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Introduction to Human Parasitology
Concept of Human Parasitology Terms of Parasitology How Parasites cause harm to humans Human Immunity against Parasites Medically important parasitic diseases
Parasites are organisms whose existence depends on the availability of host animals protozoa (single celled animals), helminths (worms) and arthropods. The insects that are of most interest in human parasitology are those that are vectors of several parasitic infections
Medical Helminthology Medical EntymologyArthropods (Insects)
Some medically important protozoa
1. Amoebiasis 2. Malaria 3. Filariasis 4. Trypanosomiasis 5. Leishmaniasis 6. Trichomoniasis
vivax. •Trypanosoma gambiense transmitted by the tsetse fly causes African sleeping •Leishmania species are transmitted by sandflies causing leishmaniasis.Protozoa unicellular eukaryotic organisms distributed worldwide. •Cryptosporidium parvum causes diarrhea mainly in children •Plasmodium falciparum. •Giardia lamblia causes malabsorption and diarrhea. •Toxoplasma gondii . They vary in size. malariae and P. ovale are transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes and cause malaria. P. shape and lifestyle and reproduce sexually and/or asexually GUT PROTOZOA BLOOD STREAM PROTOZOA Entamoeba histolytica infects the human intestine causing amoebic dysentery or liver abscess. P.
Giardia. Trypanosoma Leishmania Leishmania. Naegleria. Entamoeba Trypanosoma Trypanosoma. Plasmodia . Some protozoa infect more than one organ Protozoa infecting various organs Skin Eye Gut Genitourinary tract Bloodstream Spleen Liver Muscle CMS Leishmania Acanthamoeba Entamoeba.Medically important protozoa infect various parts of human body. Cryptosporidium Trichomonas Plasmodia. Toxoplasma.
Class Lobosea Entamoeba histolytica Non-pathogenic amoeba .
Class Zoomastigophorea Leishmania sp Giardia Trichomonas vaginalis .
Class Sporozoa Plasmodium spp Toxopasma gondii Cryptosporidium Pneumocycstis carinii .
Class Ciliophora – Balantidium coli .
Class Nematoda Ascaris lumbricoides Trichuris trichiura Hookworm Enterobius vermicularis Filaria Trichinella spiralis .
Class Trematoda Clonorchis sinensis Fasciolopsis buski Paragonimus westermani Schistosoma japonicum .
Class Cestoda Taenia solium Taenia saginata Echinococcus granulosus .
Class Metacanthocephala Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus .
Fleas .Class Insecta Anopheles sinensis Lucilia sericata Lice Sandflies .
4. Terms of Parasitology .
. Commensalism.Symbiosis Two different organisms live together and interact. Parasitism. including 3 types: Mutualism. in this association one partner lives in or on another one’s body.
Symbiosis Mutualism is a permanent association between two different organisms where life apart is impossible. two partners benefit each other. . such as termites and flagellates. one cannot survive in the absence of the other. The mutuals are metabolically dependent on one another.
(4) Parasitism is the association of two different organisms. such as E. in which one partner is benefited while the other is injured. such as Ascaris lumbricoides and man.Symbiosis (3) Commensalism is the association of two different organisms. in which one partner is benefited while the other is neither benefited nor injured. . coli and man.
It is an animal organism which lives in or on the host in order to obtain nourishment and shelter from the host as well as does harms to the host.Parasite In parasitism. it is the Parasite who is the benefited partner. .
Types of Parasites endoparasite ectoparasite temporary parasite permanent parasite obligatory parasite facultative parasite accidental parasite opportunistic parasite .
is an important source of infection in epidemiology. . host supplies the parasite with nourishment and shelter and it is the injured partner.Host In parasitism. A Carrier is a person who harbors parasite and has no clinical symptoms.
third intermediate host. second intermediate host. Intermediate host harbours larval or asexually reproductive stage of a parasite an according to priority they are classified into first intermediate host.Definitive(final) host harbours adult or sexually reproductive stage of a parasite. .
Reservoir hosts are the vertebrate hosts which harbor the same species of parasite at same stage as a human host. . They are an important source of infection in epidemiology.
(These animals infected with parasites are called reservoir hosts.Zoonosis Zoonosis refers to diseases of animals which can be transmitted to man.) .
If the larvae have a chance to enter their appropriate hosts. they can continue to develop into adults there. .Paratenic host or transport host is an abnormal host in which some parasitic larvae can survive but cannot develop into adults.
.Larva migrans means that the larvae living in their abnormal hosts in can not grow into adults but can wander everywhere and cause the local and systemic pathological lesions of the hosts.
which proceeds in one or more different hosts depending on the species of parasites. development and reproduction. Infective Stage is a stage when a parasite can invade human body and live in it .Life cycle Life cycle is the process of a parasite’s growth. .
.Infective route is the specific entrance through which the parasite invades the human body. such as the cercariae of the blood fluke actively penetrate the skin of a swimming man and the infective ascaris eggs are swallowed by man. Infective mode means how the parasite invades human body.
there are the regular alternations of sexual and asexual reproductions . . such as the life cycle of Plasmodium vivax. this phenomenon is called alternation of generation.Life cycle Alternation of Generation: In life cycles of some parasites.
ascarid eggs and amoebic cysts. .Mechanical Transmission: Arthropods play a role of the transportation of pathogens. which is not indispensable for the disease transmission. such as flies carry typhoid bacilli.
.Biological Transmission: Pathogens have to spend a part of their life cycle in the vector arthropods in which they multiply or develop into the infective stage and then invade the human body under the help of the arthropod. such as Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria.
Evolution of Parasitism endoparasite ectoparasite temporary parasite permanent parasite obligatory parasite facultative parasite accidental parasite opportunistic parasite Free living Symbiosis Commensalism Mutualism Parasitism carrier parasite Host Patient Final host Intermediate host Reservoir host Zoonosis Paratenic host Larva migrans .
. Immuno-pathological lesion e.g. spiders and ticks introduce venom when they insert their mouth parts into the skin. g. Depriving nourishment from hosts: e. when hydatid fluid is released from the rupture of a hydatid cyst anaphylaxis often results. . biliary ascariasis and larva migrans. Toxic effect: e. g. schistosoma liver cirrhosis. . hookworms suck blood.How parasites cause harm to men Mechanical effects of parasites on host tissues and organs: e.g. mosquitoes.
hookworms and other parasites. Nonsterilizing immunity (Premunition) 2. . This may be of great importance in endemic areas in limiting the severity of infection with Plasmodium. Human Immunity against Parasites Its intensity and specificity are usually at a lower level than those produced by bacteria and viruses.5. Schistosome . It refers to 1. This situation is known as premunition. Concomitant immunity. The host may be protected from superinfection as long as the parasites remain in the body.
(WHO) .Priority Diseases .
000 infected 500.000 infected Approximately 25% of world's population infected by one of these.200.500.Why were they selected? Schistosomiasis .000 infected 2.1.25.000 deaths/year Filariasis .1.000 deaths/year Malaria .500.000-1. .000 infected Leprosy .250.000 infected Trypanosomiasis .000.000.000.000 deaths/year Leishmaniasis .000.200.300.000 infected 65.000.
Chronic diseases 2. No practical chemotherapy 4. No effective vaccine 3. Vector-borne .General Characteristics: 1. Affect young 5. Affect underprivileged 6.
Economic and social conditions . Habits of the host 3. Presence of a suitable host 2. Favorable conditions outside of host 5. Escape from the host 4.Geographic Distribution Factors (Endemicity): 1.
Source infected persons carriers animals .Presence of Diseases in a Population (Prevalence): Factors required: 1.
Presence of Diseases in a Population (Prevalence): 2. Susceptible host immunity . Mode of transmission direct indirect vectors 3.
injection. congenital . insects sucking blood. Susceptible people excrement secretion blood focus of infection food. water.Three key links of disease transmission 1. water. touch soil. finger direct or indirect contact blood transfusion. Route of transmission 3. intermediate host.Source of infection 2. grass mouth skin or wound mucosa placenta .
Clinical diagnosis 2.Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections: 1. Laboratory diagnosis .
Treatment of Parasitic Infections: 1. Chemotherapy 3. Adequate nutrition . Medical and surgical 2.
Education 3. Reduction in sources 2. Destruction and/or control of reservoir hosts and vector .Prevention and Control: 1.
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