You are on page 1of 62

|  


    
  
  
Chapter learning objectives
1. Outline the perceptual process.
2. Explain how we perceive ourselves and
others through social identity.
3. Discuss the accuracy of stereotypes.
4. Describe the attribution process and two
attribution errors.
5. Identify the µBig Five¶ personality
dimensions.
Chapter learning objectives
6. Discuss the psychological dimensions
identified by Jung and measured in the Myers-
Briggs Type Indicator.
7. Diagram the self-fulfilling prophecy process.
8. Discuss three types of diversity initiatives.
5. Explain how the Johari Window can help
improve our perceptions.
|||

] |   V  



          

  

 
  V  

|    

 !     are received


through senses:
] Feeling
] earing
] eeing
] melling
] Tasting
|    

2   !
   selected in or screened
out
3. 
   are organised and
interpreted
4."  
#  becomes beliefs,
which influences behaviour
Perceptual process model
Environmental stimuli

Feeling earing eeing melling Tasting

elective attention

Organisation and
interpretation

Emotions and
behaviour
"$%"%
] Is the process of filtering
information through senses²
impossible to attend to all stimuli
reaching our senses
]  type of attention which involves focusing
on a  #   of an experience
while ignoring other aspects
"$%"%
 #    !   
1.     # &' 
± large size
± brightly coloured (intensity)
± in motion
- repetitive
± unique (novelty)
"$%"%
2. |    (
± objects/people stand out against the
environment / setting
ë  You received a phone call from your
colleague & you would be aware of her
³ënglish´ accent if the call was from your
Brisbane branch BUT not if the call was
from London
"$%"%
.     #   ! 
± we recognize and   & # 
    with our values and attitudes
"$%"%
] ã            
 
       
     
V V   
± affects our V  ²condition us to
expect events (at workplace e pectations
prevent decision makers from seeing
opportunities & competitive threats)
"$%"%

]  ) *  !     & 


   ! ² 

  

   


  
     
] focusing on nothing
] expect the unexpected
] reduces chance of screening out potentially
important information
Perceptual Organisation &
Interpretation
 |    +
! !  *# 
       
  
± Identifying trends
± similarity/proximity (nearness)
± Closure (filling in missing pieces (e.g.
assuming who attended meeting while you
were away)
,    -   # )-  .
& & ! /
Perceptual organisation/interpretation

˜   
+   # &
)

! ) 0   1    

     
&  !
± They create the screens through which people
select information.
± They guide perceptions and alert people to
deviations from the past.
± They help to make sense of one¶s
environment.
± È disadvantage is that they may  VV
from seeing the world in different ways / better
perspectives
 

ocial identify theory explains the
process of personal or self-
perception and social
perception.
±        

!     
   
  

 
 
 

|   
 includes the
individual¶s unique characteristics and
experiences, such as physical
appearance, personality traits, and
special talents.
 
 refers to a person¶s
self-perception as memberships in
various social groups
 
 theory features

] People adopt degrees of personal and


social identity depending on the situation
] We identify ourselves with several groups
and are motivated to create and present a
positive self-image
 

2))   !     

] Comparative process²  characteristics
of our groups with other groups
] 2   process²we perceive that
everyone in a group     characteristics
] Contrasting process²we often
   our
social identity groups with others by forming less
positive images of others
"%2||
|

] tereotyping
] ttribution
] elf-fulfilling prophecy can distort
reality
The stereotyping process

Develop categories |#   


and assign traits & +

ssign person to category  


based on observable info   # 

ssign category¶s traits  


to the person & +

1.TEREOTYPING
] It is the process of assigning traits to
people based upon their membership in a
social category
] olding beliefs about people that places them in
   lessening chances of interaction and
diminishing potential for recognizing and
accepting differences.
] tereotypes affect what a person thinks and
believes about others, as well as how she or he
behaves toward them.
ow accurate are stereotypes?
] ome accuracy, but also distortion
and error
± traits
3
&  !   in the
group
± we      /
contradictory information
ow accurate are stereotypes?
] tereotypes are less accurate when
± we have     with people in that
group
± we (   #  with members of that
group
± tereotypes   ) social identity
(We rely less on stereotypes )  -)
people better from personal experience)
 &  #    

] | ²unfounded negative emotions


towards people belonging to a particular
stereotyped group
± limits employment for qualified people
] tereotyping contributes to sexual
harassment
± arassers tend to stereotype the (female)
victim as subservient or powerless
2.ttribution Theory
The & involves deciding
whether an observed behavior or event is
largely caused by internal or e ternal factors
] "   &
± perception that outcomes are due to
! 4 &  rather than situation or fate

] (   &
± perception that outcomes are due to  
#  rather than the person
3 Rules of attribution
]      refers to whether an
individual displays
##  &  !
in
##    
] (: Is the employee who arrives late today
also the source of complaints from
colleagues for being lazy? (what we want
to know is whether this beh.is unusual or
not, unusual (beh = external attribution)
unique (beh = internal attribution)
3 Rules of attribution
] behaviour is 2   ± if everyone who is
faced with a similar situation responds in the
same way.
] Ex. Our tardy employee¶s beh. would meet this
criterion #  employees who took the same
route to work were also late. (attribution
perspective if consensus is IG = external
attribution to employee¶s tardiness / consensus
is LOW = internal attribution ± other employee¶s
took the same route BUT was not late)
3 Rules of attribution
] 2    ± in a person¶s action
] the      the behaviour the
more the observer is inclined to attribute it
to    
] 2"52    6"   &
] 7    6(   &
] ( When one perform their task the same
way as they perform other task given to
them by their managers.
ttribution errors
] Fundamental attribution error
± attributing behaviour of other people to
internal factors (their motivation/ability)

]  #+ !&
± attributing our successes to internal factors
and our failures to external factors
± when people are more likely to claim
responsibility for  than failures
3. 8+88""%5||29
] It occurs when our e pectations about
another person cause that person to act
in a way that is consistent with those
e pectations
] There are #     #+
# #    :
4 steps in the self-fulfilling prophecy
process
 (   #

] e.g. supervisor develops expectations about employee¶s


future behaviour
˜ (    ## &  !) 
  
] high-expectancy employees receive:
] more emotional support through non-verbal cues (e.g.
more smiling and eye contact);
] more frequent/valuable feedback/reinforcement;
] more challenging goals and better training;
] more opportunities to demonstrate their performance
4 steps in the self-fulfilling prophecy
process
 ##    
] better training/practice results in more skills
learned
] emotional support and feedback results in
stronger self-efficacy²leads to higher motivation
:   &  ! 
 # 
] Better motivation/skills leads to high
performance
] igh performance reinforces the original
perception
Dealing with self-fulfilling prophecy

] )    
± leaders learn effects of negative perceptions

± |  ²limited effect because leaders


have difficulty maintaining positive
e pectations of people who don¶t perform well
Dealing with self-fulfilling prophecy
] Emerging  +    (
   #+# #    ## /
1. Learning orientation²leaders need to
appreciate employee learning, not just
accomplishing tasks
2. ppropriate leadership style²leaders adjust
their style to different employees
3. Increase employee self-efficacy²behavioural
modelling, opportunities to practise
successfully
:     
 |  ## 
] It relates to the saying that ³  
 V     
 V  
] It is our tendency to quickly form an opinion
of people based on the first information we
receive about them
:     

˜    ## 
± It occurs when the most recent information
dominates our perception of others
± It is found in performance appraisals, for
which supervisors must recall every
employee¶s performance over the previous
year.
:     
 2 ## 
±    forms a general impression
± Becomes the basis for judgments about other
traits
± Often occurs to fill in missing information and
when the perceiver is not motivated to
observe
± Problem in performance appraisals²positive
halo employee rated high on all dimensions
:     
; |' 
± believing other people are similar to you
±     to protect our self-
esteem
Improving perceptual accuracy
Diversity
initiatives

Know "! Empathise


yourself with others
  
 
Compare Postpone
perceptions impression
with others formation
"|$"%5||"%
,;) /
 !    !
a. Recruit people with diverse backgrounds
] build long-term relationships with minorities
b. Provide reasonable accommodation
] ± accommodate work±family balance
] ± support non-traditional breaks for religious reasons
c. Diversity awareness activities
] ± appreciation of differences in the workplace
] ± sensitise people about stereotypes and prejudices
Beyond diversity awareness²interact more with people
from different backgrounds
"|$"%5||"%
,;) /
˜   ) 
] È person¶s ability to understand the
feelings, thoughts and situation of others
] Developing empathy skills
± receive feedback on our interaction with
others
± work with others in their environment
"|$"%5||"%
,;) /
 |   # 
] void first impressions
] It also enables people to engage in a
developmental learning process that forms
a better understanding of others
] Èctively seek out contrary information
"|$"%5||"%
,;) /
:      ) 
] Get different points of view
] By sharing perceptions, people  
  V  and potentially
gain a better understanding of the situation
"|$"%5||"%
,;) /
; <)  # ,= 7
)/
] Developed by Joseph Luft and arry
Ingram (hence the name µJohari¶)
] Need to be aware of and sensitive to our
own values, beliefs and prejudices
] Better mutual understanding when others
know us better
] elps us understand colleagues, etc.
Know Yourself: pplying the Johari
Window

= 7
)
a.    ²information about you which is
known to you as well as others
b. & 
  ²information that is known to others
but not to you
c. 

  ²information known to you but


unknown to others
d. -)  ²information about you known
to neither you nor others
"|$"%5||"%
,;) /
&' !    * # 
 :
    ²tell others about
yourself
& 8
& -²receive information from
others about yourself found in the blind
area
"|$"%5||"%
,;) /
  = 7
)
a. diversity awareness²interacting with
others
b. the 360-degree feedback process
c. dialogue²sharing perceptions
] 2        
VV
   
Know yourself (Johari Window)
Feedback

Known to self Unknown to self


Known
to others Open
rea Open Blind
Disclosure rea Blind
area area

idden
rea Unknown
idden Unknown
rea
Unknown area area
to others
|    
#

'  V    


       
V   V  !  
  .
|%"9"%5%">"%

 |     
 *  
?  !
± cholars often explain employee behavior in
terms of personality traits and companies

      V     
 VV .
± Recent studies have reported that   
V     V     
   , stress reactions, and
emotions fairly well under certain conditions.
|%"9"%5%">"%
? ?8! |       - #! 
            
     ²characterises people
who are caring, dependable and self-
disciplined.
] predicts job performance in almost every job
group
] engage in more organisational citizenship
behaviours
˜.    &  ²people who are poised,
secure, calm and enthusiastic
|%"9"%5%">"%

3.   (   ²refers to the


extent to which people are sensitive,
flexible, creative and intellectual
4. &  ²includes traits of being
courteous, good-natured, trusting,
cooperative, empathic and caring
5.(!  ²characterises people who
are outgoing, talkative, sociable and
assertive
?8! |      

     #  


!  &     
  
] et higher personal goals for themselves
] igher levels of organisational citizenship
] More adaptive to empowerment
] Tend to provide better customer service
(along with agreeableness and emotional
stability)
Big five personality dimensions
    Caring, dependable

   &  Poised, secure

   (   ensitive, flexible

 &  Courteous, empathic

(!   Outgoing, talkative


=3 |     @ 
  +?   "
 

] =3       ±
± wiss psychiatrist   =
± that identifies the way people prefer to
perceive their environment as well as
obtain and process information
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

During their retreat in Maine, U,


employees at Thompson Doyle
ennessey & Everest completed the
_ " 

ãV#    
    V    
V           
2ourtesy of Thompson Doyle Hennessey & ëverest

 .
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
          =3 


] (!  4!  
± how people prefer to focus their attention
]   4
± collecting information through senses or intuition
] -4# 
± processing and evaluating information
± using rational logic or personal values
] =
4  !
± orient themselves to the outer world
± order and structure or flexibility and spontaneity
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
] ?" widely used in career
counselling and self-awareness,
but probably should not be used
in employment selection
2|%"9"

  # 
˜  #+
2|%"9"

  # ± refers to a generalized


belief about the amount of control people
have over their own lives.
] #    ± individuals
who feel that they are very much in
charge of their own destiny.
] $    --those who
think that events in their life are due to
fate or luck.
Locus of control and self-
monitoring
˜  #+   
± sensitivity to situational cues and ability to
adapt your behaviour to that situation
± 2 #+ : adjust behavior
quite easily and show little stability in
other underlying personality traits;
conversationalists, better organizational
leaders, and better in boundary-
spanning positions.
± ) #+ ± more likely to
reveal their moods and personal
characteristics.