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 Biogas Process:
 Biogas is formed by bacteria during anaerobic degradation
of organic material.
The process requires: (1) Certain environment
(2) Bacterial population
This process depends on temperature:
Higher temperature=faster digestion
Below 10° =very slow
Above 65°=only a few bacteria survive
This process also depends on the size of biogas digester:
Too small volume= washout undigested
Too large volume= waste of money
Technical Description

Digester divided in two major types:

 Continuous type: materials are added continuously and gas

production is uninterrupted.
 Batch type: materials are loaded in one single operation
and left to ferment till gas produces.
 The Fixed Dome:
 It was originated in China.
 It consists of airtight container, of brick, stone, or concrete
 Top & bottom hemispherical & walls are straight
 Gas leakage through dome is often major problem
 Pressure: 1~1.5 m water
 Feedback: animal manure, human excrete, agri-waste
 Volm: 01~0.2m³ (gas:feedback)
 Retention: 60 days at 25ºc
 The Floating Cover Digester:
 It is originated in India
 It consists cylindrical container. It consists of brick or
concrete reinforced with chicken wire.
 Height : dia= 2.5~4.1:1
 Feedback: cattle manure
 Retention: 30 days-warm
50 days-colder region
 Volume: 0.2 ~0.3 m³
 Pressure variation: 4 ~8 cm water
 The Bag Digester:
 Long cylinder of PVC or red mud plastic is used. In bag
there are inlet &outlet pipes for supply &withdrawal of
slurry & an outlet pipe for produced gas
 Gas produced is stored in the bag in flexible membrane
 It is easily installed in shallow trench
 Retention: 60 days at 15~20°C
20 days at 30~35°C
 Volume: 0.23~0.61
What does it look like?
Original Diagrams of the Biogas Digester

 It is not enough to simply put decomposing materials into a

biogas digester and let them sit unmixed. The substrate
needs to be stirred so that bacteria can come into contact
with new material. Furthermore, scum tends to form on the
top of the substrate, especially in situations where we are
using mostly plant matter. The prototype digester is
designed so that both mixes the substrate and breaks-up the
hard layer of scum that forms on top of the digestion
Original Diagrams of the Biogas Digester
 Operation of Biogas Plant:
 To operate a plant animal manure and water is mixed 1:1
proportion to make slurry to fill digester. In new plant gas
may start in 5~10 days in summer & 15~20 days in winter
 When fresh dung added to digester the digested slurry
automatically overflows into collection pit
 In summer slurry dries out forming dry scum so, water id
added & scum stirred with pole
 During winter production slows down then cattle urine, or
1/5 poultry dropping or 100g urea per 50kg dung may be
 Attractive features of Biomethanation (Anaerobic
 The use of elective culture with no attempt to exclude
foreign organism
 Very simple recovery of the gaseous products
 Low operation costs-there is no need for air and intense
mixing need aerobic processes


 Anaerobic digestion also reduces the amount of solid

mass by converting to gases plus a smaller amount of
sludge that can be utilized
 Relatively inexpensive equipment
 For most organic waste materials, methane digestion is
probably the efficient energy conversion, because direct
burning as well as gasification which give good results
for dry wood, give very bad efficiencies with water
contents of most waste material
 Provides a sound environment management tool for
biodegradable waste