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English Language Arts

In a Transitional Kindergarten (TK) Classroom

The following county offices of With contributions from:
education developed the TK
Fresno County Office of Education
professional development
modules: Merced County Office of Education
Contra Costa County Office of Education
CCSESA’s CISC School Readiness Subcommittee
Humboldt County Office of Education

Orange County Department of Education Coordinated by:

Sacramento County Office of Education
Sacramento County Office of Education

Funding provided by:

Santa Clara County Office of Education

Shasta County Office of Education


Language and Literacy

“Intentional teachers use their knowledge of child

development and literacy learning to supply materials,
provide well-timed information, guide discussions, make
thoughtful comments, ask meaningful questions, and pose
calibrated challenges that advance children’s learning.”

Source: Epstein, The Intentional Teacher, p. 40


 Start and end on time

 Silence cell phones
 Listen to and contribute thoughts and ideas

Session Outcomes

 Examine the Preschool Learning Foundations and the

California Kindergarten Common Core Standards for
English Language Arts

 Review English Language Development for English

learners and the English Language Arts Common Core

 Identify instructional strategies for transitional

kindergarten (TK) to support a modified kindergarten
curriculum that is age and developmentally appropriate


 California was one of just four states (along with Connecticut,

Michigan, and Vermont) with a cut-off date later than
December 1. In most states, children must turn five by
September 1 in order to start kindergarten

 Research indicates that beginning kindergarten at an older age

improves children’s social and academic development

(Cannon, J.S. & Lipscomb S., 2008)

Senate Bill 1381 (Simitian)
The Kindergarten Readiness Act of 2010

Source: Early Edge California 8

Developmentally Appropriate Practice

Developmentally Appropriate Practice

“…involves teachers meeting young children where they

are (by stage of development), both as individuals and as
part of a group; and helping each child meet challenging
and achievable learning goals”

 Knowing about child development and learning

 Knowing what is individually appropriate

 Knowing what is culturally important

National Association for the Education of Young Children (
Developmentally Appropriate Practice

Principles of Child Development and Learning –

Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early
Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth
through Age 8

Copple, C., & Bredekamp. S., (Eds.). (2009). Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving
Children from Birth Through Age 8. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children,
(pp. 10-15).

Universal Design for Learning
 Provide Multiple Means of Representation
 Perception
 Language expressions and symbols
 Comprehension
 Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression
 Physical action
 Expression and communication
 Executive function
 Provide Multiple Means of Engagement
 Recruiting interest
 Sustaining effort and persistence
 Self-regulation
The Alignment of the California
Preschool Learning Foundations
with Key Early Education Resources
 All domains of the Preschool Learning Foundations correspond to the
California Kindergarten Content Standards

 Preschool Learning Foundations Language and Literacy domain aligns

with the California Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English
Language Arts

 Preschool Learning Foundations Mathematics

domain aligns with the California Common Core
State Standards for Mathematics

Overview of Alignment
California Preschool Learning California Kindergarten Content Common Core State Standards
Foundations Standards
Social-Emotional Development Health, Education Mental, Emotional,
and Social Health
Language and Literacy English-Language Arts English-Language Arts

English-Language Development English-Language Development

Mathematics Mathematics Mathematics

Visual and Performing Arts Visual and Performing Arts

Physical Development Physical Education

Health Health Education

History-Social Science History-Social Science

Science Science

Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012. 13
Overview of Language and Literacy

Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012. 14
Overview of Language and Literacy

Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012. 15
2012 English Language Development (ELD)

Key Ideas
 Align with the California Common Core State Standards for English
Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical

 Highlight and amplify the key language knowledge, skills, and

abilities in the CCSS critical for English learners to access, engage with,
and achieve in grade-level academic content while learning English

 Use in tandem with the CCSS and not in isolation

ELD Standards:
Organization and Elements
1999 ELD Standards 2012 ELD Standards
5 proficiency levels: 3 proficiency levels:
Beginning, Early Intermediate, Emerging, Expanding, and Bridging
Intermediate, Early Advanced,
and Advanced
Description of ELs’ abilities Descriptions of what ELs can do as they enter,
within each language proficiency progress through, and exit proficiency levels, and
level and domain (L-S-R-W) early and exit descriptions for language modes
Standards for four grade-level Standards for the same grade levels/spans as ELA
spans: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12 CCSS: one set for each level K-8, and spans for 9-
10 and 11-12
Standards organized by ELA Standards organized by mode (collaborative,
domain: listening, speaking, interpretive, productive) and learning about how
reading, and writing English works. Alignment with CCSS/strands is
integrated and explicitly noted
ELD Proficiency Levels

ELD Continuum
Emerging Expanding Bridging

Extent of Linguistic Support

Substantial Moderate Light

Use appropriate scaffolding strategies

for each level of the ELD continuum
to help English learners

Interdisciplinary Approach to Literacy

“The interdisciplinary approach to literacy …

is [based on] extensive research establishing
the need for college and career ready
students to be proficient in reading complex
informational text independently in a variety
of content areas.”

(CDE, 2013, Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy, p. v)

Integration of Language and Literacy

“…when taking an in-depth look at one domain, one

needs to keep in mind that, for young children, learning
is usually an integrated experience. For example, a
young child may be concentrating on mathematical
reasoning, but at the same time, there may be linguistic
aspects of the experience.”
Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1, 2008, p. xii

The TK Learning Environment: A
Reflection of Languages, Cultures,
and Community

The TK Learning Environment

Sample Learning Area

Reading Area (Books displayed at eye level):

 A variety of fiction & informational books with engaging illustrations and

simple text, including books in home languages representative of classroom

 Simple alliteration books so students can learn beginning sounds while

playing with language

 Photo albums & class books made by the students to help them connect
reading to their own lives and also support language development as children
discuss the photos and compose captions

The TK Learning Environment

The TK Learning Environment
Sample Learning Area

Dramatic Play Area:

 Costumes and theme-based props to engage children in hands-on,

social interactions that support language and literacy development

 Dramatic play areas are intentionally designed to:

 Support the development of oral language and vocabulary
 Provide opportunities for purposeful and playful encounters with peers
and adults
 Contribute to the print-rich environment.
 Provide sheltered opportunities for English
learners to practice their English.

The TK Learning Environment

Children learn best when instruction is relevant and meaningful to them. When
children can apply language and literacy learning to their everyday interests and
activities, that learning will be genuine, deep, and lasting.

Source: Epstein, Intentional Teacher, 2007, p. 24

The TK Learning Environment

Sample Learning Area

Writing Area:

 Assortment of paper, envelopes, and a variety of writing tools, including

but not limited to, pencils, pens, markers, paint, crayons, and chalk neatly
displayed along with easels for children to practice writing

 Environmental print, books, word/name cards, letter-making tools, student

name cards, and alphabet strips

 Variety of writing tools that have been adapted to provide access for all

The TK Learning Environment

Alignment between Preschool Learning
Foundations and CCSS for ELA

Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012. 28
Alignment Comparison (Cont.)

Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012. 29
ELA - Early Literacy Strategies

 Promote oral language and vocabulary development

 Extend conversations and use open-ended questions to expand
students’ language development and comprehension
 Introduce new vocabulary words using realia or concrete
 Provide multiple opportunities for students to express their ideas
and use new vocabulary words in small- and large-group settings
“Young children need to be exposed to a rich and varied vocabulary and
the rules of discourse in order to develop the language facility that
underlies the late acquisition of literacy, interpersonal problem-
solving skills, and other cognitive and social abilities.”
Source: Epstein, The Intentional Teacher, 2007, p.15

ELA - Early Literacy Strategies
 Strengthen interest in print
 Environmental Print
 Food packages and coupons
 Newspapers, magazines, and catalogs
 Greeting cards and calendars
 Menus and recipes
 Connect sounds to words
 Make charts of poems
 Create word walls
 Use pointers
 Build knowledge of concepts about print

ELA - Early Literacy Strategies

 Support writing development

 Provide multiple opportunities for fine motor development
 Provide a variety of writing instruments and materials in all
learning areas
 Model and engage students in interactive writing
 Provide opportunities for drawing, dictating, and writing
 Display students’ writing

ELA - Early Literacy Strategies

 Support phonological awareness through:

 Playful and interactive experiences to manipulate sounds
 Alliteration through songs, chants, and books
 Interactive opportunities to blend and segment onsets and rimes
 Clapping syllables, using snapping blocks for word counts
 Exposure and practice with rhyming words

ELA - Early Literacy Strategies

 Build letter knowledge with…

 Songs
 Books
 Poems
 Name cards and common words
 Letter matching activities
 Tactile experiences to identify and form letters
 Letter sounds tied to movement

ELA - Early Literacy Strategies

 Read aloud books in a variety of genres

 Confirm students’ understanding of text by providing

opportunities to:
 respond to questions
 identify characters and major events
 retell familiar stories

 Provide family literacy opportunities

 create lending library including books in the child’s home

Differentiating Instruction

 Provide a variety of open-ended materials to engage students in multi-

sensory experiences

 Adapt instructional materials and learning activities to address the diverse

needs of students

 Vary the degree of scaffolding to extend learning opportunities for students

who need additional time to build competence and to increase rigor for
students who demonstrate mastery

 Use flexible grouping and various instructional formats to maximize support

for students’ individualized needs

Strategies for English Learners

 Scaffolding:
 Make/use talking sticks and/or provide toy microphones for children who
may be more reluctant to attempt using expressive language
 Use manipulatives, realia, or photos to support vocabulary and language
 Move from non-verbal responses to one-two words, yes/no, frame
sentences, simple answers
 Provide clear signs and picture cues for interest areas
 Encourage families to play with language and count syllables in
songs/chants/rhymes in their home language because those skills will
transfer to English

Universal Design for Learning

 Goal:
 Create accessible environments and experiences for all students.

 The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) model considers three principles
for learning opportunities:
 Multiple means of engagement
 Multiple means of representation
 Multiple means of expression

Assessment Approaches

 Use multiple measures to monitor students’ progress

 Observation and anecdotal notes

 Work samples and portfolios

 Video and audio recordings

 Checklist of phonological awareness skills

Supporting Phonological

Play with



Let’s Begin

Strand: Reading
Sub Strand: 2.0 Phonological Awareness

At around 48 months, the foundations for phonological awareness are

written only for older four-year olds because much of the initial development of
phonological awareness occurs between 48 months and 60 months of age
At around 60 months
 Orally blends and deletes words and syllables without the support
of pictures or objects
 Orally blends the onsets, rimes, and phonemes of words and orally
deletes the onsets of words, with support of pictures or objects

Let’s Practice

 Review Sub Strand: 2.0 Phonological Awareness (at

around 60 months)

 Review Common Core State Standard for ELA

Phonological Awareness
Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds
 Recognize and produce rhyming words
 Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words
 Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words

Let’s Practice

 Create a lesson that would differentiate for all the

learners in your TK classroom. Be sure to include
strategies to support English learners and children
with disabilities

TK Online Resources
The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations
with Key Early Education Resources

California County Superintendents Educational Service

Association (CCSESA)
Information and resources for early education are posted on the
CCSESA Web site under
School Readiness
Transitional Kindergarten (TK) Planning Guide – A Resource for
Administrators of California Public School Districts
California Department of Education (CDE)
Kindergarten in California
Transitional Kindergarten FAQs
Transitional Kindergarten Implementation Guide
California Kindergarten Association
An association to support kindergarten teachers l-kindergarten/

California Preschool Instructional Network (CPIN)

CPIN, funded by CDE, conducts professional development on CDE
publications such as the Preschool Learning Foundations, Preschool
Curriculum Framework and Preschool English Learners Guide

Changing the Kindergarten Cutoff Date: Effects on California

Students and Schools
Cannon, J. S. and Lipscomb, S. 44
TK Online Resources
National Association for the Education of Young Children
Resources to promote Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Preschool Curriculum Framework, Volume 1, 2, and 3
Aligned with the foundations, the curriculum framework provides
guidance on planning learning environments and experiences for 2.pdf
young children

Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote

Language, Literacy, and Learning d2.pdf
A resource guide to educate preschool English learners
Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1, 2, and 3
The foundations for preschool-age children identify key domains ol2.pdf
of learning and guide instructional practice
Transitional Kindergarten (TK) California
Online resources to support the successful implementation of
transitional kindergarten

Thank You