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Introduction

 The 132 kV kanipora G.S.S. was established in 22 May 2013


by Jammu & Kashmir Power Development Department.
 It is located at Kanipora ,Shopian, J&K
 The 132 kV Kanipora G.S.S. steps down the incoming voltage
of 132 KV to 33 kV .
 Incomming Line to Kanipora G.S.S is from Pampore

Contents
1. Transformers 14. Control Room
2. Coupling Capacitor
3. Wave Trap
4. Insulators
5. Capacitor bank
6. Isolators
7. Lighting arrestor
8. Bus Bar
9. Circuit Breaker
10. Relays
11. Batter Bank
12. Automatic Voltage Regulator
13. Earthing
Transformers
i. Power Transformer

It is a static device used in


transmission & distribution
system to step up & step down
A.C. voltage.

There is only one Transformer


assembled in Kanipora G.S.S.
50 MVA, 132/33 kV.
ii. Potential Transformer (PT)
 T/F s used for voltage measurements .
 -They make the ordinary low voltage
that is suitable for measurement of high
voltage and isolate them from high
voltage.
 -The primary winding of the PT is
connected to the main bus bar of switch
gear installation and the secondary
winding to various indicating and
metering instrument and relays.
 -When the rated high voltage is applied
to the primary of P.T. the voltage of 110
volts appears across the secondary
winding.
Potential Transformer
iii. Auxiliary Transformer

 Auxiliary transformer is
used to supply low voltage
for AC power system inside
substation such as lighting
,air conditioners and other
AC supply system and DC
power system such as
protection relays, batteries
& telecom system and other
DC supply system.

Auxiliary Transformer
iv. Current Transformer
 They are connected in A.C.
power circuit to feed the current
coils of indicating & metering
instrument (ammeters, watt-
meters, watt-hour meters) &
protective relays. Thus the
circuit broadens the limits of
measurements & maintains a
watch over the current flowing
in the circuit& over the power
loads.
 The current t/f basically consists
of iron
 core which are wound by a
primary &
 one or two secondary windings. Current Transformer
v. Capacitive Voltage Transformer (CVT)
 It allows the carrier signals to pass
through it.
 These signals are then send to the
“carrier set”.
 Gives a low impedance path to PLCC
carrier wave freq. which is of order of
100-500KHZ...and hence its used for
protection and relaying and
telemetering purposes
It is as already said...the voltage drops
across each cap. and hence its viable to
measure the voltage by using low
coiled transformer...
Capacitive Voltage Transformer
Coupling Capacitor
 Coupling capacitor is used
to minimize the noise &
disturbance in the
communication line.
 This is connected b/w
wave trap &
 communication line. It
consists of high frequency
 receiver transmitted to
one of the line conductor.
 It is also called dead tank
breaker.
Coupling Capacitor
…Contd Coupling Capacitor
 Coupling Capacitors are used
to transmit communication
signals to transmission lines.
Some are used to measure the
voltage in transmission lines.
In signal transmission the
coupling capacitor is part of a
power line carrier circuit as
shown in the schematic
below. A coupling capacitor
is used in this circuit in
conjunction with a line trap.
Line traps can be installed at
the substation or on a
transmission line tower
Schematic Diagram
Wave Trap
It is used to trap the communication
signals & send it to the PLCC control
room through CVT. This wave trap
allows the power frequency to pass
through it & obstructs the
communication signals & allows them
to pass through CVT. It has inductive
coil
of 0.5 mH. It reduce interference b/w Wave Trap
station. It acts like filter.
POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION
 There is no use of telephone lines in the exchange of important
information between grid sub-station.
 This information are received by wave traps in GSS. These wave
traps are connected with 132 KV lines in series with L.A. &
coupling capacitors.
• The main work of wave trap is interchange of electrical waves
into sound waves & sound waves into electrical waves.
• When information is send b/w one GSS to the other GSS, sound
waves get trapped& these waves are converted into electrical
waves& these electrical waves get in other GSS through main line
Insulators
 In order to prevent the flow of current to earth from the
support, the transmission lines or distributions lines are all
secured to the supporting towers or poles with the help of
insulators. Thus the insulators play an important part in the
successful operation of the lines.
 There are many types of insulators in power system, but at
extra high voltage transmission only 3 types of insulators are
used.
 Strain type or tension type insulators (upto 33KV)
 Suspension type insulators or disc type insulators (above 33
KV)
 Post type insulator (for supporting the bus bar &
disconnecting switches in sub-stations).
…Contd insulators

Post Insulators for Clearance Strain Insulators up to 33 kV

Suspension insulator > 33kV


Capacitor bank
 Most of the load is inductive so that the line power factor
becomes lagging and affects the regulation point of view. Since
due to low power factor, voltage drop gets higher, the regulation
of the line disturbs. So to improve the power factor, capacitor
bank is erected or used at 132 KV G.S.S

Capacitor Bank Connected in substation


Isolator
 An isolator or disconnecting
switch is used to open some given Isolator
part of a power circuit after
switching off the load by means of
a CB. Thus isolators serve only for
preventing the voltage from being
applied to some given section of
the bus switch gear installation or
to one or another price of
apparatus in the installation.
 In some cases isolators may be
used as a C.B. device, their use for
this purpose is strictly limited by
definite conditions such as the
power rating of the given circuit.
Bus Bar
 The term “Bus bar” is used for main bar or conductor carrying
an electric current to which many connections may be made.
 In some arrangement two buses are provided to which the
incoming or outgoing feeders & the principle equipment may
be connected. One bus is usually called “main bus “and the
other is called “auxiliary bus”.
Lightning Arrestor
 It is a protective device which conducts the high
voltage surges on the power system to the ground. It
is connected between the line and the earth.
Circuit Breaker
 It is an other equipment which can
 break a circuit automatically under fault condition.
 make a circuit manually or by remote control under fault
condition.
 Types of Circuit Breakers:
 Oil Circuit Breakers
 Vacuum Circuit Breakers
 Sulphur Hexafluoride Circuit Breakers(SF6 CB)
 - The latest design for A.C. C.B. is SF6 gas type. In which SF6
gas works as quenching medium as well as insulating
medium.
 -At 1000 C , SF6 gas split in to SF4, SF2, S2, F2, S and F.
 Soda lime (NaOH +CaO) and activated alumina is placed in
the arcing chamber.
 -The major disadvantage is that it is considered at the low
temperature.
 -It changes their states into liquid depend upon the atm. Pressure

Oil circuit breaker is such type


of circuit breaker which
used oil as a dielectric or
insulating medium for arc
extinction. In oil circuit
breaker the contacts of the
breaker are made to separate
within an insulating oil
vacuum circuit breaker is a kind
of circuit breaker where the arc
quenching takes place in
vacuum medium. The operation of
switching on and closing of
current carrying contacts and
interrelated arc interruption takes
place in a vacuum chamber in
the breaker which is
called vacuum interrupter. Vacuum Circuit Breaker
Sulfur hexafluoride circuit breakers In Kanipora G.S.S SF6
is used. It protect electrical power stations and distribution
systems by interrupting electric currents, when tripped by
a protective relay. Instead of oil, air, or
a vacuum, a sulfur hexafluoride
circuit breaker uses sulfur
hexafluoride (SF6) gas to cool
and quench the arc on opening a
circuit. Advantages over other
media include lower operating
noise and no emission of hot
gases, and relatively low
maintenance. Developed in the
1950s and onward, SF6 circuit
breakers are widely used in
electrical grids at transmission
voltages up to 800 kV, as
generator circuit breakers.
SF6 circuit breaker
Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use
an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but
other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state
relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a
circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several
circuits must be controlled by one signal. :
Types of relays
 Following types of relays usually used in 132/33 kV G.S.S
are:-
I. Over Current relay
II. Over Voltage Relay
III. Distance Relay
IV. Buchholz Relay
V. Earth fault Relay
i. Over Current Relay:-
Over current protection protects
electrical power systems against
excessive currents which are
caused by short circuits, ground
faults, etc. Over current relays
can be used to protect practically
any power system elements, i.e.
transmission lines, transformers,
generators, or motors.
ii. Over Voltage Relay:-
 An over-voltage
relay operates when the
current produced by a load,
or device connected to the
output of a circuit, exceeds
a predetermined value.
The over-voltage relay
connects to a transformer,
or device that transfers
electrical energy from one
circuit to another.
iii. Distance Relay:-
 There is one type of relay which functions depending upon the
distance of fault in the line. More specifically, the relay operates
depending upon the impedance between the point of fault and
the point where relay is installed. These relays are known as
distance relay or impedance relay
iv Buchholz Relay :-
 Buchholz relay is used for the
protection of transformers from
the faults occurring inside the
transformer. Short circuit faults
such as inter turn faults, incipient
winding faults, and core faults
may occur due to the impulse
breakdown of the insulating oil or
simply the transformer oil.
v. Earth Fault Relay:-
 The earth fault relay is basically a
protection device used selectively Earth Fault Relay

for earth fault protection. These


can be used for both primary and
backup protection in an electrical
system.
Why Battery Bank?
 DC distribution is needed in Sub-
station to provide power supply to
Control & Protection equipment
situated in Substation in case of
outages/faults.
 Generally DC power is used for
this purpose instead of AC, since
the reaction time of the protective
device is less, operating on DC
supply.
 Battery Bank are used for this
purpose. Further, the Battery
charger is supplied through a
different power supply/transformer
(AC), to provide redundancy. (So
that it remains in operation even Battery Bank
though the Main power supply
fails).
Automatic Voltage Regulator
 The automatic voltage regulator is
used to regulate the voltage. It takes
the fluctuate voltage and changes
them into a constant voltage. The
fluctuation in the voltage mainly
occurs due to the variation in load on
the supply system. The variation in
voltage damages the equipment of the
power system. The variation in the
voltage can be controlled by
installing the voltage control
equipment at several places likes near
the transformers, generator, feeders,
etc., Automatic Voltage Regulator


Earthing
 An earth connection of the exposed conductive parts of
electrical equipment helps protect from electric shock by
keeping the exposed conductive surface of connected devices
close to earth potential, when a failure of electrical insulation
occurs. When a fault occurs, current flows from the power
system to earth. The current may be high enough to operate the
over current protection fuse or circuit breaker, which will then
interrupt the circuit. To ensure the voltage on exposed surfaces
is not too high, the impedance (resistance) of the connection to
earth must be kept low relative to the normal circuit impedance.
 In 50 MVA 132/33 Kv Kanipora G.S.S Earthing Mat
is used fro earthing purpose
Earthing Mat
Primary requirement of Earthing is to have a low
earth resistance. ... The inter link is made thro flat or
rod conductor which is called as Earth Mat or Grid. It
keeps the surface of substation equipment as nearly as
absolute earth potential as possible.
Control Room
The control room where the operator can view the
alarms, breaker states, measures of power
elements (transformers, generators, loads, etc).
Depending on all the information that the operator
receives, he will operate the incomings, the tie
breakers, the outputs for the loads or simply will
physically check the elements that are generating
an alarm before a major fault occurs.
To monitor the complete operation of the substation
which now linked with Fiber Optic cable and to
control locally the operations if permissible .