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Front wheel drive innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 1

Front wheel drive innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 2

Rear wheel drive innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 3

Four wheel drive innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 4

Automotive Design

● History
• Start when car become available
– Whole design effort was concentrated on the
engine & transmission system

Berliet Omnibus, 1909

Vauxhall Passenger Car, 1908 innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 5

Automotive Design
Automotive Styling – The Need
● ‘Style sells cars’
● ‘Cars are designed to accommodate mechanical parts, to
reduce wind resistance and save fuel, to carry passengers
and cargo, to please consumers’ eyes and egos, and,
above all, to increase sales and make money.’ innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 6

Type of Car
Sedan/Saloon car -
most common for modern car, with four-door passengers
compartment between the lower hood – covering the
engine in the front, and the lower trunk at the rear. innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 7

Type of Car
Station wagon –
car with a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof
extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume
with access at the back via a third or fifth door instead of a
trunk lid. innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 8

Type of Car
Hatchback –
Rear door wt back window that opens vertically to access a storage
area not separated from the rest of the passenger compartment.
May be 2 or 4 doors and 2 or 4 seats.
Known as 3 door or 5 door in England. innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 9

Type of Car

# Pillar configurations of a sedan (three

box), station wagon (two box) and
hatchback (two box) from the same
model range.

# For station wagon - The body style

transforms a standard three-box design
into a two-box design—to include an A,
B, and C-pillar, as well as a D-pillar.

# For hatchback – Two-box body design

configuration, with one shared, flexible,
interior volume for passengers and cargo
and a rear door for cargo access innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 10

Type of Car
Mini car / small car
Small size car -
The original Mini was a revolutionary and distinctive small car
designed for the British Motor Corporation (BMC) by Sir Alec
Issigoris (1906–1988). innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 11

Type of Car
A coupe -
2 doors with 2 / 4 - seaters
Fixed roof and doors are
longer than those of a sedan.

In some cases the rear

seats are small and not
intended for regular use;
this is often called a 2+2. innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 12

Type of Car
Roadster –
Two seat open car with minimal weather protection.
Folding top with side curtains, but with no side glass.
Also called convertible sport car innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 13

Type of Car
Sport Utilities Vehicles -
Derivative of off-road or four-wheel drive vehicles but with car-
like levels of interior comfort and drivability. Also sometimes
called a "soft-roader". innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 14

Type of Car
Multi-purpose vehicle, a large car which easily
convertible to facilitate loading of goods or to carry
people. innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 15

Type of Car
Concept Car
Designed for advanced technology and most futuristic design.
Evolve and make changes in the technology of automotive design.
Method to survey the potential market and response of the users. innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 16

Automotive Vehicle System
Steering Engine/ Ignition
Suspension system system
system Lighting
Brake Cooling
system system
system Transmission
Power Vehicle Starting
window system
Exhaust GPS
Advanced system
Seat Security
control system
system Charging
system system
Wiper system innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 17

Example: Starting system
System used to start the engine. FACTORS
Main component: starter motor innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 18

Example: Starting system

Development and improvement in starter motor over the years.. innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 19

Advancement in starting system
The start/ stop starter motor

Starter used to stop and start the engine at

traffic jam/ red light/ vehicle stop situation.

• When the vehicle stop and the battery charge is sufficient, the
combustion engine is automatically switched off.

• To drive off again it is only necessary to activate the gas pedal

or clutch pedal to restart the engine.

No fuel is consumed, nor is any CO2 emitted. And

noise emissions drop to zero. innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 20

Safety system SUCCESS
FACTORS innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 21

Safety system
FACTORS innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 22


Can anyone think of something in

current vehicle systems
which do not rely
on electrical/electronic!!!!!!!!!!

Pure mechanical design in vehicle system is becoming

saturated areas, hence for further improvement of the system
the available options are to go for mechatronic
development or purely electronic based system innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 23

● Development of electronics in vehicle
system is so rapid thus more and more
system are becoming “Computer ” innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 24

System Approach

● A very complex system & a small part of a larger transport

● System approach helps to understand how somethings works
and how to repair it when it doesn’t.
● In general, 2 major motor vehicle systems: mechanical
system and electrical system.
● Once motor vehicle has been systemized, the function and
performance of each part can be examined in more detail.
● Functional Analysis – determine what each part of the
system should do and how each part actually work.
● In analyzing any system, the main consideration is for the
inputs and outputs of the system. innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 25

Open Loop System
● To give required output whenever a given input is
applied. i.e: headlights
● Open loop: No feedback is required.
Input Control Output innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 26

Closed Loop System
● Corrective measures can be applied if the output is not
quite what is desired. (feedback loop) i.e: Automatic
temperature fan speed control system.
Input Control Output
Feedback loop

Or the driver of a car with

conventional heating
system can form feedback
loop (close loop) by turning
the heater down when he
is too hot. innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 27

Concept question
● You are sitting in your kitchen on a hot day. In order
to cool yourself down you open the door of the
fridge. Is this a good idea? What happens to the
temperature in the room after, let say, one hour?
ANSWER: In a closed system (the room) as the fridge
continues running, the heat generated by the cooler
will be more than balance heat extracted from the
air, so after the initial waft of “cold” shortly after
you open the door, the room will get warmer. Even
more simply: energy is being introduced to the
sealed room (as electricity) so its temperature must
eventually rise. innovative ● entrepreneurial ● global 28