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**What makes Algebra different from Arithmetic?
**

The Presence of the Unknown Variable

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Linear Equations in Single Variable

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Solve: (5x – 6) / 3 = 4

x = 18 / 5

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Simplify (3xy – 9y) / (x – 3)

3y But what if x = 3 ?

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Simultaneous Equations

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Solve 3a + b = 15 3b + a = 13

a = 4, b = 3

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3x - y = 6 6x - 2y – 12 = 0

Infinite solutions..

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Quadratic Equations

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Solve (x - 5x + 6) = 0

2

(x2 - 3x - 2x + 6) = 0 x (x - 3) - 2 (x - 3) = 0 (x - 2) (x - 3) = 0 x = 3 or x = 2

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Solve : 2x – 17x + 21 = 0

2

X = 3/2 and x = 7

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General Solution of 2 ax + bx + c = 0 (a ≠ 0)

x = [ -b + √ (b2 - 4ac) ] / 2a x = [ -b - √ (b - 4ac) ] / 2a

2

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**In ax + bx + c = 0 , what is the Sum of the roots?
**

2

- b/a

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**In ax + bx + c = 0 , what is the product of the roots?
**

2

c/a

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**In ax + bx + c = 0, when are the two roots equal?
**

2

When b = 4ac

2

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**In ax + bx + c = 0, when are the roots reciprocal of each other?
**

2

When c = a

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Inequalities

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If x ≥ 3, is x + 2 ≥ 3 + 2 ?

Yes

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If x ≥ 3, is x - 4 ≥ 3 - 4 ?

The same number can be added or subtracted without changing the truth of the inequality

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If x ≥ 3, is x * 2 ≥ 3 * 2 ?

Both the sides can be multiplied or divided by the same number without changing the truth of the inequality.

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If x ≥ 3, is x * (- 2) ≥ 3 * (-2) ?

No. A negative number multiplied on both sides, reverses the sign of the inequality.

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Solve the inequality (5x – 1) / -2 < 3

x >-1

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Solve x – 7x - 8 < 0

2

**x > 8 and x < -1 (Not possible) x < 8 and x > -1 (Possible) OR -1 < x < 8
**

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Sequences and Series

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**What is the next term in the sequence? 9, 6, 3, 0, -3,....
**

This is an AP, with common difference (-3).

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**What is the next term in the sequence? 4, -2, 1, -1/2,...
**

This is a GP, with common ratio (- 1/2)

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**Sum of the first n integers
**

= n (n + 1) / 2

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**Find the sum of the series a, a+d, a+2d,... a+(n–1) d
**

(a is expressed n times) = na + d [ 1 + 2 + 3 + ..... (n-1) ] = na + (n-1)( n – 1 +1) d / 2 = n/2 [ 2a + (n – 1) d ]

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In other words, the sum of an AP of n terms with first term “a” and common difference “d” is ...

= n/2 [ 2a + (n – 1) d ]

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**Sum of a GP of n terms with first term “a” and common ratio “r”
**

= a ( r - 1) / ( r - 1)

n

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**What is the seventh term of the sequence 1, 1/4, 1/9, 1/16, …? Is it a progression?
**

Seventh term is 1/49. It is not a progression.

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**Find the sum of the series 1, 2, 3, 4, ... 15?
**

15 (15 + 1) / 2 = 120

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The first term of an AP is 5 and the common difference is 4. What is the sum of the first six terms?

90

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**Find the fourth term of a th GP if the 6 term is 20 and the common ratio is 2.
**

5

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**A quick revision of concepts covered till now ...
**

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If ab = bc, then is a = c?

Only if b <> 0

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General Solution of 2 ax + bx + c = 0 (a ≠ 0)

x = [ -b + √ (b2 - 4ac) ] / 2a x = [ -b - √ (b - 4ac) ] / 2a

2

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If a > b, is ac > bc?

Only if c is positive.

What if c is negative?

Then > becomes <

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a + b + c - 3abc =

3 3 3

**(a + b + c) x 2 2 2 (a + b + c - ab - bc - ca) What if (a + b + c) = 0? 3 3 3 a + b + c will be = 3abc
**

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a -b =

n n

where n is an element of N. n-1 n-2 n-1 (a-b) (a + a b +…… + b )

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Find the value of 2 1 2 x + ( /x ) 1 if x + ( /x) = 3

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Given that x + (1/x) = 3 Squaring both the sides we get [x + (1/x)]2 = 9 x2 + 1/x2 + 2 = 9 2 1 2 x + /x = 7

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**If x = a (b-c), y = b (c-a), z = c (a-b), find the value of x 3 y 3 z 3 ( /a) + ( /b) + ( /c)
**

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**We can write x /a = (b - c), y /b = (c - a), z /c = (a - b) And x /a + y/b + z/c = 0 x 3 y 3 z 3 so, ( /a) + ( /b) + ( /c) = 3xyz / abc
**

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**Find the value of 2 2 2 a + b + c - 2ab - 2ac + 2bc if a = 17, b = 15, and c = 13
**

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**We can write the given equation as 2 (a - b - c) Putting the values of a, b, and c, 2 the value is (17 - 15 - 13) = 121
**

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Simplify {(a - b ) + (b - c ) + (c -a ) } -----------------------------------------3 3 3 {(a-b) + (b-c) + (c-a) }

2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3

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**Let x = a - b , 2 2 y = b - c and 2 2 z=c -a So, x + y + z = 0 3 3 3 Therefore x + y + z = 3xyz
**

2 2

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**So, the numerator 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 3 (a -b ) (b - c ) (c -a ) and the denominator = 3(a-b) (b-c) (c-a) Hence, the ratio = (a+b)(b+c)(c+a)
**

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Find the value of 2 (a+1) * (1-a) * (1+a+a ) * 2 6 (1-a+a ) * (1+a )

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**We can write the above equation as: 2 (a+1) * (1-a+a ) * 2 6 (1-a) * (1+a+a ) * (1+a ) 3 3 6 = (1+a ) * (1-a ) * (1+a ) 6 6 = (1-a ) * (1+a ) 12 = (1-a )
**

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**Find the value of b-a c-a 1/(1+x +x ) + a-b c-b 1/(1+x +x ) + a-c b-c 1/(1+x +x )
**

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Upon solving we get a b c a b c (x +x +x )/(x +x +x ) = 1

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**If a + b + c = 0, find the value of 2 2 2 1/(b + c - a ) + 2 2 2 1/(c + a - b ) + 2 2 2 1/(a + b - c )
**

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Given that (a + b + c)= 0, 2 2 (a + b) = (-c) 2 2 2 or, a + b - c = -2ab 2 2 2 similarly b + c - a = -2bc & 2 2 2 c + a - b = -2ca Thus, the equation becomes (1/-2bc) + (1/-2ca) + (1/-2ab) = (a + b + c) / -2abc = 0

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**Find the value of {17 + 4 (17) + 16} --------------------------------2 (17 + 38)
**

4 2

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**It can be written as 4 2 2 4 {(17) + (2) (17) + (2) } ----------------------------------2 2 {17 + (17)(2) + (2) 2 2 = (17) - (17)(2) + (2) = 259 4 4 2 2 Since a + b + a b = 2 2 2 2 (a + b + ab)(a + b - ab)
**

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**For what value of m will
**

(m+1)x + 2(m+3)x + m + 8 = 0 have

2

equal roots

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b - 4ac =0

2

Hence, 2 4 (m + 3) - 4 (m + 1)(m + 8) = 0 Upon solving we get m = 1/3

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**A quick review of the formulae
**

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(a + b) =

2

a + b + 2ab

2 2

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(a - b)

2 2

2

= a + b - 2ab

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(a + b) - (a - b) =

2 2

4ab

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a -b =

2 2

(a + b) (a - b)

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(a + b + c) =

2

a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca)

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(a - b + c) =

2

a + b + c + 2(ac - bc - ab)

2 2 2

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(a + b - c) =

2

a + b + c + 2(ab - ac - bc)

2 2 2

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(a + b) =

3

a + b + 3ab(a + b)

3 3

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a +b +ab =

4 4 2 2

(a + b + ab)(a + b - ab)

2 2 2 2

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a +b=

4 4

(a - √2ab + b ) (a + √2ab + b )

2 2 2 2

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a + b + c - 3abc =

3 3 3

(a+b+c)(a + b + c - ab - bc-ca)

2 2 2

What if (a + b + c) = 0? 3 3 3 a + b + c = 3abc

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a -b = n is an element of N

n n

(a - b) (a

n-1

+ a b +…… + b )

n-2 n-1

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