Human Resources Management (HRM
People are different: unique personalities; different emotional responses to diff stimuli; diff attitudes, values, motives, mode of thought Diff behaviour to reactions to promises, praise or criticism; behaviour neither consistent or readily predictable A human being him / herself determines what he / she contributes. Hence individuals, not orgns create excellence. Peter Drucker: ³Man, of all the resources available to man, can grow and develop´. Some aspects where humans are different: Motivation; Sociability; Morality; Development
Features of HRM
Present in all enterprises Permeates all level of mgnt in orgns
Focuses on action rather than record keeping, written procedures
Helps individuals develop their potential fully Encourages individuals to give off their best
All about people at work; as individuals and groups Puts people on assigned jobs to produce good results
Features of HRM
Aims to develop potential of individuals
Tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people within, between groups and across all levels
Assist and advice operational groups / line functions on how to manage people effectively
A multi disciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, etc.
Health & safety. Remuneration. Transport. Housing. etc. Layoff & retrenchment. Industrial relations aspect: Union management relations.
3. rest rooms. Promotion. etc.Scope of HRM
. placement. Recruitment. settlement of disputes. crèches. Recreation facilities. Incentives. Medical assistance. Productivity.
Personnel aspects: Manpower planning. selection. joint consultations. induction. Training & development.
2. Welfare aspect: Working conditions & amenities like canteen. Collective bargaining. Transfer. Grievance and disciplinary procedures. etc. Education.
HRM: Main activities
Getting in People:
Planning for people Analysing the assignment Understanding roles Understanding jobs Understanding role-job fit Recruitment, selection & placement
Induction Training & development Performance management Rewards management
HRM: Main activities
Letting people go:
Retrenchment Outplacement Sacking Resignation
Employee surveys HR audit Research on all above activities
Equal opportunity Employee health Handling grievances & labour relations
Fundamental Roles: Line manager & HR function
Line manager¶s role:
Placing right people on the job Inducting people into the department Training people in functional areas Recommending and assisting for training in other areas Improving productivity of personnel Gaining creative cooperation and developing smooth working relationships Implementing & interpreting company¶s policies and procedures Controlling personnel costs Developing abilities in each personnel Appraising performance and providing constructive feedback Creating and maintaining department morale Protecting employees health and physical condition Assisting employees in their career planning
HR function roles:
Assist in HR plans for the entire orgn; integrate unit plans Assist top management in incorporating HR issues at corporate levels Assist line managers in sourcing for human resources Assist in inducting personnel in the orgn Organize for training & development: - compile trg needs; prepare trg calendar; administer trg implementation; assist line function in implementing learning; database of trg undergone Performance management: - work on appropriate perf evaluation systems & procedures; administer systems; prepare trg needs data; data for promotions, transfers, etc.
new remuneration systems. orgn structure design and modification. collective bargaining. etc. Job evaluation.
HR function roles (contd.Welfare schemes design and admin.Salary surveys.Fundamental Roles:
2. Working on salary & incentive design and administration Administration: .Guide on labour issues. Industrial relations: . HR research: . Prepare systems for rewards. terminating services. Travel policies and implementation. Coordination with finance for reward disbursement. etc. Administer reward systems. canteen.):
Rewards management: . HR audit
. Designing new methods of appraisals.Internal HR climate survey.
Competent employees adopted to organization culture
2. Career development:
Competent employees with up-to-date skills and knowledge
3.HR process outputs:
Changing conditions requires on-going research and concern for the future
Training & development. Rewards & punishment:
Competent employees who desire to exert high effort
Human resources planning. selection.
Motivation. satisfactory union relations:
Competent employees who are committed to the organization and satisfied with their jobs
Understanding roles Human resources planning Recruitment. Directing.HRM functions:
Human resources Development:
Performance Appraisal Training & development Career planning & development Organizational development
Managerial Functions: Planning. Induction & Orientation
2. Selection & Placement. 1.
B. Controlling Operative functions: Employment:
Job Analysis. Organizing.
3. Bonus. Fringe benefits Social security measures
Human relations: Effectiveness of HRM:
Organizational health Human resources accounting Human resources audit Human resources research
Job evaluation Wage & salary administration Incentives.
competence. enthusiasm Part of the intellectual capital Jack Welch: 3 key measures in business.Human Value
³Our people are our most important assets´ Problem: people do not fit the strict financial definition of an asset:
Cannot be transacted at will Contribution is individual and volatile Cannot be valued according to traditional financial processes
Intangible assets: knowledge. starting from the most important:
Employee satisfaction Customer satisfaction Cash flow
People manage the tangible asset and also maintain and grow the intangible ones Need a balance: People as cost & as assets We lack a commonly accepted framework for assessing the value & contribution of people When one leaves and another joins. Need to focus on long term in getting people Mergers & acquisitions Need to know how to obtain relevant and reliable data on intangible assets within the orgn
. there is an impact on human µstock¶.
Need to measure the driver of performance as much as the outcome themselves:
Acquiring new personnel Rebalancing the workforce Maximizing performance & productivity Developing individuals & groups Resource allocation & options for outsourcing Investing in people and organizational development Setting up partnership and alliances
Difficult to measure human behaviour. number of assumptions need to be made. People loan their human capital to us and we provide an environment in which they can contribute value to the stakeholders
People as assets + People motivation & commitment = People committed to added value People as asset: is the cost of a person more that the value they provide to the orgn? Motivation & commitment: the person¶s contribution is strongly influenced by their working environment When costs need to be reduced. mgnt should seek out those that are not value creators The way we provide value to people conditions their motivation. commitment and loyalty and hence their contribution and value to other stakeholders
benefits. bonuses Equity in the firm Challenges and interesting work Equipment and resources not otherwise available Being associated with an orgn of repute Status and self-esteem Recognition: managers. peers.Human Value
Orgns can provide value to employees:
Salaries. publically Opportunities for personal growth and career development Interesting colleagues to work with A satisfying and stimulating environment Social events Opportunities for travel
Personnel Philosophy. Policies
May or may not be in written form Should be for treating employees with dignity and securing willing cooperation Management¶s attitude to employee is one major area which relates to personnel philosophy of the company Employees need to be regarded as partners in production or as a precious asset with constructive potentials Personnel policies relate to the personnel philosophy accepted by the management
. Facilities (housing. etc. Personnel policies relate to:
Hiring of manpower Terms & conditions of employment Compensation payment Hours of work Training & development Promotions. a statement of intention committing the mgnt to a general course of action. travel.) Concessions given to employees.Personnel Policy
A policy is a plan of action. etc. uniforms. transfers. etc.
redefine. selection. etc.Personnel Policy
Personnel policies are the principles and rules of conduct which formulate. break into details and decide a no of actions that govern the relationship with employees in the attainment of orgn objectives They are the statements of intention indicating what the orgn proposes to do and suggests the values & view points which dominate the orgn actions They act as guidelines which indicate the intentions of the orgn in recruitment. ± serve as a road map in regard to decision making on personnel matters & problems
minimizes favouritism and discrimination among the personnel and ensures continuity of action They make a commitment on the part of the orgn There is no µpersonal interpretation¶ of orgn intents
Benefits of Personnel Policy manual:
Clear explanation of existing policies Useful tool in supervisory training Document of company¶s faith on fair personnel policies Readymade guide to personnel policies & procedures Avoids indecision on personnel matters Acts as a communication device
Personnel policies framed by the mgnt should be always in writing:
Written policies ensure uniformity of application.
practices & procedures on personnel matters Employee relations policies Hiring policies Job fundamentals & Job training policy Hours of work Pay policies & procedures. rewards & monetary incentives Promotions.Personnel Policy Manual
Objectives of the manual Orgn philosophy How to use the manual Authority of the manual Privileges & resp of supervision & dept heads Existing policies. transfers & layoffs Employee benefits & services
punctuality & absenteeism Employee health and safety rules Security benefits and rules Company and plant rules Cost control Grievance & complaint procedure Internal communication Termination of employment Labour relations & employee participation Personnel forms Performance appraisal Discipline.Personnel Policy Manual
Attendance. disciplinary action and grievance addressal
The HR manager is a Mentor / Coach / Counselor for line managers in the area of Human Resources issues
An effective HR manager understands the business needs of the organization.
need to be world class. Quality consciousness. More productivity.Changing environment of HRM
More competition. more competent personnel
Internet based organization Video conferencing
Trends in nature of work:
Automated plants Teamwork ± self-managed teams Self-oriented jobs Outsourcing Internet based ordering Knowledge based workers
performance Call centers ± co emp can interact with HR personnel regardless of location Outsource activities to external agencies Personality teats. transformational leadership
. we want to be and how should we get there? Formulating & executing HR policies & practices that produce employee competencies & behaviours the company needs to achieve strategic aims HR partners top mgnt to design and execute company strategies
Creating high performance work systems:
Focus on productivity. decentralized decision making Pay for performance.Changing role of HRM
HRM role more strategic:
Strategic HRM part of strategic planning Match internal strengths with external opportunities Where are we now in business. safety issues Self managed teams. training.
Superior mgrs shape dept policies & practices so they make sense. in terms of (or align with) company strategic aims Strategic management: match company¶s capabilities with demands of the environment It is: decide what business you¶re in now and which ones you want to be in. formulate a strategy for getting there and execute your plan Some company strategies: Diversification Vertical integration Consolidation Geographical exmansion
Strategic HRM: formulating & executing HR policies & practices that produce needed employee competencies & behaviour
Southwest Airways: 15 mts turnaround strategy Dell: low cost leader. Intranet web application ± manager perform their own HR tasks
Competitive advantage: factors that allow an orgn to differentiate its products & services:
Southwest Airways ± low cost airlines ± employment policies: motivated and flexible force Larger airlines like Delta ± restrictive union rules. work rules & salary structures
Today ± technology rarely sets an orgn apart:
Toyota better because of culture.
training SWOT analysis
HRM identifies scorecard measures to measure the extent to which new policies & practices are actually producing the reqd employee competencies and skills. recruitment.
HR managers must need an in-depth understanding of the value creation proposition of the firm
Basics of strategic planning Basic business functions
Strategic execution imp part of HR role Another role is strategic formulation
Supporting top management Retention. thus supporting mgnt¶s strategic goals
Mgnt judges HR functions based on whether it creates value to the company ± contributing in a measurable way to achieving company¶s strategic goals:
Scorecard shows the metrics the firm uses to measure HR activities & HR behaviours resulting from the activities & the strategically relevant orgn outcomes of these behaviours. need to know:
The company¶s strategy Casual links between HR activities. emergent behaviours & resulting firmwide strategic outcomes & performance
To evolve the HR scorecard. employee behaviour. Highlights casual link between HR activities. Mgr needs metrics to measure the activities and results involved
. orgn outcomes and orgn perf.
2.HR Scorecard ² 10 steps
1.South west airways: activities to deliver low-cost. convenient service
Define the business strategy: Outline the cos value chain:
Outline a Strategy map:
.What are the co¶s required activities .Value chain: identifies the primary activities that create value for customers and the related support activities .
Identify strategically reqd orgn outcomes:
Dell: quick competent & courteous tech service by phone South West Airways: Cheapest airways. producing. on time
. and delivering the co¶s product or services
3.A diagram that summarizes the chain of major inter-related activities that contribute to the orgn¶s success . marketing.Each activity is part of the process of designing.
Strategic performance metrics
Identify the reqd HR systems policies & Activities:
7.The basic strategic themes .
Create HR Score card:
Make a visual or computerized score card Link in a casual way the selected HR activities & emergent employee behaviour and the resulting firm-wide strategic outcome & performance The points to work on include: .Strategic HR activities matrix . motivation. performance attitudes
Identify the reqd work force competencies & behaviour:
To deliver the strategically relevant orgn outcomes Dell: Support in trg & providing relevant checklist to deliver tech service S W Airways: Multi tasking.Strategically relevant customer & orgn outcome metrics .10 steps
5.Strategically relevant emergent employees capabilities & behaviours .
external & internal goals.Level of organizational learning .
Choose HR scorecard measures:
Use a mixture of financial and non-financial measures: short & long term goals.10 steps
8.Employee attitude survey measures . predict & evaluate:
.Employee turnover . etc.
9. on-time flgts
Summarize the scorecard measure in a digital dashboard
SW Airways: turnaround times.
Monitor.Employee productivity.Level of cross-cultural teamwork . attracting & keeping customers. Sample performance measures: .
control. coordination. process.Human Resources Information System (HRIS)
Need to incorporate all the forms in the processes HRIS: Interrelated components working together to collect. store and disseminate information to support decision making. analysis and visualization of an organization¶s HRM activities Help shift HR¶s attention from transaction processing to strategic HR Remove the time spent in processing transactions
Analyzing & Designing Jobs
Jobs determine standard of living. places of residence. status and even one¶s sense of worth Jobs help orgns accomplish their objectives Jobs are not static. subject to change The job is what the incumbent makes of it Job Analysis: A formal and detailed examination of jobs ± tell the things that people do in human work Involves the identification of the required tasks. the knowledge and skills necessary for performing them and the conditions under which they must be performed
routine. etc. hazards.Job Analysis
Job analysis provides the foll info: Job identification: title. etc. experience reqd
. What the typical worker does: simplicity. resp. Job duties Material and equip used on the jobHow a job is done Reqd personnel attributes Job relationship Mental skills reqd Education. Important characteristics: location. supervision.
Job Analysis ² used in:
HR Planning Recruitment & Selection Placement & Orientation Training Career counseling Employee safety Performance & Potential appraisal Job design & re-design
Process of Job Analysis results in two sets of data: Job Description: Statement about the job containing items such as ± job title.
2. judgment.Job Analysis:
1. tools & eqpt used.
. training. job summary. etc. communication skills. responsibilities. Usually contains such items as ± education. experience. location. supervision given or received. etc. machines. Job Specification: A statement of human qualifications necessary to do the job.
motivation and job satisfaction are affected by the match between job factors and personal needs
Job design integrates work content. the rewards and the qualifications required for each job in a way that meets the needs of employees and the orgn It involves the foll steps:
The specification of individual tasks The specification of the methods of performing each task The combination of tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals
While designing the job. requirements of the orgn and the individual needs of the job holder must be considered Can affect productivity and costs For an employee.
which enriches their skills. experience and ability to perform different jobs
.Work / Job simplification
A job is divided into parts and distributed among individuals Work simplification is introduced when the job designers feel that the jobs are not specialized enough Over-simplification can result in boredom. errors. resignations Job Rotation: Systematic movement of employees from one job to another The employees are given an opportunity to perform different jobs.
Expanding the scope of the job by aggregating two or more jobs into a single one Involves expanding the no of duties assigned to a given job Brings out some sense of wholeness in the job Reduces monotony & boredom by providing a more complete or whole job to perform Helps increase interest in work efficiency Involves assigning more tasks of similar nature Called horizontal loading ± is more appropriate in case of manual. technical and clerical work
Based on the assumption that jobs should be more interesting and challenging: Will provide psychological satisfaction to employees Will mean making a job more interesting. responsible. increasing responsibility and provide opportunities for advancement and growth Involves a vertical loading of the job so that job holder himself controls the planning and execution of the job
. higher in status and more rewarding Possible by widening the scope of the job and adding a sense of achievement.
Characteristics of Job enrichment: Variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback
Autonomous, self-directed teams:
An intact group of employees who are resp for a µwhole¶ work process or segment that delivers a product / service to an internal / external customer The team members work together and improve their operations They have a clear sense of purpose and are effective in taking decisions and ensure the quality of work assigned to the team With empowered teams managers lost in terms of status, authority and power
Determining the relative worth of a job in an orgn by comparing it with the other jobs within the orgn and with the job market outside Jobs evaluated on the basis of their content and placed in the order of their importance A wage / salary hierarchy is based on such job evaluation ± employees given diff wages as per the relative imp of the jobs they perform The jobs are ranked, not the job holders Job analysis should precede job evaluation
A system of mutual obligations Role: a position in a social system defined by functions one performs in response to the expectations of the µsignificant¶ members of a social system. Role taking: receiving expectations and responding to them Role making: use expectations from own role and develop role behaviour influenced by these expectations Concept of a job ± prescriptive
Some Role issues
Mutuality vs Exclusiveness Creativity vs Conformity Confrontation vs Avoidance Exploration vs Expectation of readymade solutions
9. 10. 6. 3.
7. 4. 8. 2.
Self-role distance: conflict between self-concept and expectations from the role Intra role conflict: conflict between two different roles in a job Role stagnation: need to outgrow earlier long term role Inter role distance: occupying more than one role Role ambiguity: not clear on expectations Role expectations conflict: conflicting expectations from diff role senders Role overload: too many expectations in too little time Role erosion: functions like to perform performed by others Resource inadequacy Personal inadequacy
. 5.Role Stress
HRP is a process by which an orgn ensures that it has the right no and kind of people. capable of effectively completing and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the orgn achieve irts overall objectives
Translates the orgn¶s objectives and plans into the no of workers needed to meet those objectives Without HRP. estimation of employee needs is merely guesswork
. at the right time. at the right place.Human Resources Planning (HRP)
A process of forecasting an orgn¶s future demand for and supply of the right type of people in the right number It is a sub-system in the total orgn planning system
Facilitates the realization of the co¶s objectives by providing the right type and right no of personnel
skill demands. could create problems Planning succession of critical positions in the orgn vital
.Importance of HRP
1. tech environment Generate changes in job content. job hop.
Coping with change:
HRP enables coping with change in today¶s competitive.
Creating highly talented personnel:
Talented individuals. and no & type of persons Shortages in some areas and surplus in others may be observed
Future personnel needs:
Planning is significant in that it helps determine future personnel needs Surplus/deficiency in staff is the result of the absence / or defective planning Orgns today are resorting to VRS Also there is an absence of succession planning in senior personnel
Ability to fill key jobs with foreign nationals & the re-assignment of employees from within or across national borders is a major challenge affecting international business Enables effective process in meeting staff needs from foreign countries and the attended cultural.4. such as recruitment. selection. personnel movement and training & development
. language & developmental considerations Growing competition for foreign executives may lead to expensive and strategically disruptive turnover among key decision makers
Foundation for HR functions:
Provides essential info for designing and implementing HR functions.
orgn needs to use its resources effectively throughout their careers The Re value of a trained.
Increasing investments in HR:
Human assets as opposed to physical assets can increase in value An employee who gradually develops his/her skills & abilities becomes a valuable person With investment in training & development. motivated.
Upper mgnt has better view of HR dimensions of business decisions Personnel costs. productive force is difficult to determine
7.6. mgnt can anticipate imbalances earlier More time provided to locate talent Better planning of assignments to develop managers Major and successful demands on local labour markets can be made
The Planning process
HRP essentially involves forecasting personnel needs. layoffs. reduced hours. etc. Shortage: Recruitment & selection
. VRS. assessing personnel supply and matching demand ± supply factors through personnel related programmes The planning process is influences by overall orgn objectives and the environment of business The process components:
Organizational objectives and policies HR needs / HR supply forecasts HR programming HRP implementation Control & evaluation programme Surplus: restricted hiring.
Assessment of reqm to meet objectives based on: Manager¶s estimate. work study
.HRP system: main elements
HR planning unit:
Produces HR plans Basic requirement:
Definition of time span Scope and details of plan Comprehensive & accurate info
Define orgn objectives Approves plans Amends plans through feedback
Matching of demand and supply forecasting Identify key areas Produce contingency plans Assess current utilization of employees
. taking account of influential internal and external factors
Assessment of current resources and probable losses.HRP system:
Mgrs pool knowledge based on experience and various info. arrive at figure In ³bottoms up´ approach line mgrs submit dept proposals In ³top down´ approach.
Ratio ± trend analysis:
Involves studying past ratios like between no of workers and sale and extrapolating into the future
3.Forecasting techniques (demand):
1. top mgrs prepare forecast reviewed by dept mgrs Approach subjective but cost effective
2. Work measurement to measure time taken to perform work ± arrive at no of persons reqd to perform job Technique useful for jobs done for the first time
Work study technique:
Use Method study to understand how work is carried out.
Solicit estimate of personnel needs from a group of experts HRP experts summarize this feedback and give it back to the experts for a rethink The process repeated till the experts opinions begin to agree
5.Forecasting techniques (demand):
Markov models Venture analysis
internal movements & promotions. wastage The supply analysis covers:
Existing human resources Internal sources of supply External sources of supply
HR audits Current inventories
Determine whether it is possible to procure the reqd no of personnel and the source of such procurement Supply forecasting measures the no of people likely to be available from within & outside the orgn after making allowance for absenteeism.
placement.HR plan implementation
A series of action programs initiated:
Recruitment. identify sources & search for suitable candidates Train and develop in functional & behavioural areas New skills to existing staff when tech changes Retention plans to help reduce avoidable separation of emp Need to keep good managers regardless of downsizing: takes years of grooming to get them
. Induction Training. development. selection. redeployment Retention plan. succession plan
After vacancies known. retraining.
techniques of planning and the plans themselves need to be constantly revised and improved in the light of experience
.Requisites for successful HRP
HRP recognized as an integral part of corporate planning Backing of top mgnt essential HRP resp central to coordinate and consolidate between depts & levels Personnel records up to date. and readily available Time horizon long enough to permit remedial action Planning techniques should be suited to data available and degree of accuracy reqd Plans should be prepared by the skill levels rather than aggregates Data collection. analysis.
Retired. Up-gradation Transfer. walk-ins
.Sources of Recruitment
Retrenched employees. Promotion of existing employees
Employees in other organization Job aspirants with employment exchanges Students of educational institutions Candidates referrals Search firms. contractors Head hunters Candidate responding to adverts Unsolicited applications. Dependents of deceased.
Advertisements in newspapers.
3.Methods of Recruitment
Promotions & transfers Job postings Employee referrals
Third party methods:
Pvt employment search firms Employee exchanges Gate hiring & contractors Unsolicited applicants / walk-ins Internet recruitment
Alternatives to recruitment
Overtime Subcontracting Temporary employees Employee leasing Outsourcing
Recruitment policies & Procedure
Selection & Placement
from the pool of qualified candidates Selection is usually a series of hurdles & tests. screening biodatas to remove clutter. each one must be carefully cleared before the applicant proceeds to the next Steps:
Reception: making a favourable impression among the candidates Screening interviews: Asking details for suitability.Selection
Process of picking individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an orgn Choose individuals who can most successfully perform the job. reduce time Application blank: Brief history sheet of the applicant¶s background. could be standardized to save time and ensure all data is informed
interviews . business games. etc.Intelligence tests: Mental ability tests. Integrity tests
. .Graphology . performance or attitude: .Aptitude teats: Potential to learn certain skills: programming. self-confidence . learning. presentation. etc. emotional balance. leaderless GD¶s. intorversion.)
Selection tests: A standardized objective measure of a person¶s behaviour.Selection
Steps (contd.Simulation tests: Duplicate many activities employees face in workplace . taking instructions.Polygraph (lie-detector tests. . inter-personal behaviour.Assessment centers: Group & individual exercises to test .Personality tests: Measure basic aspects like motivation.Achievement tests: What can do in the current assignment . Typing. simulate the type of work which the candidate is expected to do: --In-basket.
nervousness . and promote goodwill towards the company Medical Examination Reference checks
.Make judgments on the interviewee¶s enthusiasm & intelligence .Obtain as much pertinent info as possible .Give facts to the candidate regarding the company. etc.Assess subjective aspect of the candidate ± facial expression.Ask questions that are not covered in the tests . policies.)
Interviews: Oral examination of candidates for employment Interviewer tries to obtain & synthesize information about the abilities of the interviewee & the requirements of the job Gives opportunity to the interviewer to: .Selection:
Steps (contd.Size up the interviewee¶s agreeableness . programme.
rude & insulting questions Panel interview
. embarrassing.Types of interviews
The non-directive: Ask questions as they come in the mind Directive / structured: a predetermined set of questions that are clearly job related Situational: Hypothetical incident ± how would the interviee respond Behavioural: Focus on actual work incidents Stress: Find how applicant would respond to aggressive.
Some interview mistakes
Favour applicants who share own attitudes Find difficult to establish rapport Not asking right questions Resorting to snap judgments Forgetting interview contents soon after the event Show leniency to candidate May have own bias Halo / Horn effect Candidate order error Being influenced more by unfavourable than favourable information Under pressure to hire candidates at short notice Being influenced by other factors. not job related
Posting of employee into a specific job Line managers take the decision ± match job and qualification of the candidate If improperly placed. jobs will suffer
Induction / Orientation
/ section / dept Induction serves the foll purposes:
Remove fear: .Feel at home .Role. policies
.Get off to a good start A valuable source of information . systems & procedures. processes. rules.Get along with people . . do¶s & don¶t¶s. etc.Know more about the jobs.Adjust and adapt to the new demands at the job .Terms & conditions of employment Create a good impression: .Know the people you will be working with .Induction
Introducing the new incumbent into the orgn.
higher resp pay.Internal Mobility
Transfer: Change in job assignment. or no change in status Promotion: Upward movement. status
Basis could be performance or tenure Need a policy on promotion
. may involve promotion / demotion.
Voluntary Death Layoff: Temp removal from the payroll
Employer ± employee relationship merely suspended for the period To trim extra fat and make orgn lean and mean
Retrenchment: Permanent termination. a kind of punishment.Employee separation
Resignation: Decides to quit voluntarily Retirement: Compulsory ± superannuation. economic reason Outplacement: Training & assist get other job Suspension: Prohibiting emp from attending work. subsistence allowance given Discharge & termination: Punitive measure for misconduct
How we do things around here Something holistic. soft and difficult to change Country Culture (Greet Hofstede):
Power distance Individualism vs Collectivism Masculine vs Feminine Uncertainty avoidance Long term vs short term orientation
. historically determined. socially constructed.
social and behavioural norms of an orgn based on the beliefs.Corporate Culture
The moral. attitudes & priorities of its members 6 independents dimensions of practices:
Process oriented vs result oriented Job oriented vs employee oriented Professional vs parochial Open systems vs closed systems Tightly controlled vs loosely controlled Pragmatic vs normative
The position of the orgn on these dimensions is determined in part by the business or industry the orgn is in Managing intl business means handling both corporate and country culture
Creates a conscious corporate culture: ³The HP way´ HP¶s corporate culture is based on:
Respect for others A sense of communities Plain hard work
caring relations with every employee Creating an open collaborative workplace where everyone¶s opinion is welcome Empowering senior executives to run far-flung businesses in an entrepreneurial fashion Liberating the work force.GE culture under Jack Welch
Redesigning the role of leader in the new economy: creating followers through communicating a vision and establishing open. making everybody a participant through improving vertical communication & employee empowerment
We are looking for a particular type of person regardless of which job category it is. If you start with the type of person you want to hire. We are looking for attitudes that are positive and for people who can lend themselves to causes. presumably you can build a workforce that is prepared for the culture you desire.Herb Kelleher: Southwest Airways
³It starts with hiring. We want folks who have a good sense of humour and people who are interested in performing as a team and take joy in team results instead of individual accomplishments. We are zealous about hiring.
Corporate culture & Mergers
Certain cultural issues during post merger phase:
Disintegration of organization value system Low employee morale Benefits of synergy require time Rationalization & relocation of people may require time Flight of talented personnel Different culture Rigidity to learn things for blue collared worker Sentimental attachment Anxiety for pink slip Differences in HR style Broken faith in mgnt due to veil of secrecy in merger Stalemate in managerial positions Reduced employee enthusiasm
Making mergers effective
Ascertain differences in basic culture and differences Pre-assess the cost implications to integrate manpower of merging orgns Plan for VRS for people rendered surplus Make provisions for increased HR cost for training a re-deployment. VRS benefits Accommodate employees of merging orgn in new environment Develop an integrated culture with inputs from two orgns Focus on training and learning process Develop a new orgn chart and make it transparent Align the compensation package. if required. relocation. even by redesigning
These are useful diagnostics for gauging the morae of a company¶s workforce . monitoring long term trends in the workforce and determining where interventions are needed Attitudes towards work:
Job satisfaction Role clarity Role conflict Autonomy Participation in decision making Job involvement
1. testing the impact of new policies and procedures.
Fairness Safety & support Communication Tolerance of risk Continuous learning
Job security Loyalty Trust in management Identification Alienation Helplessness
Human Resources Development
A systematic approach to proactively deal with issues related to individuals and teams in orgns and as a movement to develop orgn capability. are based on certain values:
Openness Confrontation Trust Authenticity Pro-activity Autonomy Collaboration
. HRD efforts. to manage change and challenge. as reflected in concepts and orgn practices.
People: important resource. can enhance capability People are investment. not costs HRS different from Personnel function: not routine.
. emphasizes dev of people. proactive. all managers share resp for HRS. Organic connected with all other systems in organ.
Development as underlying concept
The agents of development include: .The orgn Effectiveness of managing HR will depend on the emphasis on development Personnel versus HRM function
.The HR dept .The boss .the employee .
Development dimensions of Personnel
Analyzing the role: Task Analysis Key Performance areas Critical Attributes Job Evaluation Matching the Role and the Person: Selection / Recruitment / Placement Potential Appraisal Promotion Career Planning / Succession Planning
Performance Appraisal Feedback and Counselling Mentoring Career Development Training Developing the role for the person: Job Rotation Job Enrichment Job design / job redesign Role effectiveness & Efficacy
.Development dimensions of Personnel
Developing the person in the role: .
Development dimensions of Personnel
Developing Equitability: Management of salary and amenities Management of incentives and reward Standardizing and administering procedures Developing Self-renewing capabilities: Organizational development HRM research Organizational learning Developing culture and climate Coping with collective power
Role of developing Competence
Technical Competence: Technical skills, abilities Managerial Competence: Managerial skills and abilities Process Competence: Dealing with various issues as they happen; problems of commitment, cooperation, conflicts, etc. Helping Competence: Aware of strengths, weaknesses, feedback on perf, counselling Coping Competence: - Dealing with frustration, stress, burnout, etc.
The Concept of HRD
HRD in the ogranisational context is a process by which the employees of an organization are helped in, in a continuous planned way, to: 1. Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles. 2. Develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own and/or organizational development purposes 3. Develop an orgn culture in which the supervisor-subordinate relationships, teamwork, and collaboration among subunits are strong and contribute to the professional well-being, motivation and pride of the employee.
HRD as a process
HRD is a process, not merely a set of mechanisms or techniques The mechanisms and techniques such as PA, Counselling, T&D, OD, etc. are used to initiate, facilitate, and promote this process in a continuous way. Because the process has no limits, the mechanisms may need to be examined periodically to see whether they are promoting or hindering the process. Orgns can facilitate this process of development by planning for it, by allocating orgn resources for it, and by exemplifying an HRD philosophy that values human beings and promotes their development.
Goals of the HRD system: to develop:
The capabilities of each employee as an individual The capabilities of each individual in relation to his/her present and expected future role The dyadic relationship between each employee and supervisor The team spirit and functioning in every orgn unit Collaboration between different units in the orgn, and The orgns overall health and self-renewing capabilities, which, in turn, increases the enabling capabilities of individuals, dyads, teams and inter-teams and the entire orgn.
HRD process mechanisms / sub-systems
Performance Appraisal Potential Appraisal and Development Feedback and Performance Coaching Career Planning Training Organizational Development Rewards Employee welfare and Quality of Work life Human Resource Information & Research
mutuality. proactivity. trust. is essential for HRD Employees feel committed to their work and the orgn if the orgn perpetuates a feeling of belonging HRD can be planned and monitored in ways that are beneficial both to the individual and the orgn
. characterized by the values of openness. HR can be developed to an unlimited value A healthy climate. and collaboration.HRD Beliefs:
Human Resources are the most important assets in the organization Unlike other resources.
model behaviour. create a healthy and motivating work climate The higher the mgnt level the more attention to be paid to the HRD function to ensure effectiveness The maintenance of a healthy working climate and development of its human resources are the resp.HRD Beliefs (contd):
Commitment comes from orgn providing basic needs and higher needs through appropriate mgnt styles & systems Employees commitment increased with opportunity to discover and use one s capabilities & potential at work Every mgrs resp to ensure development and utilization of individual capability.
. of every orgn.
Competence building: for performing the job better.The Individual
Key unit in an org.SMART analyse performance results on factors responsible for success/failures. new skills Advancement: identifying and developing on potential
. Development of individuals: three different aspects: Self-Management: develop competencies to manage own work learn to set realistic goals -.
who have face-to-face relationship with the role occupant Three main aspects of role development: optimum stress: enough challenges to stretch linkages: among roles and of different organizational roles with challenging goals Autonomy: scope for taking initiative. solving problems and doing creative work
Role is not synonymous with job. status or position in orgn Role is the position a person occupies as defined by expectations from significant persons.
proper feedback to each other.The Dyad
The dyadic groups (employee and supervisor) basic building blocks in an orgn structure Focus will involving developing the foll three aspects: Trust: efforts to be made to develop such relationships Mutuality: free exchange of help between employee and supervisor. supervisor coaching mentoring and counselling the employee
. support to each other Communication: Listening.
. utilize individual competencies Building teams: Tuckman Resource Utilization: Maximize utilization of resources available with teams.The Teams
Primarily two aspects are important as focus of HRD: Cohesion:Producing synergy.
Develop cooperation among various groups Helps develop corporate identity Need to link team goals with orgn goals
. providing quality service and maintaining leadership position Impact: on outside environment and stakeholders Self-renewal: observe working from time to time and update itself. analyse present and potential problems and take steps to meet challenges.The Organization
Need to observe the following three aspects: Growth: as per customer and orgn needs.
The systems primarily concerned with individual employees (and their roles) relate to their appraisal. HRD activities should be concerned with developing systems to make individuals (and the roles). The second axis is made up of the HRD systems and their activities. The systems concerned with dev of the orgn (and its teams) would relate to mgnt of work. culture ad orgn renewal. their advancement and training. They form one of the axis.
.The HRD Matrix
Scope of HRD is to develop these six human units. and the organization (and the teams) more effective.
Mentoring Training: .Performance Coaching / Counseling Career: .Charting career paths for individual employees .Potential .
3.Planning & delivering training .Performance .Succession plans .
.Identifying training needs .
Developing a strong corporate identity .Task analysis .Developing healthy traditions .Organizational development
Work: .Role stress Cultural: .Quality of Working life .Developing consistent management practices Self-renewal: .Development of important values .
Organizations are never completely static
Continuous interaction with external forces Changing consumer tastes / attitudes. even when the orgns are successful and have no apparent problems necessitating such an examination Orgns can develop internal mechanisms in this regard: establish a function of OD and research. and taking both reactive and proactive actions in relation to its environment (internal & external)
Need to reexamine existing structures. systems & procedures from time to time. legislation
An effective orgn needs to develop self-renewing properties:
A capability to continuously reexamine itself. new technology. The function can be an independent one or be part of the HRM
linkage strategies in the form of temporary and semipermanent systems and a culture of mutuality
. and learning from them for improvement According to Udai Pareek: OD is a planned effort Initiated by process specialists To help an orgn develop diagnostic skills. analysing these scientifically. coping capabilities.OD
Research is the most appropriate mechanism for systematising collection of information and data.
OD is an effort:
Planned Organization wide Managed from the top To increase orgn effectiveness & health Through planned interventions in the orgn¶s processes using behavioural science knowledge
integrated and planned effort Solve problems that adversely affect operational efficiency at all levels Based on scientific awareness of human behaviour and orgn dynamics An orgn wide effort Directed towards more participative management Integration of individual goals with orgn goals Create an internal environment of openness. trust.OD defined
A systematic. mutual confidence and collaboration Help orgn members interact more effectively Enable orgn to cope effectively with external environment
data are continuously collected about several aspects of the orgn and its problems You not only diagnose problems but also develop skills in the orgn to diagnose the problems as part of regular functioning
.Components of OD process
An OD expert needs to be invited as the orgn cannot handle the situation. The expert needs to think and plan Needs to apply knowledge and skills of applied behavioural science An internal change agent has to be appointed to carry on the process An emphasis of OD is on planning change on the basis of data.
like task forces. and by creating structural changes which may ensure continuing collaboration in the orgn
. thus such efforts need to be made You do this. amongst several ways. and among various groups which function in the orgn Problems in orgn can only be resolved through collaborative efforts.OD process
The main thrust of OD is on problem solving abilities of the orgn The orgn is helped to confront and cope with the problems encountered OD lays emphasis on building linkages between the individual goals and orgn goals amongst the individuals who work in the various roles. by setting up temporary systems.
OD is based on certain values which are important for the development of orgns as open and proactive systems. OD makes effort to develop OCTAPACE: 8 diff values:
Openness Confrontation Trust Authenticity Proaction Autonomy Collaboration Experimentation
Conditions for OD success
Commitment at the top Strong link pins: They are the roles which connect various levels and various parts of the orgn Change can flow through these key roles which can become the main media of communication Willingness and resources in the dept: A dept in the orgn is willing to experiment and has resources which can be used to stabilize change through OD Ensure at least one dept in the orgn stabilizes & continues with the change
Involvement of an external consultant: Brings in expertise from elsewhere Can take risks and confront organization Strong internal resources: To continue with the work To ensure orgn does not revert back to the existing paradigm Coordinators need to develop like internal OD facilitators
.Conditions for OD success:
Performance Management (PM)
An integrated process that: Sets objectives Appraises employees Translates objectives into individual key result areas (KRA¶s) Determines pay. and developing and enhancing perf and related competencies
. and Helps orgn achieve business goals Involves thinking through various facets of performance. reviewing. identifying critical dimensions of perf. planning.
or build on employee work performance
An ongoing communication process that involves both the manager and employee in:
Identifying and describing essential job functions and relating them to the mission and goals of the orgn Developing realistic and appropriate perf standards Giving and receiving feedback about the performance Writing and communicating constructive performance appraisals Planning education and development opportunities to sustain. improve.
Achievable. trace the possible loopholes in setting the targets and effectively map future strategies. the dept and for the orgn as a whole SMART: Specific.Performance Objectives
Need to establish clear performance objectives for the individual. Relevant and Timed ± provides opportunity to scientifically measure the perf targets. Measurable. aligning people with the orgn Need to identify appropriate performance indicators:
Cost: money spent to manufacture goods or provide service Input: The resources employed for the above Output: Goods / services provided to customers in terms of task accomplishment Outcome: The actual impact and value of the services delivery
project completion. improved efficiency. Describe in clear and specific terms the characteristics of perf quality that are verifiable and would meet or exceed expectations Accomplishment of orgn objectives to be included such as: cost control. Some guidelines:
Perf stds should be related to the employee¶s assigned work and job reqms Reporting systems should be adequate to measure and therefore should have more quantitative data Quantifiable measures may not apply to all functions. productivity.Developing perf standards
An approach could be top-down or bottom-up collaborative Could benchmark standards with competing and other orgns Need to get the employees stretch to obtain value. customer service
. process redesign.
observation or verifiable information? Are the standards consistent with orgn goals? Are the standards challenging? Are the standards clear and understandable? Are the standards dynamic?
.Checklist for perf standards
Are the standards realistic? Are the standards specific? Are the standards based on measurable data.
The main features include:
Focus on objective setting Develops systems for ongoing review of objectives Develops personal improvement plans PMS aligns with training & development Ensures formal appraisal with feedback Helps in pay review Develops competence based orgn capability
* PMS involves thinking through various facets of performance. identifying critical dimensions.Perf Management System (PMS)
A set of techniques and procedures for improving organizational performance. planning reviewing. developing and enhancing performance and related competencies
2. or evaluation of performance or behaviour analysis of an employee A formal process to evaluate the performance of the employee in terms of achieving orgn objectives.
PA means analysis.Performance Appraisal (PA)
1. Three fundamental processes: Confidential review system Self-assessment and review system 360 degree appraisal system
. review. 3.
All appraisals are of judgment and not always fair Needs consistent approach. 2. bias free ratings Main characteristics of PA:
A systematic process: Set work standards Assess employee actual perf relative to these standards Offer feedback to eliminate deficiencies & improve perf in due course of time Find out how well employee doing on the job.PA
1. establish plan for improvement Appraisal carried out periodically Not a past oriented but future directed activity Not limited to ³calling the fouls´. 4. clear standards & measures. Focus on employee development
360 degree appraisal
Requires performance feedback from all important stakeholders Effective in reporting performance. also ensures total employee involvement and employee empowerment The implementation should be gradual. bosses are not normally used to being evaluated by subordinates and will resisit its implementation Helps average out the biases Enables feedback from many stakeholders resulting in all round feedback of the employees performance Confidentiality on the person making the feedback is essential to elicit candid feedback The emperor¶s new clothes
multisource assessment. taps the collective wisdom of those who work most closely with the employee. The collective intelligence on critical competencies or specific behaviours and skills gives the employee a clear understanding of personal strengths and areas ripe for development Employee view this as credible. fair.360 degrees
The 360 degree feedback. accurate & motivating Single source assessment reinforce employee accountability and service the single source: the boss There is perceived bias in its implementation
specific and overall perf ratings Summarize the review on a performance & development form
.Annual appraisals & reviews
An opportunity to compare overall perf results with objectives & expectations established in the perf plan. Activities include:
Review annual perf result compared with expectations Identify accomplishments and areas needing improvement Review the results of development activities Discuss significant factors affecting job performance Assign objective.
how each employee fit the plans Choose dev activities to enhance capabilities & competence Develop SMART goals Agree perf plans & discuss with each employee
. decide what needs to be done. skills reqd to achieve expectations Describe specific development activities Foster communication between manager & employee
Review business plans.Perf & Dev Planning
The purpose is to:
Make performance expectations explicit Tie individual perf to orgn & dept business plans Identify measurement or evaluation criteria for perf Identify gaps in knowledge.
Planning meetings: Manager·s responsibility
Develop objectives for the individual Schedule perf & dev planning discussions Assist in determining priorities Review each employee draft perf plan Assist in determining dev areas & activities Maintain real-time file of employee objectives Monitor methods to ensure progress Enable process to incorporate changing scenarios
consider competencies needed to be developed Discuss draft plan with manager Renegotiate objectives for major changes
.Planning meetings: Employee·s responsibilities
Familiarize with dept goals & objectives Develop SMART goals with clear perf stds & completion deadlines Prepare supporting data for each objective Decide what resources and coordination will be needed List questions & potential problems for discussion with manager Assess current skill level reqms to meet perf plan objectives.
Appraisal ² Discussion process
Control the environment State the purpose of your discussion Ask for the employee¶s opinion Present your assessment Build on the employee¶s strength Ask for the employee¶s reaction to your assessment Set specific goals Close the discussion
Need to give ongoing perf feedback Based on agreed plans Both positive & negative Could be formal or informal When to provide coaching:
When strengths & accomplishments are recognized When performance needs improvement When growth and development are necessary When projects & priorities change
The process should be continuous
Should be descriptive. not evaluative. limit negatives to be manageable
. evaluative defensive Should be specific then general Should be directed to behaviour that can be addressed Should be well timed Should be checked to ensure clear communication Should be owned by the giver Should be based on observed behaviour Should be balanced: positive & negative.
timely and genuine have the greatest impact. Vague praises could send mixed signals and seem manipulative
Praising allows you to:
Acknowledge positive behaviour Keep good performance on track Reinforce good performance Help people feel good about themselves Help people feel good about their job performances Motivate people to continue doing a good job
Praises which are specific.
Praising (cont.´ Do not assign more work when praising To deliver constructive praises:
Tell employees what was done right Tell how you felt about the behaviour Pause to allow praising to be felt Encourage employees to do more of the same Reaffirm that you value the employee & his/her performance
Learners should be praised when their performance is approximately right Seasoned employees when they are exactly right Do not say ³Yes. but «.
for corrective action When reprimanding. its impact and expectations for future perf. need to: Make the facts surrounding the reprimand clear State what the reprimanded employee must do and why Reaffirm your belief in the reprimanded employee
Need to occasionally point errors and reprimand when perf slips Need to communicate what expectations has not been met.
Attacking personally rather than focusing on behaviour Reprimanding new learner when goal clarification or more direction is needed Saving up a list of problems & dumping them together Basing feedback on inference rather than on observed behaviour Reprimanding on something that occurred long ago Delivering the same reprimand over and over again Feelings or reactions: Defensive. Frustration. Angry. Resentful. Upset. Decreased trust & comm. Inadequate. Focused on feelings rather than on correcting behaviour. Getting even. Demotivated
Need to assess management
Most center around difficulties in precisely defining the job of a manager Identifying the differences in requirement at various levels in the hierarchy Some require admin work with heavy load of paperwork. others require coordination between people and still others negotiating with external personnel No one job description deals effectively with complexity of azll sets of reqm Managerial jobs difficult to analyze because of the long term cycle of activities Also a manager¶s job is seldom repeated in the same way
and Observations in job simulations in an assessment center
Each of this approaches have strength that can be utilized in a coordinated program for the prediction of management potential There are also weaknesses like in equating perf effectiveness in a lower job with that of a higher level ± need assumptions
Such assumptions lead to ³The Peter¶s Principle´ being made effective
.Need to assess management
Judgment of competence to perform in future mgnt position usually based on one of five sources of info:
Evaluation of job success and potential by current supervisors Results from traditional paper-and-pencil tests Clinical evaluations by psychologists and related professionals Background interviews.
placement or special training and development in management Assessment centers have their greatest value when the participant is aspiring to a job significantly different from the position held The simulation of job reqm for the new positions provides an opportunity to evaluate skills that is not available from observation of performance on the current job
. promotion.Assessment Center (AS)
An assessment center is a procedure (not a location) that uses multiple assessment techniques to evaluate employees for a variety of manpower purposes and decisions Most frequently approach applied for individuals being considered for selection.
. interviews & tests. etc. integrating the info and making predictions are difficult. Task of observing complex social behaviour.AS
Individuals usually assessed in a group Group assessment affords opportunity to observe peer interactions and aids in efficiency of observation Staff members of the assesses to assessors (typically 2:1) is imp to the assessment center process because it allows close contact and observation of participant and makes multiple evaluation possible Assessment techniques employed include: management games. simulation techniques. leaderless group discussions. role-playing exercises.
Feedback of results in the form of oral and written reports to participants and immediate supervisors may clarify developmental needs
. Participating in the exercises may be a learning experience for the participants and may provide personal insights into managerial competence. The assessors then reach consensus on dimension ratings and finally make predictions of management success.AS
Assessors report behavioural observations and dimension ratings for each exercise and then make independent ratings of overall dimensions of performance.
development and operation of the center Boyatzis: Competency: ³ An underlying characteristic of a person´ ± it could be a motive. Behavioural dimensions that affect job performances
. or a body of knowledge which he or she uses. trait. skill. aspect of one¶s selfimage or social role.Competency
The starting point of the assessment center project is to get a clear and accurate specification of what the center is measuring The center primarily measures competency Need to get the list of competency right or the people will be looked at against the wrong requirements leading to incessant problems in the design.
if it is recognized that these qualities are only convenient inferences from people¶s behaviour
Behaviour and traits are two sides of the same coin.g. (e. Defining competency as a behavioural dimension encompasses traits. motives and dispositions. trait of self-confidence can be said to be behind whether the person behaves in a self-confident manner) Aspects like creativity and sensitivity are only summaries of behaviour ± people behave creatively and so we know they have creativity.
g. communication skills include writing and face to face skills
.Specifying the competencies
For need of an assessment center: The primary objective is to design. which are essential to adequate perf but do not give rise to high perf Important to focus on the level of generality appropriate: e. The competences should reflect present realities and the future rather than what might have been truly historical Distinguish between competencies that differentiate between performance levels and threshold competencies. processes for assessing people¶s levels of competence and developing their competence. within an integrated management development system.
incisiveness = gets a clear overview of an issue. Hypothetical psychological variables are inappropriate. grasps info accurately. self-monitoring ± cannot be understood properly The no of competency dimensions must be kept within bounds.g.Specifying the competencies
Need competencies measurements that can be assessed. e.) Devise orgn specific competencies
.g. Too many and the accuracy of assessment may suffer The system of competencies and other types of variables should be easy to understand The competency dimension title must be backed up with the behaviours that make up the dimension (e. relates pieces of info. etc.
Training & Development
The basic purpose is to bring about some change in the way the individual s currently functioning so that his/her performance / results improve Help individuals meet their growth needs and keep the organization viable Improve employability of individuals Target training in areas where good results will benefit the organization High payoffs areas will be where new technology. expertise and / or skills are transferred by an expert to others who need that knowledge. policies & procedures have created changes
. expertise and skills.Training
Planned process by which knowledge.
supervisors must monitor progress. facilitate implementation of learning Ensure good value for training
. trainer and the supervisor Back on job. don t over train or give too much details Involve supervisors in helping to plan and carry out training All training must be evaluated by the trainees.Training
Focus training on few key concepts.
the manager needs to increase efficiency and reduce costs Organizations are only as good as their employees Training is not a quick fix.Why Train? --.Issues
To survive. Get them involved in their training
. it has to be budgeted like R&D Training must be planned to meet corporate goals and objectives Each of us have to be trained many times in our career or we will be replaced Training should be a development process rather than a series of unplanned events Workers need to be rotated through challenging assignments.
Most managers seem to feel that training employees is a job that should be left to others. is quite simply. perhaps to training specialists.Training. I on the other hand strongly believe that the manager should do it himself.)
. one of the highest leverage activities a manager can perform.
Andrew Grove (Intel Corp.
The Training Triangle
Line Manager Individual: -Responsibility -Active involvement -Own interest Line Managers: -Responsibility -Local Knowledge ( functional training) Training Specialist: -Definition of training needs -Effective solutions -Effective training delivery
Identifying Training Needs
Identify Business needs Identify mandatory training
Identify Divisional / Department needs Job Analysis Work profiling
Identify individual needs Appraisal Counselling Requests Testing
Selection of individuals
Appropriate training provision
Identifying Training Needs & Analysis
Without an effective training identification. Failure here is the commission of training. it is found that identification brings out that the solutions are not necessarily those of training and development * many are concerned with modification. commitment and practive of the people who should be carrying out the work for which they have received training. we cannot be sure that the learning opportunities we are providing are: needed by the organization needed by the individual on the scale required in the areas where some problems exist Also. not the omission.
. is the programme developed appropriate and relevant Often.
Training Needs Identification & Analysis
Training needs identification detects and specifies the trg & dev needs of individuals within the orgn and the orgn as a whole Training needs analysis follows from the training needs identification and determines the most effective and appropriate ways in which the needs might be met Effective training and development in an orgn depends on the need for the improvement of human performance being identified by the provision of appropriate development opportunities
Training needs identification and analysis
Confirms or otherwise the stated problem Identifies a problem of training or commission Ensures effective direction to training Saves money by ensuring appropriate and effective action Identifies the size of the problem Identifies the type of the solution Provides the training objectives
Training can also result from:
A senior manager decides that a particular subject could be good for the employees A trainer who has learned a new subject may feel it is good for the organization Because there is some issue in a department a senior manager assumes it is a training problem A new work is introduced and some personnel have to be trained New procedures requires updation of skills Employees request for training for their self-development
The specific ways in which people should change. both) To what extent can learning aims be determined prior to the training experience? What is the possibility of additional aims emerging during the training event? To what extent might the facilitators impose. learner. and the type of facilitation required.Training Objectives
What is to be the focus of the proposed training. develop. consciously or otherwise. or behave Predetermined / Emergent aims:
Who should determine the learning objectives? (the facilitator.
. some aims because of their own values and by setting norms?
To what extent are training aims conceptual (cognitive) or emotional (usually personal)? Will affect the nature of design materials needed.
. months.Training Objectives
Are the training objectives remedial or developmental? The extent should be considered and the implication of the focus How long is the group learning intended to have an effect (days. years)? What reinforcement will be available to participants to aid in the transition and refreezing processes? The extent to which the activity will be a joint learning experiment. in which the facilitator has a special responsibility The extent to which the facilitator allows participants to experience the activity without heavily processing it ³What is expected to change because of this module?´ Three broad categories: Cognitive. Psychomotor.
One classification: Listeners. traners with the listening style appear relaxed and unhurried and ³go with the flow´. and assure that all group members are heard Listeners are comfortable with all types of expression. easily expose their own emotions and expect learners to be self-directed and autonomous In training situations. Directors. Coaches Listeners:
Tend to create affective learning environments in which learners encouraged to express their personal needs openly The training focus is on the here and now. Interpreters. not appearing to worry about the training
. and the listeners characteristically are highly aware of individual group members Listeners tend to read nonverbal behaviour well. show a great deal of empathy.
interpreters provide info based on objective data Interpreters tend to integrate theory and events by making connections between past and present events Use case study. not feelings. theories & readings to present well-constructed interpretation and encourage independent thought. rules and concepts The training focus in on the there and then. share ideas. Training focus is on the how and why. The directors take charge and become final judge of what is learned The training process is well planned. delivered and evaluated
Tend to create learning envms in which learners are reqd to memorize and master terms. intellectual content
Create learning environment in which participation of the learner is limited. Separate self from trainees.
Tend to create behavioural learning environments in which trainees are encouraged to participate actively. learn and evaluate their own progress The training focus is on the what and how Coaches characteristically encourage trainees to actively experiment with practical application. problems. and projects based on real life Trainers who prefer a coaching style help trainees to verbalize what they already know and act as facilitators to make the learning experience more comfortable and meaningful. Coaches tend to draw on the strengths of the group and utilize trainees as resources They are clearly in charge and make use of activities.
Level of knowledge / skills / experiences? Training needs assessment: .List weaknesses and ways of overcoming them
.How well? Trainee Analysis: .
Job Analysis: .How? .Special characterisitics .Training Process: Planning
1.What does the worker do? .Why? .Who / Where are they? .
Who / Where are they? .Training Process: Planning
2.Level of knowledge / skills / experiences? Training needs assessment: .
3.List weaknesses and ways of overcoming them
.Why? .What does the worker do? .How well? Trainee Analysis: .Special characterisitics .
Job Analysis: .How? .
Determine training objectives: .How will it be evaluated?
.Under what conditions? .What has to be done? .Up to what standards? .Training Process: Planning
Decide on training aids required Prepare lesson plans: .Organize content in a logical sequence Select training techniques.Decide on appropriate techniques .
Select & organize content: .Training Process: Preparation
5.Study sources of information .Allocate times for each activity
. methods and aids .Decide how each lesson is being presented .
6.Select suitable methods .
7.Set out each lesson step by step .Decide on content .
Decide when this should be allocated .Select methods to be used .Prepare questions which have to be answered
.Decide on information required .Training Process: Preparation
8.Study methods of gathering information .
Plan evaluation: .
Conduct planned evaluation .Use demonstrations.Training Process: Presentation
9.Sumarize training & review in the light of evaluations .Discuss with other trainers involved .Write evaluation reports Review & Summarize . models.Summarize results .
10. visual aids Evaluate training: .
Conduct training: .
11.Use a variety of methods .Keep to your lesson plan .Revise to improve relevance
.Encourage participation .
require evidence that the employee can do the job --.hence the need for formal OJT
.OnOn job Training the
Oldest forms of training Roots in the apprentice systems of antient cultures Specially suited for training in the crafts and technical skills Help novice move through increasing levels of skills & knowledge Whenever one person conveys to another the skills or knowledge needed to do a task while both are on the job Informal OJT actions are part of orgn life When skills / knowledge being conveyed are complex and critical to the job.
Without the the key components of sound training programme design learning and performance objectives. and evaluation instruments informal or unstructured OJT cannot be relied on to convey the skills and knowledge to do a job OJT works well when the training objective is linked to developing cognitive and psychomotor skills through repetition and under supervision This includes training conducted in simulators or on a shop floor during equipment downtime
. targeted training materials.
and production: Evaluations material selecting. design. design and production:
.Developing OJT programs
Needs analysis: The need for the training Situation analysis: Assessing the training audience and analysing the resources available to design and implement training Job inventory and task analysis: Involves the skills and knowledge the employees must obtain to perform competently Behavioural objective specification: Writing measurable perf stds and specifying conditions for perf to occur Training material selection.
Comprehensive oral.Facilitator guides discussion after case is understood .To involve large group.
2. written or filmed account of an event or a series of related events .Presents a situational problem for discussion . divide into small groups to discuss a topic .Gives everyone a chance to participate Case study: .Training Methods
1.Best case studies build around actual problems
. problem solving skills .
Buzz Session: .Helps develop analytical.
.Trg using computers for fast calculations . acco.May be broken down into subcommittees or task forces .To plan promote organize a special event .Training Methods
3. Committee: .Ideal for distance learning.Good training ground for future managers Computer-based-training: .Small group selected to act on behalf of a large group/orgn . travel.Learner can go at own speed . trg anytime
4.Study problems and come up with reco for solution . dispersed workforce .Reduce time off.
Group discussed narrow technical area .Large / small group of people with common interests meeting together by common consent .Provides individual chance to know orgn. plan policies.Educational.Helps share info and make contacts Convention: . objectives .Assembly of representatives of regional groups of parent orgn .
Conference: .Training Methods
6.Early programme planning desirable . And see it in action
To examine a subject in depth and work out arguments for and against a given point of view .Develop team spirit in participants Demonstration: .
8.To teach a particular task .To help participants think & speak concisely .
Debate: .To perform an action before an audience to enable viewers to perform the same action .What is seen more likely to be believed & remembered .Formal contest in which participants present opposing views on a controversial topic .Trying to do something is a good way to learn
Help develop group opinion by testing ideas
Exhibit: . etc.Information for conference / convention Forum: .To reinforce a lecture . .
10.Display of visual information .A public assembly where everyone is given a chance to voice views .Training Methods
9.Can help gauge public opinion on a controversial topic .Could be an orderly discussion after a topic has been introduced by the speaker. panel. file.
As a pre-evaluation discussion to max ideas .Structured activity in which participants observe rules and compete to achieve an objective .
Brainstorming: .To get trainees involved so they learn by doing .An efficient substitute for reality
.To develop creative thinking Games & Simulations: .Simulation trg activity to mirror an actual situation .Training Methods
11.To encourage practical minds to think qualitatively .
12.Unrestrained offering of ideas by all members of a group .
A grp.A usually carefully prepared.To assist audience to understand a complex issue
. rather formal dissertation by one with claims to be an expert on the theme .
Lecture: .To present factual material in a logical sequence .Audience role passive Panel: . (3 to 5 persons) knowledgeable.To identify & explore a topic. issue or problem . in full view of audience holding an orderly conversation on a topic .Training Methods
14.To stimulate thoughts to open a subject for discussion .To entertain or arouse an audience .
An organized session that follows formal speeches or a forum or a panel .
.Self-testing produces immediate feedback 16.Material presented as a series of small. sequential steps .Training Methods
Programmed Instructions: .For learning at a distance.Members in audience invited to submit questions
15.Mastering requires the active participation of learner at her own preferred pace . correspondence . carefully graduated. Question Time: .
A group whose members may be called upon to play a formal role under guidance of a recognized authority on the subject .
Role-Playing: .Training Methods
17.To examine a problem in human relationship .Authority guides discussion and promotes learning
. discussion on implication of performance for situation under consideration .Helps role player assume another role and understand it Seminar: .To study in depth under a expert .
18.A real life situation improvised and acted in front of a group.
A group in retreat from a common workplace to share work related common interests.Training Methods
19.To identify.To present new material concisely & logically . explore and seek solns to work related problems .
Symposium: .For in-depth study of a situation
20.To present several differing views on same subject Workshop: .A series of short prepared speeches by up to 5 authorities covering various aspects of a subject followed by audience involvement . solve work related problems .
Necessary skills and knowledge Above factors are necessary to support effective performance
.Prompt feedback to performers .Clear consequences for performance .Clear performance specifications .Right people on the right job .Necessary support in the workplace .Transfer of Learning
Earlier.not so now Research show a poor track record of transfer of learning Factors enabling effective transfer: . HRD did not have to show results of their training efforts --.
Lack of reinforcement for new behaviours on the job Problems and/or obstacles in the work environment Non-supportive organizational climate Trainee s perception of new skills as impractical or irrelevant Trainee s discomfort with change Separation from trainer at work site Poor training design and/or delivery Negative peer pressure
.Transfer of Training -.
Transfer of Training
Line Mgr support
For effective transfer of training on the job the following cycle of support is necessary from the trainee s manager: Manager discusses the deficiency with the trainee Manager gets the trainees buy-in. connects with the trainee s incorrect behaviour Manager organizes appropriate training intervention through the concerned agency Manager briefs the trainee on what to learn from the programme Manager debriefs the trainee on return from the programme Manager helps the trainee implement the learning on the job
Determining needs 2.Evaluating Training
Consider following factors for effectiveness in evaluating training 1. Selecting and preparing audio-visuals 9. Determining subject contents 4. Evaluating the program
. Selecting participants 5. Selecting appropriate instructors 8. Determining best schedules 6. Selecting appropriate facilities 7. Coordinating the program 10. Setting objectives 3.
To what extent does the content meet the needs of those attending the program? 2.Evaluating Training
In evaluation consider the following factors: 1. Is the trainer the one best qualified to teach? 3. Was the coordination of the program satisfactory? 8. Are the aids effective in improving communication and maintaining interest? 7. Are the facilities satisfactory? 5. Is the schedule appropriate for the participants? 6. What else can be done to improve the program?
. Does the trainer use the most effective methods? 4.
Level 1: Reaction
Measures how those who participate in the program react to it A measure of customer satisfaction Reaction can make or break a program Need to get a positive reaction future of program depends on it If reaction not positive. will not be motivated to learn Positive reaction does not guarantee learning Sometimes the form called happiness sheets Tells trainees that the trainer wants to learn and improve Can be used to compare trainers Can provide feedback to improve the program
the specific objectives must be determined Training programs can teach Knowledge. skills and attitudes Thus measuring learning means determining one or more of the following: .What attitudes were changed? Without learning there is no change in behaviour
.What knowledge was learned? . and/or increase skill as a result of attending a program To evaluate learning. increase knowledge.What skills were developed or improved? .Level 2: Learning
Learning defined as the extent to which participants change attitudes.
Encouraging.The person must work in the right climate .The person must be rewarded for changing The boss can create five diff types of climate: Preventing. Neutral. Requiring Behaviour evaluation will be carried out after some time
.The person must have a desire to change .Level 3: Behaviour
Behaviour can be defined as the extent to which change in behaviour has occurred because the participants attended the program For a change to occur 4 conditions are necessary: . Discouraging.The person must know what to do and how to do it .
Need to be sure that these results are due to the program The final objective of the program must be stated in these terms Difficult to measure final results in programs such as leadership. motivation. etc. etc. Not an easy task to measure final results
.Level 4: Results
The final results that occurred because the participants attended the program Could include increased production. reduced costs. improved quality. communication.
etc Long-term incentives: stock options. club membership.Basics
Exec compensation consists of three key components:
Cash compensation: salary and onus Perquisites and supplementary benefits: insurance. etc
Firm performance is another determinant of executive compensation Compensation is a methodical approach to assigning a monetary value to employees in return for work performed Managers can use compensation as tool to enforce performance of employees at workplace to sustain competitive advantage Remuneration refers to monetary rewards
They also value aspects other than money Aligning compensation plans with business results is not the right option. need to align with work performance
Employee compensation consists of value and not money A good compensation program aligns with orgn and people It makes a tradeoff between the expectations of employees and orgn HR outcomes result from a good compensation plan Orgns globally try to adopt innovative compensation plans to remain competitive in the market Employees do not want only expensive compensation plans.
Compensation is the price for a factor of production ± it serves to allocate scarce human resources to productive use Economic concept: comp is governed by the same logic as any other purchase by the firm Psychological: represents the psychological contract between the individual & the orgn Sociological: Pay is a status symbol within orgns & society Political: Involves use of power & influence for pay Equity concept: Distributive justice. returns to be proportionate with contributions
legal envms and orgn¶s structure and workforce
. pay structure. pay system For supporting these. pay treatment for special groups. End result is a pay rate for each employee in the orgn Three core decisions: pay level. three other decisions: pay form. pay administration All these decisions influenced by a no of environmental and organizational variables: economic. socio/cultural.Compensation Decisions
Necessitates a series of decisions.
depts or the enterprise An average pay should be set to secure and keep a productive force Major consideration include: public policy.Comp decisions
Refers to the average pay for jobs. medical insurance)
Focuses on the relationships between jobs within the orgns Involve arraying jobs in a hierarchy and setting pay for these jobs relative to their status in the hierarchy. and.g. pay for comparable work in the community or industry (the going rate). company response to economic. some are provided on a group basis (e. involve internal & external standards
. political and social issues These considerations may be weighed unitarily or together with the unions representing the employees Some of these decisions end with personal interactions (salaries).
effectiveness. money. professionals Pay achievement: seek answers to questions of efficiency. and legality
Determining pay of individual employees on the same job How to differentiate among employees Whether to pay for time or for output
Pay form: composition of . benefits Pay treatment of special groups: sales people.
Involves two main issues: controlling costs and leveraging pay Establish an agile compensation & benefits system that tracks costs. have an agile.Managing compensations
1. helps to ensure pay equity. and keeps in touch with employee desires Another imp area is ensuring equity: managing employee perception. flexible system Create few job levels for each job
. is understood by employees. Some steps to do this: Categorize employees by job:
Avoid tendency to define jobs very narrowly Fewer jobs better than more More jobs make system cumbersome and difficult to administer Consider the speed with which jobs change.
industry Provide basis with which to establish financial values for jobs Tell how well we relate to the labour market Provide info for establishing salary ranges
Manage internal equity:
High potential for morale problems and turnover Pay people within a salary range and pay for performance Need to act properly in case equity needs to be breached
Link with job performance:
Better performers should get the better salary
5. Communicate how pay works
Compare pay to the labour market:
Benchmark against competitors.
group and orgn wide perf
.Variable pay systems
Employee compensation that varies with the orgn¶s business performance Basic salary is paid regardless of how well the orgn is performing System works well when the orgn¶s business perf is equal to or better that the industry average To be optimally successful. incentive plans: Award depends on individual. the employee must understand how their individual performance can impact their variable paythe most effective systems have established team or business unit perf targets Formal bonus.
Variable pay systems
Profit sharing plans: funded by the orgns profits based on a specified formula. offered shares exercised after a specified time. good when the value increases
. award must be reearned every year Spot bonuses: Paid immediately after a significant job performance event Gain sharing plan: share productivity gains in accordance to predetermined formula Alternative plan: Skill based. pay-for-knowledge Stock plans: ESOP. allocated usually as % of basic salary Lump salary merit awards: financial recognition for an individual¶s job in lieu of merit-based salary increases.