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Vertebrates

Vertebrates
• Vertebrates
– Animals with a backbone
Vertebrates
• Phylum: Chordata

Characteristics
1. Backbone
2. Backbone (vertebrate) surrounds and
protects a nerve cord
3. Skull and vertebrate are made of either
bone or cartilage
Vertebrate Characteristics (cont)
• 4. Endotherms (warm-blooded animals)
that maintained a constant body
temperature

• 5. Ectotherms (cold-blooded animals) that


body temperature changes with their
environment
Fish Class
• Examples- minnows, blue gills, clown fish
• Characteristics
– 1. Fins- help the fish move steer, stop, and
balance
– 2. scales- protect the body
– 3. Well developed sense of vision, hearing,
taste, and smell
– 4. lateral line system- row of sense organs
Fish Class
• Characteristics
– 5. Breathe with gills

– 6. External and internal fertilization


3 types of fish
– 1. Jawless fish- eel like
fish, smooth, slimy, no jaw
– 2.Cartilaginous fishes-
have cartilage, no bones,
strong jaws SHARKS!
– 3.Bony fishes- bony
skeleton, can float in place
without swimming because
they have a swim bladder
• Swim bladder- balloon like
organ filled with oxygen
and other gases that gives
the fish buoyancy
Bell Work
• Define the following terms
• 1. endotherm
• 2. ectotherm
• 3. swim bladder
4. Name 2 characteristics of fish
Amphibian Class
• 1. Amphibians evolved from fish and to
adapt to life on land they needed lungs for
breathing
• 2. Lung- saclike organ that takes oxygen
from the air and delivers it to the blood
Amphibian Characteristics
• 1. Amphibian means “double life” because
they live in water and on land
• 2. Eggs do not have a shell or membrane
to prevent water loss so they are laid in
water
• 3. Ectotherms
• 4. Skin is smooth and slimy
• 5. They don’t drink water, they absorb it
through their skin
Amphibian Characteristics (cont.)
• 6. breath by taking air into their lungs and they
absorb it through their skin
• 7. Their skin is so thin and moist they must live
in water or in damp habitats
• 8. Their skin is brightly colored to warn predators
away. This is called warning coloration.
• 9. 3 chambered heart
• 10. Turn to page 70. in your book and draw the
life cycle of a frog.
Metamorphosis
Frog Metamorphosis
Kinds of Amphibians
• 1. Caecilians- shaped
like worms or snakes,
they have no legs.
They live in tropical
areas
• 2. Salamanders- live
under stones or logs
in damp woods
Kinds of Amphibians
• 3. Frogs and toads
have powerful legs for
jumping, well
developed ears for
hearing, sticky
tongues, and vocal
cords for calling
• Vocal sac-thin sac of
skin that inflates with
air and vibrates
Reptiles
• 1. Some amphibians evolved special traits
that prepared them for life in a drier
environment
• 2. They developed thick, dry skin that
protected them from water loss
• 3. Their legs were stronger so they could
walk and they evolved a special egg that
could survive on dry land
Reptile Characteristics
• 1. Some reptiles live in water but they use
lungs to breathe air
• 2. Thick dry skin, that is water tight and
prevents losing water by evaporation
• 3. Ectothermic
• 4. Amniotic egg-surrounded by a shell that
protects an developing embryo (most
important adaptation)
• 5. Internal fertilization
• 6. 3 chamber heart
Types of Reptiles
• 1. Turtles and Tortoises

• 2. Crocodiles and Alligators

• 3. Lizards

• 4. Snakes
Bell Work
• 1. Name the 4 types of reptiles.

• 2. What animal group did reptiles evolve


from?

• 3. Are reptiles ectothermic or


endothermic?
• 4. Name 3 characteristics of reptiles?
Tuatara
• Oldest living reptile
Birds
• 1. Class: Aves
• 2. Birds are thought to be
descendants of dinosaurs
• 3. Share some
characteristics with
reptiles
– A. Bird legs and feet are
covered with thick dry
scales like reptiles
– B. Both have amniotic eggs
with a shell
Bird Characteristics
• 1. Beaks instead of
teeth or jaws
• 2. Feathers
• 3. Wings
• 4. Need a lot of
energy to be able to
fly
• 5. Eat large amounts
of food
Bird Characteristics
• 6. Air Sacs- special
sacs attached to the
lungs that increases
the amount of oxygen
that birds can take in
• 7. Lighter skeletons-
hollow bones
• 8. 4 chamber heart
• 9. Endothermic
Kinds of Birds
• 1. Flightless Birds
– A. penguins
– B. ostrich
• 2. Water Birds
– A. ducks
– B. loons
• 3. Birds of Prey
– A. owls
– B. hawks
Kinds of Birds
• 4. Perching birds
– A. cardinal
– B. chickadees

• 5. Non Perching birds


– A. red-bellied wood
pecker
Bell Work
• 1. Name 4 characteristics of
– Fish
– Amphibians
– Reptiles
– Birds
Mammals
Origin of Mammals
• Fossil evidence shows 280 million years
ago there were mammal-like reptiles
called therapsids
Characteristics of Mammals
• 1. Mammary glands-
secrete nutritious milk
• 2. Endothermic
• 3. Hair somewhere on
their bodies
• 4. Specialized teeth
• 5. 4 chamber heart
• 6. Large brains
Characteristics of Mammals
• 7. Require oxygen to burn or break down
the food they eat
• 8. Diaphragm- muscle at the bottom of the
rib cage that moves and helps with
inhaling and exhaling
• 9. Produce sexually
Kinds of Mammals
• 1. Monotremes-
mammals that lay
eggs
• A. have mammary
glands
• B. echidnas
• C. duckbilled platypus
Kinds of Mammals
• 2. Marsupials-
mammals with
pouches
– A. have mammary
glands
– B. opossums
– C. kangaroos
– D. koalas
– E. Tasmanian devils
Kinds of Mammals
• 3. Placental-embryos stay in an organ called an
uterus in the mother. The placenta in the uterus
supplies food and oxygen to the embryo.
• Examples
– Pigs
– Horses
– Dolphins
– Whales
– Humans
• 4.Gestation period- time that the embryo
develops in the mother