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AC Machinery Fundamentals

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY

2014

1

Introduction

machines and induction machines.

Synchronous machines are motors and generators whose

magnetic field current is supplied by a separate dc power

source,

while induction machines are motors and generators whose field

current is supplied by magnetic induction (transformer action)

into their field windings.

2

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

machine that produces a sinusoidal AC voltage. This case is not

representative of real AC machines, since the flux in real AC

machines is not constant in either magnitude or direction. However,

the factors that control the voltage and torque on the loop will be the

same as the factors that control the voltage and torque in real ac

machines.

3

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

magnet producing an essentially constant and uniform magnetic field and

a rotating loop of wire within that field. the rotating part of the machine is

called the rotor, and the stationary part of the machine is called the stator.

We will now determine the voltages present in the rotor as it rotates

within the magnetic field.

4

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

5

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

6

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

7

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

8

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

9

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

magnitude is equal to the product of the flux inside the machine and

the speed of rotation of the machine. This is also true of real AC

machines. In general, the voltage in any real machine will depend

on three factors:

1. The flux in the machine

2. The speed of rotation

3. A constant representing the construction of the machine

(the number of loops, etc.)

10

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

11

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

12

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

If a current flows in the loop, then a torque will be induced on the

wire loop. To determine the magnitude and direction of the torque,

examine Figure 4-5. The force on each segment of the loop will be

given by Equation (1-43),

13

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

14

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

15

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

16

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

If the current in the loop is as shown in the figure, that current will

generate a magnetic flux density Bloop with the direction shown.

The magnitude of Bloop will be:

17

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

18

A Simple Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field

of the loop's magnetic field, the strength of the external magnetic

field, and the sine of the angle between them. This is also true of

real AC machines. In general, the torque in any real machine will

depend on four factors:

2. The strength of the external magnetic field

3. The sine of the angle between them

4. A constant representing the construction of the machine

(geometry, etc.)

19

The Rotating Magnetic Field

and the other one is produced by the rotor of the machine, then a

torque will be induced in the rotor which will cause the rotor to turn

and align it self with the stator magnetic field.

If there were some way to make the stator magnetic field rotate,

then the induced torque in the rotor would cause it to constantly

"chase" the stator magnetic field around in a circle. This, in a

nutshell, is the basic principle of all ac motor operation.

20

The Rotating Magnetic Field

21

The Rotating Magnetic Field

22

The Rotating Magnetic Field

23

The Rotating Magnetic Field

24

The Rotating Magnetic Field

25

The Rotating Magnetic Field

26

The Rotating Magnetic Field

27

The Rotating Magnetic Field

28

The Rotating Magnetic Field

Speed of Magnetic Field Rotation

These magnetic poles complete one mechanical rotation around

the stator surface for each electrical cycle of the applied current.

Therefore, the mechanical speed of rotation of the magnetic field in

revolutions per second is equal to the electric frequency in hertz:

29

The Rotating Magnetic Field

FIGURE 4-11

(a) A simple four-pole stator winding.

(b) The resulting stator magnetic poles. Notice that there are moving poles of

alternating polarity every 90° around the stator surface.

30

The Rotating Magnetic Field

(c) A winding diagram of the stator as seen from its inner surface, showing

how the stator currents produce north and south magnetic poles.

31

The Rotating Magnetic Field

32

The Rotating Magnetic Field

Another interesting fact can be observed about the resulting

magnetic field. If the current in any two of the three coils is

swapped, the direction of the magnetic field's rotation will be

reversed. This means that it is possible to reverse the direction of

rotation of an AC motor just by switching the connections on any

two of the three coils. This result is verified below.

33

The Rotating Magnetic Field

34

Magnetomotive Force and Flux Distribution on

AC Machines

assumed to be perpendicular to the plane of the coil, with the

direction of the flux given by the right-hand rule.

The flux in a real machine does not behave in the simple manner

assumed above, since there is a ferromagnetic rotor in the center

of the machine, with a small air gap between the rotor and the

stator.

35

Magnetomotive Force and Flux Distribution on

AC Machines

36

Magnetomotive Force and Flux Distribution on

AC Machines

37

Magnetomotive Force and Flux Distribution on

AC Machines

FIGURE 4-13

(a) A cylindrical rotor with sinusoidally varying air-gap flux density.

38

Magnetomotive Force and Flux Distribution on

AC Machines

the air gap.

(c) The flux density as a function of angle a in the air gap.

39

Magnetomotive Force and Flux Distribution on

AC Machines

FIGURE 4- 14

(a) An AC machine with a distributed stator winding designed to produce a

sinusoidally varying air-gap flux density. The number of conductors in each slot is

indicated on the diagram.

40

Magnetomotive Force and Flux Distribution on

AC Machines

(b) The magnetomotive force distribution resulting from the winding. compared

to

an ideal distribution.

41

Induced Voltage In AC Machines

42

Induced Voltage In AC Machines

FIGURE 4- 15

(a) A rotating rotor magnetic field inside a stationary stator coil. Detail of coil.

43

Induced Voltage In AC Machines

(b) The vector magnetic flux densities and velocities on the sides of the coil. The

velocities shown are from a frame of reference in which the magnetic field is

stationary.

44

Induced Voltage In AC Machines

45

Induced Voltage In AC Machines

46

Induced Voltage In AC Machines

47

Induced Voltage In AC Machines

48

Induced Voltage In AC Machines

49

Induced Voltage In AC Machines

50

Induced Torque In an AC Machine

magnetic fields present--a magnetic field from the rotor circuit and

another magnetic field from the stator circuit. The interaction of

these two magnetic fields produces the torque in the machine, just

as two permanent magnets near each other will experience a

torque which causes them to line up.

51

Induced Torque In an AC Machine

52

Induced Torque In an AC Machine

53

Induced Torque In an AC Machine

54

Induced Torque In an AC Machine

55

Induced Torque In an AC Machine

56

Thanks You

57

Kisi – kisi UTS

• 1. Voltage vector ppt 1

• 2. Magnetic Circuits

• 3. Analysis of circuits containing ideal

• 4.Soal Kuis kemarin

58

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