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Classroom Management

Authors and Theories

Created by:
•Allison Kaiser
•Rose Mendenhall
•Christian Getzin
•Oksu Ellis
Pick your favorite!!!

• William Glasser

• Spencer Kagan

• Linda Albert

• Rudolf Dreikurs
William Glasser

• A theory based on behaviorism

William Glasser

• Degree of teacher control in

establishing rules:
– Stress student responsibility
– Establish rules that lead to success
– Accept no Excuses
– Call for value judgment
– Suggest suitable alternatives
– Invoke reasonable consequences
– Be persistent
– Carry out continual review
William Glasser

• Student control regarding

establishment of rules:
– Students are aware of rules and
– Behavior is a matter of choice
– Good behaviors results from good
choices. Bad behavior results from
bad choices.
– A teacher’s duty is to help studnets
make good choices
William Glasser

• Concern for the students thoughts

and feelings:
– Recognize students as rational
beings, capable of their own
– Care about students and not accept
bad behavior
– Reasonable consequences follow
student behavior whether good or
William Glasser

• Theoretical Basis:

– Behavior is a matter of choice.

– Students are rational beings.
– Behavioral theoretical basis.
William Glasser

• View of children in regards to

making decisions:
– Children have an internal locus.
– Children are responsible for their own
behaviors and can distinguish
between what is acceptable behavior
and what is not.
William Glasser

• Main points of theory

– Behavior is a matter of choice
– Good behavior results from good
choices. Bad behavior results from
bad choices.
– A teacher’s duty is to help students
make good choices.
William Glasser

• What teachers should do when

students misbehave:
– Call for value judgment
– Suggest suitable alternatives
– Invoke reasonable consequences
– Be persistent
– Carry out continual review

William Glasser

• Situation: you have a student

working in small groups on a
project. You notice, after a while,
that one of the students begins to
talk in an angry way to another of
his group members, stands up,
and tosses papers aside.
William Glasser

• What teacher should do in this

– See “What teachers should do when
students misbehave”
Value Judgement (example)

• Teacher: "What are you doing?" (asked in

unthreatening tone of voice.)
• Student: (Will usually give an honest answer if
not threatened.)
• Teacher: "Is that helping you or the class?"
Student: "No."
• Teacher: "What could you do that would
• Student: (Names better behavior.; if can think
of none, teacher suggests appropriate
alternatives and lets student choose.)

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February 8, 1897, Vienna - May 25, 1972, Chicago

American psychiatrist and educator who developed

psychologist Alfred Adler's system of individual
psychology into a pragmatic method for understanding
the purposes of reprehensible behavior in children and
for stimulating cooperative behavior without punishment
or reward.

Rudolf Dreikurs
Students come to us with a desire to
become part of the classroom
community, called a genuine goal. When
students are unable to attain the
genuine goal of belonging, they turn to
mistaken goals.

Trying to get attention

Seeking power
Seeking revenge
Displaying inadequacy
Since students desire to be part of a
community, it is imperative that we
create that environment.

• Providing students with roles within the

classroom, including leadership, will
help foster a community environment.

• Encouragement will be more beneficial

to students and the learning environment
than praise.

• Encouragement of one student may be a

motivating factor for another student.
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Spencer Kagan

The Behaviorist Psychologist

Main points
• Targeting behaviors: Win-win discipline
• Management: Firm but yet still allows
students their positions
• Prevention
• Collaborative solutions: Parents, students
and teachers
• Learned responsibility: self validation,
self confidence, self control, self
determination, self directing, self
motivated and self informing
• Kagan structures to engage every
The three pillars

1. Same Side: Parents, students and

teachers work cooperatively on the
“same side”
2. Collaboration: Entails working with
the students to identify possible
3. Share Responsibility: Involves
working with the students so that
they learn to make responsible
Degree of teacher control
• Proactive
• Mediator
• Expectations communicated up
• Balance curriculum, instruction,
and management
• Focus on prevention, thus
decreasing discipline issues
Degree of student control

• Self management
• Students helping to manage each
• Assignment of student roles: Each
role empowers students to learn
leadership and self management
skills (Ex. Taskmaster,
cheerleader, quiet captain)
Teachers should . . .
• Acknowledge student power
• State responsible behavior
• State choices and consequences
• Allow the choice
• Accept the need
• Calm voices
• Believe it
• Neither engage in nor manipulation
• Provide space
• Offer realistic consequences
• Ensure appropriate time frame
Concern for students’ thoughts
and feelings
• Students need to feel effective and
• Validate the student’s positions
• Acceptances
• When student’s power is publicly
acknowledged they experience a
sense of control in the moment
• Students feel less need to challenge
the teacher (no longer needing to
refuse in order to show they have
• Kagan Publishing & Professional Development - (n.d.). Kagan Publishing & Professional
Development - Retrieved February 13,
2011, from
• Tauber, R. (2007). Classroom management: sound theory
and effective practice, 239-241

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Dr. Linda Albert
Main Points of Theory

• Dr. Albert believes that students

choose their behavior, and
teachers have the power to
influence—not control—those
• Steps: indentify the student’s
behavior; pinpoint exactly what
student wants when he
Details of the Theory
• Theoretical basis or root:
• Based on author’s actual experience in the
classroom and discussion with teachers
around the country. Based on behaviorist
theory (response to stimuli)
• Main points of theory:
• If students misbehave, there is a reason;
teacher identifies reason and applies
strategy based on the reason
• Is there concern for the student’s
thoughts, feelings?
• Teacher is continually monitoring for the
motivation driving the student’s behavior
Teacher Voice

• Degree of teacher control in

regard to establishing norms:
• Teacher must be ready to assess
the situation immediately—use
strategies efficiently
• Teacher promotes collaboration
• Teacher encourages students by
responding to behaviors with
appropriate strategy
Student Voice

• Degree of student control in

establishing rules, norms:
• Students contribute to developing
the classroom environment
• Learning objectives attainable by
all students
• Involve students through class
Inappropriate behavior falls into
one of four categories:
• Attention: student wants to distract
from teacher and other students to
gain attention
• Power: student wants control of the
teacher, the class, themselves
• Revenge: lash out at teachers or
classmates from real or imagined
• Avoidance of failure: feel
inadequate, procrastinate, and make
excuses for not doing work
Responses to behavior
• For Attention: give “the eye” so student knows you mean
business; stand close to student, ask direct question to
distract; give praise to a nearby student who is on task
• For Power: avoid confrontation with student—agree or
change subject; acknowledge their power; do something
unexpected; give a choice
• For Revenge: revoke a privilege; establish a relationship;
require the student to cover loss, meet with parents or other
school personnel if necessary
• For Avoidance of Failure: Acknowledge difficulty of task,
but remind of past successes; modify instruction and
materials; require student to say I can rather than I can’t;
provide peer tutors

Must use response strategy or behavior

will continue!
Personal Application

• I begin by assessing behavior and categorize into one

of four reasons. I use an appropriate response based
on identifying the reason.
• For example, if student complains about an assignment
and refuses to do the work, I identify their behavior as
possible avoidance of failure. I acknowledge the
difficultly of the work, but remind the student that not
completing the assignment will affect their grade. I
might remind student of the agreement we made as a
class at the beginning of the year. I might also suggest
a partner or peer tutor to assist student in completing
the assignment
• My actions do not differ based on race or gender
Albert, L. (n.d.) Overview of Cooperative Learning.

Global Learning Communities.(2000). Cooperative Discipline:

How to Manage Your Classroom and Promote Self-Esteem.

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