You are on page 1of 24

KEAMANAN PANGAN

Food safety
Food safety
 a scientific discipline describing
handling,
preparation, and
storage
of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness.

 This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid


potentially severe health hazards.

2
Government Food Authority
should be working toward ensuring that
all food businesses implement food safety systems

1. to ensure food is safe to consume


2. To prevent the incidence of food poisoning
===========
customers can have more confidence in the food they consume.

To provide basic food safety training for at least one person in each
business.
3
Basic food safety training
Basic food safety training includes:
1. Understanding the hazards associated with the main types of food and the conditions to
prevent the growth of bacteria which can cause food poisoning and to prevent illness
2. The problems associated with product packaging such as leaks in vacuum packs, damage to
packaging or pest infestation, as well as problems and diseases spread by pests.
3. Safe food handling. This includes safe procedures for each process such as receiving, re-
packing, food storage, preparation and cooking, cooling and re-heating, displaying products,
handling products when serving customers, packaging, cleaning and sanitizing, pest control,
transport and delivery. Also the causes of cross contamination.
4. Catering for customers who are particularly at risk of food-borne illness, including allergies and
intolerance.
5. Correct cleaning and sanitizing procedures, cleaning products and their correct use, and the
storage of cleaning items such as brushes, mops and cloths.
6. Personal hygiene, hand washing, illness, and protective clothing.

4
Food poisoning
• Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a
growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning.
• In theory food poisoning is 100% preventable.
=====================

5
Harmful chemicals as Food contaminants
• The impact of chemical contaminants on consumer health and well-
being is often apparent only after many years of prolonged exposure
at low levels (e.g., cancer).
• Chemical contaminants can be classified according to the source of
contamination and the mechanism by which they enter the food
product.
• Harmful Chemicals
 often unaffected by thermal processing

• Pathogenic microorganisms

6
Chemical contaminants of food
Chemical contaminants can be classified according to the source of
contamination and the mechanism by which they enter the food
product.
1. Agrochemicals
2. Environmental contaminants
3. Naturally occurring toxins

7
Agrochemicalsas food contaminants
• Agrochemicals are chemicals used in agricultural practices and animal
husbandry with the intent to increase crops and reduce costs.
=============
• include pesticides (e.g., insecticides, herbicides, rodenticides),
• plant growth regulators,
• veterinary drugs (e.g., nitrofuran, fluoroquinolones, malachite green,
chloramphenicol), and bovine somatotropin (rBST).

8
Environmental contaminants
• Environmental contaminants are chemicals that are present in the
environment in which the food is grown, harvested, transported,
stored, packaged, processed, and consumed.
 The physical contact of the food with its environment results in its
contamination.

9
Environmental contaminants:Possible sources of
contamination
• Air: radionuclides (137Caesium, 90Strontium), polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAH)
• Water: arsenic, mercury
• Soil: cadmium, nitrates, perchlorates
• Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins, and polybrominated diphenyl
ethers
• Packaging materials: antimony, tin, lead, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA),
semicarbazide, benzophenone, isopropyl thioxanthone (ITX), bisphenol A
• Processing/cooking equipment: copper, or other metal chips, lubricants,
cleaning, and sanitizing agents
10
Naturally occurring toxic chemicals
• mycotoxins,
• phytohaemagglutinin,
• pyrrolizidine alkaloids,
• mushroom toxins,
• scombrotoxin (histamine),
• shellfish toxins
• And many others

11
The five key principles of food hygiene

1. Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets,


and pests.
2. Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked
foods.
3. Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate
temperature to kill pathogens.
4. Store food at the proper temperature.
5. Do use safe water and cooked materials

12
Health food
• Health food is food considered to be beneficial to health in ways that go
beyond a normal healthy diet required for human nutrition.

• Foods considered "healthy" may be natural foods, organic foods, whole


foods, and sometimes dietary supplements.
• Such products are sold in health food stores or in the health/organic
sections of supermarkets.
• "Health food" may also refer to functional food that designed to address
specific health concerns, such as the prevention of disease.
• Additionally, "health food" is sometimes used in contrast with "junk food",
which may be high in calories but has little other nutritional value.

13
Junk food vs Health food
"health food" is sometimes used in contrast with "junk food“

"junk food“ may be high in calories but has little other nutritional
value.

14
1. Foodborne illness

2. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

3. Critical control point

15
The five key principles of food hygiene

1. Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from


people, pets, and pests.
2. Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the
cooked foods.
3. Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the
appropriate temperature to kill pathogens.
4. Store food at the proper temperature.
5. Do use safe water and cooked materials.

16
Food Manufacturing control

17
Appropiate Temperature for cooking Food

• "Cooking food until the CORE TEMPERATURE is 75 °C or above will ensure


that harmful bacteria are destroyed.

• However, lower cooking temperatures are acceptable provided that the


CORE TEMPERATURE is maintained for a specified period of time as
follows :
• 60 °C for a minimum of 45 minutes
• 65 °C for a minimum of 10 minutes
• 70 °C for a minimum of 2 minutes"
18
Handling Cooked Meats Safely A Ten Point
Plan

• "75 °C for a minimum of 30 seconds


• 80 °C for a minimum of 6 seconds"

• Note that recommended cooking conditions are only appropriate if


initial bacterial numbers in the uncooked food are small.
• Cooking does not overcome poor hygiene.

19
Labelling comercial food product
• Best before indicates a future date beyond which the food product may
lose quality in terms of taste or texture amongst others, but does not imply
any serious health problems if food is consumed beyond this date (within
reasonable limits).
• Use by indicates a legal date beyond which it is not permissible to sell a
food product (usually one that deteriorates fairly rapidly after production)
due to the potential serious nature of consumption of pathogens. Leeway
is sometimes provided by producers in stating display until dates so that
products are not at their limit of safe consumption on the actual date
stated (this latter is voluntary and not subject to regulatory control). This
allows for the variability in production, storage and display methods.

20
21
22
23
Berbagai topik terkait keamanan Pangan
• Adulterated food
• Aseptic processing

• Food and Bioprocess Technology


• Food chemistry
• Food engineering
• Food microbiology

• Food spoilage
• Food technology
• SAFE FOODS

24