.) are

NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS (like Bingham plastic or Casson).

Viscosity significantly alters with time (e.g. t0 approaches Newtonian, t100

is Non-Newtonian). See the effect of P. chrysogenum mycelia on Kla.

100

Effect of

Penicillium crysogenum

Kla mycelia on Kla (Fig 9.14)

(% of

original)

0

1.5%(w/v)

Mycelium conc

Culture alters physical aspects such as mass transfer

5.3.3. REYNOLDS NUMBER (NRe)

Relates to flow of liquids (motion).

Flow of liquid over a stationary surface may be considered as

movement of an infinite number of fluid layers each moving with a

velocity that increases with distance from the surface

i.e

NRe = (linear velocity x density x linear dimension) / viscosity

can be used when any force is applied to a liquid.

5.3.4. Reynolds number of an agitator

NRe is a function of the ratio of turbulent to viscous

flow

of liquid, v = viscosity.

above = turbulence

Example: Fermenter system type of agitation for (a)

water and (b) polymer

(a) Water;

viscosity = 0.001(1 centipoise)

NRe = ND2 x 100

Low N or D values give NRe > 3 x 10 3 (turbulence -

good mixing)

(b) Polymer;

viscosity = 100 (10,000 centipoise)

NRe = ND2 100

Much higher N or D required to give values > 3 x 10 3

(i.e. turbulence)

5.3.5 Relationship between power

consumption and operating variables

Power number = Np = P / (N3D5)

Represents power absorbed during agitation of non-

gassed liquids.

curve which is divided into 3 regions

Laminar or viscous flow

Transition zone

Turbulent zone - normally this is the required

state

From this, one can predict the necessary power to give a

specific level of mixing (or adequate mixing - should be

relatively constant at NRe> 4 x 10 3)

systems thus not typical of aerators - aeration contributes

to mixing.

Michel and Miller developed an empirical correlation for

gassed power consumption -

representing aeration rate and can be used to predict power

consumption in gassed systems. More recent correlations

are also available e.g Humark (1980).

Correlations between KLa and power exist for example,

KLa = k(Pg/V) 0.95 Vs0.67

the figure 0.95 can vary with scale 0.95 - Lab, 0.67 - Pilot, 0.5

- Plant.

superficial air velocity (Vs) and if one substitutes the Michel

and Miller equation for Pg one then relates to impellor design

(N and D) and the volumetric air flow rate (Q).

and degree of agitation.

5.4. AGITATION / AERATION and

SCALE-UP

shear

cost

agitation

CO

2

foam

oxygen

mixing

aeration

This illustrates the "scale-up" window defining the operating

boundaries for aeration and agitation in the scale-up of a

typical fermentation.

ACTION RESULT

Minimise aeration CO2 and O2 levels

Maximise aeration Foam formed

Minimise agitation Bulk mixing poor

Maximise agitation shear, cost increased

For each of the following statements, select appropriate methods of

KLa determination from the list provided.

rather than the fermentation process Sulphite reduction

Dynamic gassing out

4) Only one parameter has to be measured Dynamic gassing out

Dynamic gassing out

Oxygen balance, sulphite reduction, dynamic gassing out

Page 193, In vitro cultivation of microorganisms

Summary

• Agitation of suspended cell fermentations is performed to mix the

three phases within a fermenter

bubble size, prevents bubble coalescence

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