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Force

Case 1

Any fluid is flowing at a rate of F1 into the tank and

flowing out at the rate of F2,as the fluid varies with

time.model the expression for the fluid level in the tank at

time t.

• Case 2

consider the inflow F1 passes through a fixed inlet valve from a

pressure source P1. and flowing out at the rate of F2.The

pressure on the downstream side of the inlet valve is P2,that is,

the hydrostatic pressure in the tank at the level of the valve.in a

similar fashion the outflow passes through a fixed valve with the

hydrostatic pressure P2 on the upstream side discharging

pressure P3.

NATURAL MODEL

Case 3

consider the inflow F1 passes through a fixed inlet valve from a pressure source P1. and

flowing out at the rate of F2.The pressure on the downstream side of the inlet valve is

P2,that is, the hydrostatic pressure in the tank at the level of the valve.in a similar

fashion the outflow passes through a fixed valve with the hydrostatic pressure P2 on

the upstream side discharging pressure P3.vessel is wholly enclosed and the pressure

P0 above the surface becomes a variable instead of constant.V0 is the total volume of

the tank

Assumptions:

Ideal gas

Isothermal expansion and compression will be made.

Temperature of gas remain constant and vaporization from the surface will be

neglected.

• Case 4

As continuation of case 3 assumed gas volume compresses under

isothermal conditions.

• Adiabatic compression

• In adiabatic case all heat equivalent of the work done on/by the gas will

appear as sensible heat

Case 5

Consider a well-agitated vessel with known

flows in and outlet F1 and F2.the inlet and outlet

flows consist of a solvent that contains two

soluble components,A & B.the inlet

concentrations are CA1 & CB2.

Case 6.

As continuation of case 5 suppose that

components A and B react in the vessel, the

reaction being defined as

components A,B,C and Develop the model.

Simultaneous mass and energy

balances

Case 7

Consider a solvent going through a well agitated vessel with steam jacket having

known inlet and outlet F1 & F2(volume/time).the pressure Ps in the steam jacket

is controlled to maintain constant temperature Ts.

• Case 8:

Case # 9

Case 10.flash separation

Assumption:

• Both phases are in equilibrium

• Vapor volume is small, neglect its dynamics

Suppose you know the temperature, pressure,

and overall composition of the inlet stream. The

mole fractions of the chemicals in the inlet are

called {zi}. The mole fraction of the chemicals in

the vapor phase are called {yi} and those in the

liquid phase are called {xi}.

When the vapor and liquid are in equilibrium,

you can relate the mole fractions of each

chemical in the vapor and liquid by the

equation:

and they can be predicted from

thermodynamics

Next, make a mass balance for each component over the phase separator. F is the

total molar flow rate, V is the molar flow rate of the vapor, and L is the molar flow

rate of the liquid. The mole balance is then

Types of distillation

• Flash distillation

• Differential distillation

• Fractional distillation

In distillation The vapor and liquid are said to be

in physical equilibrium if following conditions

are satisfied.

• Thermal equilibrium

• Mechanical equilibrium

• Phase equilibrium

Ideal binary distillation column

Assumptions

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