Amity School of Languages

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Guidelines to make an Effective Presentations
MBA (G, IB, AB) Semester - III Business Communication Prof (Dr) Shefali Bakshi Dy. Director (ASL, MOC)

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Name of Institution

‡ 1. Typical Problems with Presentations
Student Audience bored with presentations Nervousness Talking too fast Don't talk loud enough Don't look at audience Giving impression that you would like to be somewhere else. ‡ Other students do not know about subject

ASL Name of Institution ‡ 2. people listen to what you have to say ‡ "Your only task is to get something transferred clearly from your mind to the mind of your listeners." (1) ‡ Put your self in the position of your listeners. What is the best way to get your message across? 3 . How to Make Presentations Enjoyable ‡ This is not a performance in which you are being judged ‡ It is a communication.

ASL ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Name of Institution 3. with examples ‡ Narrow your focus in your preparation. Preparation (1) Identify the scope of your topic Organize it into sections Select information to present Practice the presentation Find out how long you are expected to talk Do not select large topic. Choose small number of points which listeners can digest ‡ Explain each point carefully. 4 .

hand out ‡ Aim for simplicity and uncluttered visual aids. don't overload with too much information. Visual Aids ‡ Helps listener understand your points ‡ Blackboard: problem of writing down all your points. takes time. ‡ Visuals must be seen clearly by whole audience. each with small number of points. don't make them too small. special pens ‡ Prepare photocopies. distracts listeners ‡ Transparency sheets: prepare material ahead of time ‡ Blank Transparency sheets: write on them. ‡ Use several sheets. 5 . Use only important information.ASL Name of Institution ‡ 4.

ASL Name of Institution ‡ 5. 6 . Speaking from Notes or Writing It Out ‡ Speaking from notes is more effective than reading them. ‡ Reading from text can be "absolutely deadly". It sounds memorized. This helps create a sense of direct communication with audience.

Making Your Topic and Organization Clear (3) ‡ Start by telling your audience what you are going to talk about ‡ List the points or subjects you are going to talk about ‡ Start slow .ASL Name of Institution ‡ 6.Clearly explain your topics ‡ Include any background necessary for your listeners to grasp your topic ‡ Organize your points clearly ‡ Use a natural sequence of points that flow ‡ Show the relation of your points to each other and to your overall topic ‡ Failure to do the above means you will lose your audience 7 .

Restate important ideas in different words to help your audience grasp them List your points Use frequent summaries Show connections between one part of your talk and another All of this helps your audience form mental pictures of your subject matter.ASL ‡ 7. Your audience cannot go back and check things they missed. Therefore you must help your audience understand what you are saying. 8 . Your audience is easily distracted. Helping Your Listeners Understand ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Name of Institution Listening is more difficult than reading.

9 . shorten it Don't talk faster to cover your material. that shows poor preparation Better to be too short than too long Do your practising in advance. you will lose your listeners Do not run overtime. that's OK. not five minutes before your presentation ‡ Each practice from notes will be a bit different.repeatedly. Practising the Talk ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Name of Institution After preparation is done.ASL ‡ 8. Time yourself. practice your talk . ‡ Anticipate questions. If it is too long. especially objections. and how you might answer them.

professional guidelines for speaking 10 .ASL Name of Institution ‡ 9. ‡ We think we have to adhere to some image of THE public speaker. The Common Anxieties ‡ We naturally feel nervous speaking publicly in front of an audience ‡ We assume our audience will criticize or ridicule us. ‡ Audience might wonder whether we really know our subject ‡ Audience watching for our mistakes ‡ Audience judging us as poor speakers ‡ We think our audience will detect our nervousness .our shaky voice and hands. and follow formal.

‡ Our audience is here to obtain some information from our presentation ‡ Don't act embarrassed over slips and mistakes you might make ‡ Show you are interested in your own topic. if you display boredom with your topic. so will your audience ‡ Show your audience that you have something important to communicate to them. and relax. ‡ Remind ourselves that our audience is just like us. they will ignore minor slips and mistakes. They will respond positively.ASL Name of Institution ‡ Coping With These Anxieties: ‡ We should just be ourselves. not a pack of critics ‡ Our audience is not looking for faults in our speaking. 11 .

ASL Name of Institution ‡ 10. They have programs to help you make presentations. ‡ If after all this you are still nervous beyond the limits you can tolerate. 12 . ‡ Your feelings of nervousness will not be evident to your audience. ± Gives you extra energy to give a really good presentation. seek help from the McMaster Counselling Services. Nervousness (5) ‡ A little bit of nervousness: ± Shows that you are not too arrogant. channel your nervousness into positive energy. examples ± Increased heart rate ± Sweaty palms ± Shaky hands ± Butterflies in your stomach ‡ Combat nervousness by thorough preparation. the day of the presentation should then be easy.

ASL Name of Institution ‡ 11. gestures. That would be artificial. and expressions ‡ Don't "Make a Speech". speak the way you would in normal everyday conversation ‡ Use your normal voice. ‡ "People are most effective as speakers when they allow themselves to be the people they are naturally«" 13 . Being Yourself and Acting Naturally (5-6) ‡ Act naturally. your voice will take on a strange pitch and tone.

ASL Name of Institution ‡ 12. 14 . ‡ Show that your personally are interesting in the topic of your talk ‡ Talk to the whole group. or the entire audience ‡ Do NOT talk to the teacher or instructor. Showing Interest in Communicating ‡ Show your listeners that you have something important or interesting to say.

Add impromptu comments as if they just came to your and were not part of your prepared presentation that you practiced on. it is difficult to maintain eye contact. Don't talk in a monotone. Look directly at your audience when you want to emphasize particular points. you can do this individually ± If it is a large audience. ‡ Don't look at the ceiling or the far wall ‡ Look directly into the eyes of your audience ± If it is a small group. Slightly slow down to emphasize points . Eye Contact ‡ If you do not look directly at your audience. ‡ If you read your notes. they will feel left out. so this is not advisable ‡ Be spontaneous. and so pay less attention to what you have to say. 15 . use your finger on the margins of your notes to keep your place.ASL Name of Institution ‡ 13. you will have to look directly at groups or sections of your audience ‡ If maintaining eye contact makes you lose your place in your notes.

and seeking assurance from your audience. you do want to fool around with adjusting the mic once your talk begins ‡ If you are nervous. ‡ Pause at the end of sentences and sections. 16 . At this point a one-liner that pokes fun at yourself is sometimes quit effective in breaking the ice in an awkward moment. more tightly worded. don't appear nervous. ‡ Do not raise your voice at the end of each sentence as if you are asking a question. slow it down. it will take your audience longer to digest it than if you were to speak more informally.ASL Name of Institution ‡ 14. it helps to convince your audience of what you are trying to say. Confidence ‡ Speak loud enough so that your audience can hear you. prepared written text tends to be more packed with information. go slowly. ‡ For a large audience or room. act normal about it. and more formal. ‡ If you lose your place or get tongue tied. Speed. Speak with confidence. ‡ If you are reading any text directly from a page. you may start to talk fast. Volume. test it out before your talk. you may wish to use a microphone.

It can be extremely irritating to your audience. If you are doing some kind of repetitive movement. relax your body. pace back and forth. or facial expressions. or swivel in your chair. as you speak. these will come naturally if you focus on your talk. ‡ Don't fiddle with your hair or your jewelry. Movements and Gestures (7) ‡ Don't focus or think about what to do with your hands. But don't be too stiff.ASL Name of Institution ‡ 15. Hang loose. 17 . Place both feet on the floor. ‡ Sit or stand straight. try to control it. It distracts your audience.

ASL Name of Institution ‡ 16. Tap into the knowledge of your audience. if you do not understand it. Your audience does not expect you to know everything. Welcome such questions and statements. ‡ If you do not know the answer to a question. These can add to your presentation. or to express it in some other way. 18 . and the raising of related points. Answering Questions ‡ Tell your audience whether you will accept questions during your presentation. say so. or going off on unrelated tangents. ask the questioner to repeat it. or prefer to hold them to the end. ‡ Make sure you understand a question before answering it. Your audience is primarily interested in seeking more information. or to give examples. ‡ Answer a question as simply as possible without being long winded. ‡ Treat a question and answer session at the end of your presentation as an informal discussion of your subject rather than as a series of challenges of things you have said. Ask your audience whether they have the answer. clarification of points you made.

Too much lighting can drown out your visuals. Audio Visual Aids (additional points) ‡ Audio visual aids are now commonly used in presentations. ‡ Make sure that your visual aids can be seen from all parts of the room. So the following is additional material and suggestions.ASL Name of Institution ‡ 17. Glitz can overwhelm and drown out the content of your message. ‡ Do not overwhelm your audience with your audio visual aids. There is practically nothing on this in the booklet. and your equipment. ‡ Test your equipment in the room you are going to use well before your presentation. Do not test it somewhere else. 19 . ‡ Check the lighting before hand. They will affect your presentation. Making Class Presentations. Try to use dimmers if they are available. The room will have special conditions. Not enough lighting can make the taking of notes by your audience impossible.

Put only a few points on each transparency. ‡ Do not use tables or charts with small statistics on them. 20 . ‡ Do not photocopy onto your transparencies normal typed pages (say in 10. Do not mix them up. You do not want to go searching for the correct transparency in the middle of your talk. It helps interactivity. Make each point large enough so that the person in the back row can see it. 12. or 14 font size). Use a sheet of paper to control which points the audience sees. Your audience will not be able to read small text. ‡ Writing on blank transparencies with a black felt pen is a way to record feedback from your audience so that everyone can see it. ‡ Make sure the text and visuals are dark enough that they can bee seen by the audience.ASL Name of Institution ‡ Overhead Transparencies ‡ Keep the sequence of your transparencies in order. Cover the points at the bottom which you do not want your audience to see until you get to them. They are very hard to read.

‡ If you have a hand held mic with a cord. ‡ Try to use a wireless mic that clips on to your collar or clothing. If your voice does not carry to the back of the room. then use one. This will not restrict your movement. This might be OK for formal presentations. 21 . such as a podium.ASL Name of Institution ‡ Microphones ‡ Try not to use a mic if at all possible. It can be distracting. ‡ Test the volume and pitch of the mic before your presentation. your will be tied to one location. make sure you do not get caught up in the cord. ‡ If you use a stationary mic. but it will make movement across the front of the room practically impossible. You do not want a high pitched squeal irritate the eardrums of your audience in the middle of your presentation. or trip over it.

22 . ‡ Do not fiddle with video equipment in the middle of your talk. Have it set up and ready to go before you begin your presentation. ‡ Ensure that the sound track works properly. ‡ Ensure the video quality is high or acceptable. ‡ Use video sparingly only to illustrate a point. You do not want to have a video or film take over the major portion of your talk. ‡ Integrate the video clip seamlessly into the rest of your presentation.ASL Name of Institution ‡ Video and Film ‡ Video and/or film can be an effective way to create impact.

ASL Name of Institution ‡ Slides ‡ A slide projector can be an effective tool to provide visual representations of some of your points. ‡ If you get a helper or aide to advance the slides. Do not overwhelm your audience with too many slides. ensure they know the spots in your talk when they should advance to the next slide without prompting from you. the sequencing of your slides. with a remote control or clicker. 23 . ‡ Use slides sparingly. ‡ Try to control.

such as Microsoft PowerPoint.ASL Name of Institution ‡ Computer-Aided Presentations ‡ Computer-generated slides. Harvard Graphics. etc. They are used increasingly by students in classroom presentations. Other possibilities are Wordperfect. have become standard in many professional presentations. ‡ One advantage of computer-generated slides is that they can be revised right up to the beginning of your presentation. or at home if you have a computer and the appropriate software. ‡ You can prepare your PowerPoint slides from any of the student computer labs on campus. Lotus. Make sure your slide show fits on a single diskette for easy transfer to the computer you will use in the classroom. 24 .

‡ Make sure you prepare a hard copy handout of your slides in case something goes wrong. 25 . This drowns out the text. ‡ Test the slide show on the computer you are going to use and in the room you are going to use before your presentation. Do not overwhelm your audience with a Multimedia show that emphasizes format over content. ‡ Use a modest number of computer slides. Use double sided copying to save paper. ‡ Always use colour contrast between foreground and background.ASL Name of Institution ‡ Contd: ‡ Try to ensure a good balance of text and graphics. You can fit three to six slides on a single sheet of paper for photocopying and hand out. ‡ Follow the guidelines for transparencies and slides. Never put text on a noisy background. In particular. make sure that the text on the slides is viewable from all parts of the room.

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