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You are on page 1of 17

Today’s Objective :

Students will:

a) Understand the concepts of In-Class Activities:

center of gravity, center of mass, • Check Homework, if any

and centroid.

•Applications

b) Be able to determine the location

of these points for a body. • Center of Gravity

• Determine CG Location

•Group Problem Solving

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS

supporting a water tank, we will

need to know the weight of the

tank and water as well as the

locations where the resultant

forces representing these

distributed loads act.

resultant weights and their

lines of action?

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS (continued)

tip over while taking a sharp turn.

SUV’s center of mass.

mass?

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

APPLICATIONS (continued)

structure for the goal post, it is

critical to find total weight of the

structure and the center of

gravity’s location.

determine total weight of the goal

post due to the curvature of the

supporting member.

location of overall center of

gravity?

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

CONCEPT OF CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG)

A body is composed of an infinite number

of particles, and so if the body is located

within a gravitational field, then each of

these particles will have a weight dW.

shown as G, which locates the resultant weight

of a system of particles or a solid body.

the sum of moments due to individual

particle’s weights about any point is the

same as the moment due to the resultant

weight located at G.

particle’s weights about point G is equal to zero.

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

CONCEPT OF CG (continued)

The location of the center of gravity,

measured from the y axis, is determined by

equating the moment of W about the y axis

to the sum of the moments of the weights

of the particles about this same axis.

~ ~~

_

x W = ~

x dW

_ _

Similarly, y W = ~

y dW zW=~

z dW

Therefore, the location of the center of gravity G with

respect to the x, y, z axes becomes

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

CM & CENTROID OF A BODY

coordinates of the center of mass can be found.

or length can be obtained by replacing W by V, A, or L,

respectively.

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

CONCEPT OF CENTROID

The centroid, C, is a point defining the

geometric center of an object.

mass or the center of gravity only if the

material of the body is homogenous

(density or specific weight is constant

throughout the body).

then the centroid of object lies on that

axis.

In some cases, the centroid may not be

located on the object.

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

STEPS TO DETERME THE CENTROID OF AN AREA

1. Choose an appropriate differential element dA at a general

point (x,y). Hint: Generally, if y is easily expressed in terms

of x (e.g., y = x2 + 1), use a vertical rectangular element. If

the converse is true, then use a horizontal rectangular

element.

2. Express dA in terms of the differentiating element dx (or dy).

~ ~

3. Determine coordinates (x, y) of the centroid of the

rectangular element in terms of the general point (x,y).

using either x or y depending on whether the differential

element is in terms of dx or dy, respectively, and integrate.

These steps will become clearer by doing a few examples.

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE

Given: The area as shown.

Find: The centroid location (x , y)

Plan: Follow the steps.

Solution:

1. Since y is given in terms of x,

choose dA as a vertical rectangular

strip.

2. dA = y dx = x3 dx

3. ~

x = x and ~y = y / 2 = x3 / 2

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

EXAMPLE (continued)

4. x = ( A x~ dA ) / ( A dA )

1

0 x (x3 ) d x 1/5 [ x5 ]1

0

= =

0

1 (x ) d x

3

1/4 [ x4 ]1

0

= ( 1/5) / ( 1/4) = 0.8 m

A y~ dA 0 1 3

(x / 2) ( x3 ) dx 1/14[x7]1

0

y = = =

A dA 0 x3

1

dx 1/4

= (1/14) / (1/4) = 0.2857 m

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

has a density of 7850 kg/m3.

Find: The location of its center of

mass. Also compute the reactions

at A and B.

Plan: Follow the solution steps to

find the CM by integration.

Then use 2-dimensional

equations of equilibrium to

solve for the external

reactions..

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

Solution

1. Choose dA as a vertical

rectangular strip.

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

Place the weight of the plate at the centroid G.

Area, A = 4.667 m2

Weight, W = (7850) (9.81) (4.667) 0.3 = 107.8 kN

+ FX = – Ax + 47.92 sin 45 = 0

AX = 33.9 kN

AY = 73.9 kN

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, 13th SI Edition © Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

R. C. Hibbeler and Kai Beng Yap 2013. All rights reserved.

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