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# BASIC MODELING

Force
Case 1
Any fluid is flowing at a rate of F1 into the tank and
flowing out at the rate of F2,as the fluid varies with
time.model the expression for the fluid level in the tank at
time t.
• Case 2
consider the inflow F1 passes through a fixed inlet valve from a
pressure source P1. and flowing out at the rate of F2.The
pressure on the downstream side of the inlet valve is P2,that is,
the hydrostatic pressure in the tank at the level of the valve.in a
similar fashion the outflow passes through a fixed valve with the
hydrostatic pressure P2 on the upstream side discharging
pressure P3.
NATURAL MODEL

## CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIP

Case 3

consider the inflow F1 passes through a fixed inlet valve from a pressure source P1. and
flowing out at the rate of F2.The pressure on the downstream side of the inlet valve is
P2,that is, the hydrostatic pressure in the tank at the level of the valve.in a similar
fashion the outflow passes through a fixed valve with the hydrostatic pressure P2 on
the upstream side discharging pressure P3.vessel is wholly enclosed and the pressure
P0 above the surface becomes a variable instead of constant.V0 is the total volume of
the tank
Assumptions:
Ideal gas
Isothermal expansion and compression will be made.
Temperature of gas remain constant and vaporization from the surface will be
neglected.
• Case 4
As continuation of case 3 assumed gas volume compresses under
isothermal conditions.
• In adiabatic case all heat equivalent of the work done on/by the gas will
appear as sensible heat
Case 5
Consider a well-agitated vessel with known
flows in and outlet F1 and F2.the inlet and outlet
flows consist of a solvent that contains two
soluble components,A & B.the inlet
concentrations are CA1 & CB2.
Case 6.
As continuation of case 5 suppose that
components A and B react in the vessel, the
reaction being defined as

## The effluent and vessel contents contain four

components A,B,C and Develop the model.
Simultaneous mass and energy
balances
Case 7
Consider a solvent going through a well agitated vessel with steam jacket having
known inlet and outlet F1 & F2(volume/time).the pressure Ps in the steam jacket
is controlled to maintain constant temperature Ts.
• Case 8:
Case # 9
Case 10.flash separation

Assumption:
• Both phases are in equilibrium
• Vapor volume is small, neglect its dynamics
Suppose you know the temperature, pressure,
and overall composition of the inlet stream. The
mole fractions of the chemicals in the inlet are
called {zi}. The mole fraction of the chemicals in
the vapor phase are called {yi} and those in the
liquid phase are called {xi}.
When the vapor and liquid are in equilibrium,
you can relate the mole fractions of each
chemical in the vapor and liquid by the
equation:

## The members of the set {Ki} are called K-values,

and they can be predicted from
thermodynamics
Next, make a mass balance for each component over the phase separator. F is the
total molar flow rate, V is the molar flow rate of the vapor, and L is the molar flow
rate of the liquid. The mole balance is then
Types of distillation
• Flash distillation
• Differential distillation
• Fractional distillation
In distillation The vapor and liquid are said to be
in physical equilibrium if following conditions
are satisfied.
• Thermal equilibrium
• Mechanical equilibrium
• Phase equilibrium
Ideal binary distillation column
Assumptions