Optical Fiber Material

© All Rights Reserved

2 views

Optical Fiber Material

© All Rights Reserved

- Chapter 10- Environmental Control and Noise (Cueto and de Vera)
- Dispersion 1 Pp t
- electromagnetic waves exercise
- Electricity for Health Booklet
- Act Diagnostica Fisica
- Proc SPIE_Optra Paper
- Excited States and Photochemistry of Organic Molecules - Martin Klessinger.pdf
- The Strange Story of the Quantum
- Effective Modeling of DNG
- IISRT-1-RZ Based Dispersion Compensation Technique in DWDM System for Broadband Spectrum
- Optical Notes
- d4
- This Account Will Endeavor to Give a Brief Explanation of the Moray Radiant Energy Device Whereby It is Possible to Utilize the Vast Energy of the Universe Without a Prime Mover
- g 044044249
- 2LE Reviewer
- 1.doc
- 2008-9 Y1 Semester 2 Lesson Plans - TP
- Report
- Salisbury Katie G14DIS
- Electromagnetic Wave to Human

You are on page 1of 41

Systems

Propagation

Professor Z Ghassemlooy

Northumbria Communications Laboratory

School of Informatics, Engineering and

Technology

The University of Northumbria

U.K.

http://soe.unn.ac.uk/ocr

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 1

Contents

Particle Nature of Light

Electromagnetic Wave

Reflection, Refraction, and Total Internal Reflection

Ray Properties in Fibre

Types of Fibre

Fibre Characteristics

Attenuation

Dispersion

Bandwidth Distance Product

Summary

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 2

Wave Nature of Light

• Newton believed in the particle theory of light. He explained the

straight-line casting of sharp shadows of objects placed in a light

beam. but he could not explain the textures of shadows

• Wave theory: Explains the

interference where the light intensity

can be enhanced in some places and

diminished in other places behind a

screen with a slit or several slits. The

wave theory is also able to account for

the fact that the edges of a shadow are

not quite sharp.

This theory describes: Propagation,

G Ekspong, Stockholm University,

reflection, refraction and attenuation Sweden, 1999.

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 3

Wave Nature of Light - contd.

1864 James Clerk Maxwell

His mathematical theory of electromagnetism led to the view that

light is of electromagnetic nature, propagating as a wave from the

source to the receiver.

Discovered experimentally the existence of electromagnetic waves at

radio-frequencies.

Wave theory does not describe the absorption of light by a

photosensitive materials

Invoked the idea of light being emitted in tiny pulses of energy

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 4

Particle Nature of Light

Light behaviour can be explained in terms of the amount of energy

imparted in an interaction with some other medium. In this case, a

beam of light is composed of a stream of small lumps or QUANTA of

energy, known as PHOTONS. Each photon carries with it a precisely

defined amount of energy defined as:

Wp = h*f Joules (J)

where; h = Plank's constant = 6.626 x 10-34 J.s, f = Frequency Hz

The convenient unit of energy is electron volt (eV), which is the kinetic energy

acquired by an electron when accelerated to 1 eV = 1.6 x 10-19 J.

fundamental wavelength, which is equivalent to that of the propagating wave as

described by the wave model.

• This model of light is useful when the light source contains only a few photons.

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 5

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 6

Electromagnetic Radiation

• Carries energy through space (includes visible light, dental x-rays,

radio waves, heat radiation from a fireplace)

• The wave is composed of a combination of mutually perpendicular

electric and magnetic fields the direction of propagation of the wave

is at right angles to both field directions, this is known as an

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE

EM wave move through a vacuum at 3.0 x 108 m/s ("speed of light")

E E (r , )e j ( t z )

H H (r , )e j ( t z )

Speed of light

in a vacuum

c f

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 7

The Wave Equation

Solutions to Maxwell’s equations:

phase fronts

jk r e jkR

Plane wave: Ee Spherical wave: E

R

2 k n k0 k 0 r 0 0 r k0

k

0 / n n r

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 8

One Dimensional EM Wave

• For most purposes, a travelling light wave can be presented as a

one-dimensional, scalar wave provided it has a direction of

propagation.

• Such a wave is usually described in terms of the electric field E.

Wavelength

Eo A plane wave propagating

in the direction of z is:

z

E ( z, t ) Eo sin( t z )

Phase

2

The propagation constant (or wave number)

vp

Phase velocity v p c / n n = Propagation medium refractive index

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 9

Group Velocity

at a

Phase velocity v p c / n

together will have a velocity known as Group Velocity: v g c / ng

Ref. index

ng

dn 1.46

ng n

d n

1.44

500 (nm)1700 1900

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 10

Reflection and Refraction of Light

Medium 1

1 1 2 Refracted

n1 n2 ray

Boundary 2

1 1

n2 n1

Incident 1 1

2 ray

Reflected

Medium 2 ray

n1 < n2 n1 > n2

Using the Snell's law at the boundary we have:

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 11

Total Internal Reflection

decreases) then there is no reflection

1

• The incident angle

1 = c = Critical Angle c

n1

becomes totally internally reflected

When 1 = 90o (or c = 0o) 1<c 1

1>

n1 sin 1 = n2 c n1

1 n2

Thus the critical angle c sin

n1

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 12

Ray Propagation in Fibre - Bound

Rays

> c, > max

5

c

3 a

2

1

4

Core n1

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 13

Ray Propagation in Fibre - contd.

1 n2

Since c sin

n1

0.5

n 2

Then n0 sin max n1 1 2

n12 n2

2 0.5

n1

n12 n2

2 0.5

Numerical Aperture ( NA)

gathering

capabilities of the fibre

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 14

Ray Propagation in Fibre - contd.

NA

Fibre acceptance angle max sin 1

n0

n

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 15

Modes in Fibre

– many modes (multi-mode fibre).

– a single mode (single mode fiber).

The number of modes (V) supported in a fiber is

determined by the indices, operating wavelength and the

diameter of the core, given as.

V 2 a nc2 ncl

2

or V

2a

NA

V<2.405 corresponds to a single mode fiber.

By reducing the radius of the fiber, V goes down, and it becomes

impossible to reach a point when only a single mode can be

supported.

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 16

Basic Fibre Properties

Cylindrical

Dielectric

Core Cladding Buffer coating

Waveguide

Low loss

Usually fused silica

Core refractive index > cladding refractive index

Operation is based on total internal reflection

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 17

Types of Fibre

There are two main fibre types:

• Multi-mode

• Single mode

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 18

Step-index Multi-mode Fibre

Input

pulse 120-400m n1 =1.48-1.5

n2 = 1.46

Advantages: dn=0.04,100 ns/km

• Allows the use of non-coherent optical light source, e.g. LED's

• Facilitates connecting together similar fibres

• Imposes lower tolerance requirements on fibre connectors.

• Cost effective

Disadvantages:

• Suffer from dispersion (i.e. low bandwidth (a few MHz)

• High power loss

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 19

Graded-index Multi-mode Fibre

50-100 m

Input Output

pulse 120-140m pulse

n2 n1

Advantages: dn = 0.04,1ns/km

• Allows the use of non-coherent optical light source, e.g. LED's

• Facilitates connecting together similar fibres

• Imposes lower tolerance requirements on fibre connectors.

• Reduced dispersion compared with STMMF

Disadvantages:

• Lower bandwidth compared with STSMF

• High power loss compared with the STSMF

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 20

Step-index Single-mode Fibre

Input

pulse 100-120m n1 =1.48-1.5

n2 = 1.46

dn = 0.005, 5ps/km

Advantages:

• Only one mode is allowed due to diffraction/interference effects.

• Allows the use high power laser source

• Facilitates fusion splicing similar fibres

• Low dispersion, therefore high bandwidth (a few GHz).

• Low loss (0.1 dB/km)

Disadvantages:

• Cost

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 21

Single Mode Fiber - Power Distribution

Evanescent

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 22

Fibre Characteristics

transmission capabilities are:

• Attenuation (loss)

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 23

Attenuation - Standard Fibre

SM-fiber, InGaAsP DFB-laser,

InGaAsP FP-laser or LED ~ 1990 Optical amplifiers

10 MM-fibre, GaAs- 80nm 180 nm

laser or LED

5

Attenuation (dB/km)

2.0

Fourth Generation,

1.0 1996, 1.55 m

WDM-systems

0.5

0.2 1300

nm 1550

nm

0.1

600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

Wavelength (nm)

c

Bandwidth f = 1.142 x 10 14 Hz |

1300 + 2.2475 10 14 Hz |

1550 nm

2 nm

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 24

Attenuation (Loss ) - contd.

Fibre

Pi Po

L

1 Po

Fibre attenuation coefficient p ln

(p = scattering + absorption + bending) L Pi

1 Po

Or in dB/km, fibre attenuation log 4.343 p (km 1 )

L Pi

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 25

Fibre Attenuation - contd.

• In a typical system, the total loss could bas 20-30 dB, before it

needs amplification.

measured using Optical Time Domain

Reflectometer

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 26

Fibre Dispersion

• Data carried in an optical fibre consists of pulses of light energy

consists of a large number of frequencies travelling at a given rate.

• There is a limit to the highest data rate (frequency) that can be

sent down a fibre and be expected to emerge intact at the output.

• This is because of a phenomenon known as Dispersion (pulse

spreading), which limits the "Bandwidth” of the fibre.

T

si(t) Many modes so(t)

Output

L pulse

Cause of Dispersion:

• Chromatic (Intramodal) Dispersion

• Modal (Intermodal) Dispersion

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 27

Chromatic Dispersion

• It is a result of group velocity being a function of wavelength.

In any given mode different spectral components of a pulse traveling

through the fibre at different speed.

• It depends on the light Laser = 1-2 nm

source spectral characteristics. = R.M.S Spectral

width

LED = 40 nm

(many modes)

wavelength

• May occur in all fibre, but is the dominant in single mode fibre

• Main causes:

• Material dispersion - different wavelengths => different speeds

• Waveguide dispersion: different wavelengths => different angles

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 28

Material Dispersion

Refractive index of silica is frequency dependent. Thus different

frequency (wavelength) components travel at different speed

d 2n

RMS pulse broadening m at L ns / km

c d2

coefficient: 100

2nd window

d n 2

Dm at ps / nm.km Dmat 0

c d2

Note: Negative sign, indicates that low -100

wavelength components arrives before 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.7

higher wavelength components.

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 29

Waveguide Dispersion

• This results from variation of the group velocity with wavelength for

a particular mode. Depends on the size of the fibre.

• This can usually be ignored in multimode fibres, since it is very

small compared with material dispersion.

• However it is significant in monomode fibres.

175

Waveguide dispersion

100

Dmat 0

Total dispersion

0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.7

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 30

Modal (Intermodal) Dispersion

• Lower order modes travel travelling almost parallel to the centre

line of the fibre cover the shortest distance, thus reaching the end of

fibre sooner.

• The higher order modes (more zig-zag rays) take a longer route

as they pass along the fibre and so reach the end of the fibre later.

Cladding n2

2

c Core n1

1

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 31

Modal Dispersion - SIMMF

The time taken for ray 1 to propagate a length Ln1

of fibre L gives the minimum delay time:

t min

c

L cos

The time taken for the ray to propagate a length tmax

of fibre L gives the maximum delay time: c n1

n2

Since sin c cos

n1

The delay difference Ts tmax tmin

Since relative refractive index (n n )

1 2

difference n 1

Ln12

Thus Ts

cn2

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 32

Modal Dispersion - SIMMF

(n1n2 )

For 1, and NA n1 (2) 0.5

n2

L( NA) 2

Ts

2cn1

modal dispersion at the output of the fibre is:

Ln1 L( NA) 2

modal

3.5c 7 n1C

T [chrom2 modal2 ]1 / 2

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 33

Modal Dispersion - GIMMF

Ts

2c

Ln12

m odalGI

34.6C

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 34

Dispersion - Consequences

I- Frequency Limitation (Bandwidth)

L = L1

T

1 0 1 0 0 1

1 0 1 0 0 1 B

L L = L2 > L1

• Maximum frequency limitation of

signal, which can be sent along a fibre 1 0 1 0 0 1

• Intersymbol interference (ISI), which

is unacceptable in digital systems which

depend on the precise sequence of pulses. Intersymbol interference

(bandwidth) which can be sent along it. To increase the bandwidth for

the same type of fibre one needs to decrease the length of the fibre.

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 35

Bandwidth Limitations

• Maximum channel bandwidth B:

• For non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data format: B = BT /2

• For return-to-zero (RZ) data format: B = BT

Where the maximum bit rate BT = 1/T, and T = bit duration.

• For zero pulse overlap at the output of the fibre BT <= 1/2

where is the pulse width.

For MMSF: BT (max) = 1/2Ts

where rms is the RMS pulse width.

For MMSF: BT (max) =0.2/ modal

or

BT (max) =0.2/ T Total dispersion

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 36

Bandwidth Distance Product (BDP)

The BDP is the bandwidth of a kilometer of fibre and is a constant

for any particular type of fibre.

Bopt * L = BT * L (MHzkm)

- 2 km of the fibre would have a bandwidth of 10 MHz

• Multimode 6 - 25 MHz.km

• Single Mode 500 - 1500 MHz.km

• Graded Index 100 - 1000 MHZ.km

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 37

Bandwidth Distance Product

100

Source spectral width < 1 nm

Bit rate B (Gbps)

10

0.1

1 10 100 1000 10,000

Distance L (km)

Dmat = 17 ps/km.nm

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 38

Controlling Dispersion

For single mode fibre:

• Wavelength 1300:

- Dispersion is very small

- Loss is high compared to 1550 nm wavelength

• Wavelength 1550:

- Dispersion is high compared with 1300 nm

- Loss is low

zero-diepersion point from 1300 nm to 1550 nm. How?

Fibre with this property are called Dispersion-Shifted Fibres

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 39

Controlling Dispersion

20

Dispersion

10

shifted

0

Dispersion

Standard flattened

-10

-20

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

Wavelength ( m)

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 40

Summary

• Light is part of EM spectrum

• Phase and group velocities

• Reflection, refraction and total internal reflection etc.

• Types of fibre

• Attenuation and dispersion

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy 41

- Chapter 10- Environmental Control and Noise (Cueto and de Vera)Uploaded byEvan Charl Moraleda
- Dispersion 1 Pp tUploaded byShivani Ekant Yadav
- electromagnetic waves exerciseUploaded byleelee1127
- Electricity for Health BookletUploaded byJust me
- Act Diagnostica FisicaUploaded byDeanna Russo
- Proc SPIE_Optra PaperUploaded bynorbdude
- Excited States and Photochemistry of Organic Molecules - Martin Klessinger.pdfUploaded byLoredjv
- The Strange Story of the QuantumUploaded byalbertoprass
- Effective Modeling of DNGUploaded bymsajjad_68
- IISRT-1-RZ Based Dispersion Compensation Technique in DWDM System for Broadband SpectrumUploaded byIISRT
- Optical NotesUploaded byAmit Kumar Pandey
- d4Uploaded byAaron Castillo
- This Account Will Endeavor to Give a Brief Explanation of the Moray Radiant Energy Device Whereby It is Possible to Utilize the Vast Energy of the Universe Without a Prime MoverUploaded byAnonymous o7bhrwXtWG
- g 044044249Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- 2LE ReviewerUploaded byRamm Advincula
- 1.docUploaded byManu Gupta
- 2008-9 Y1 Semester 2 Lesson Plans - TPUploaded byDanWagner
- ReportUploaded byBhoopendra Gujjar
- Salisbury Katie G14DISUploaded bykdebes
- Electromagnetic Wave to HumanUploaded byValentine Roland
- PhysicsF52013[1]Uploaded byHamdi Adam
- Freq BandwidthUploaded bytigermannn
- 9783319010311-c2Uploaded byManoj Rajput
- Expository EssayUploaded byAleksandr Gonzales
- Face 0.docxUploaded byedgar
- Laser Scanner TechnologyUploaded byEng M G Elkhateeb
- How_Theories_Begin_A_Historical-Epistemo.pdfUploaded bySariamanRIngo
- Edexcel AlevelPHY4 Waves and Our UniverseUploaded byMsi Andmsi
- 04_G482_Waves_70_minUploaded byZach Thompson
- RE1a-2013-09-02-notesUploaded byJacqueline Erickson

- Lec-1 semiconductors materialsUploaded byJay Prakash Patel
- Pres4 SourcesUploaded bysamsim1232
- Optical Networks.pptUploaded byChakravarthi Chittajallu
- OFC PresentationUploaded bySagar Saidam
- Lec2_Part2Uploaded bysamsim1232
- Lec2_Part1Uploaded bysamsim1232
- Lec-1 modified.pdfUploaded bysamsim1232
- PresentationUploaded bysamsim1232
- Lec4_Part2Uploaded bysamsim1232
- Lec4_Part1Uploaded bysamsim1232
- Thesis Todo ListUploaded bysamsim1232
- Lecture 3Uploaded bysamsim1232
- latexhelpUploaded bybvarici
- jmzgAWVXbusD.pdfUploaded bysamsim1232
- Teachers 14.02.17 (Updated)Uploaded bysamsim1232
- Teachers 14.02.17.pdfUploaded bysamsim1232
- Lecture 1Uploaded bysamsim1232
- Lecture 1Uploaded bysamsim1232
- FirstUploaded bysamsim1232
- Lecture 2Uploaded bysamsim1232
- lec7Uploaded bysamsim1232
- lec8Uploaded bysamsim1232

- Regular Waves using Stokes Linear TheoryUploaded byknowme73
- Unit 8 Problem SetUploaded bySandrine Petes
- Int Physics Olympiad Questions 1_2_3Uploaded byrock
- Heat Transfer ObjectivesUploaded byAnil Frivolous Abstemious
- OpticsUploaded bythinkiit
- Naest df thtUploaded byandreea5993
- Phonon VibrationsUploaded bypricil99
- 182861_Medical Imaggin, Fisdas Muhammad Algi Fari Kelompok 13Uploaded byria hertianingsih
- Training[1]Uploaded byDisha Puri
- Projectile MotionUploaded byAllen A Espinosa
- Final ReviewUploaded bymr.dogbunz
- GGSIPU Physics 2014Uploaded byVikas
- 112446949-homeowork-6.pdfUploaded byQassem Mohaidat
- Radiation Safety and Flouroscopy3Uploaded byjhslibrarycme
- Structure and Spectra of Hydrogenic AtomsUploaded byserna
- Chapter-1Uploaded byDennis
- 13. Optical PropertiesUploaded bySangetha Chelladorai
- Important Dimensionless Numbers and Their SignificanceUploaded byMubarik Ali
- heat transfer in polymer processingUploaded by林丽莹
- A Damage Identification Technique for CFEP CompositeUploaded byDeendayal Nagar
- Farell C.on the Experimental .Jun.1973.JSRUploaded byibadurrahman
- Frequency Wavelength Speed Experiment Philip SalmonyUploaded byPhilip Salmony
- PHYSICSUploaded byeljay_sevilla_formal16
- 1 Intro to Radio Systems v1Uploaded byJoseMiguelBlancoAlvarez
- 9783319493480-c2Uploaded byDavid Aponte
- Detailed Lesson Plan in Science .odtUploaded byPerfecto Cabalquinto
- PhysicsUploaded byramanagopal
- The Attenuation of Gamma Ray by Doped Azo Polymers With Nano Oxide MetalsUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- FORCE AND MOTION.pptxUploaded byMaturan Peach
- Conceptual Integrated Science--Mon Sep 11 18:38:32 EDT 2017Uploaded byTimothy Ipema