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Reservoir fluid properties

By
Dr Anil Kumar
Fluid Properties
Naturally occurring petroleum accumulations are made up of
large number of organic compounds, primarily hydrocarbons.
Seldom are two crude oil samples identical and seldom are two
crude oils made up of the same proportions of the various
compounds.
Reasons to examine the Reservoir fluids
a) A chemical engineer may be interested in a crude oil’s
composition as to the amount of commercial products the
oil will yield after refining.
b) An exploration might have an interest in an oil or water’s
composition as it sheds light on the origin, maturation and
degradation of the oil for geological interpretation.
c) The petroleum engineer is particularly concerned to
determine their behavior under varying conditions of
pressure and temperature that occur in the reservoir and
piping systems during the production process.
Chemical composition of petroleum deposits

Petroleum deposits obtained from different reservoirs will vary


widely in chemical composition and may have entirely different
physical and Chemical Properties

They may be present in the reservoir in liquid and/or gas form


depending upon the pressure, temperature and composition

In spite of this diversity, the bulk of the chemical compounds


found in Petroleum are hydrocarbons:

1. Paraffin hydrocarbons (CnH2n+2)

2. Naphthalene hydrocarbons

3. Aromatic hydrocarbons
Petroleum oil

Petroleum oil or crude oil is a complex mixture consisting largely


of hydrocarbons belonging to various series
In addition, crude may usually contain small amounts of
combined oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur
No crude oil has ever been entirely separated into its individual
components.
Crude oils obtained from various reservoir have different
properties because of the presence of different proportions of
hydrocarbons constituents
Nearly all crude oils will give ultimate analysis within the
following limits
Element carbon hydrogen sulfur nitrogen Oxygen

% Weight 84-87 11-14 0.6-2.0 0.1-2.0 0.1-2.0


Natural Gas

Natural gas can occur by itself or in combination with liquid


petroleum oils

It consists mainly of the more volatile members of the paraffin


series containing from one to four carbon atoms

Small amount of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons can also


be present

In addition, natural gases may contain varying amount of


carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, helium and water
vapor

Natural gas can be classified as sweet or sour and as wet or dry


Tars and Asphalts

 These solid and semi solid substances are also known as


bitumen, waxes and resins

 They are very complex substances and relatively little is


known regarding their chemical composition

 These materials are formed in nature from petroleum oils


by evaporation of the more volatile constituents and
oxidation and polymerization of residue
Products from Petroleum
 The distillation of crude oil results in various fractions
which boils at different temperatures
 If the residue which remains after distillation is a wax like
solid consisting of largely of paraffin hydrocarbons the
crude is designated as paraffin base
 If the residue is a black pitch like solid the crude is called
asphalt base
Various fractions of petroleum

Fractions obtained from distillation Temperature Range


Petroleum Ether Upto 160 0f
Gasoline 160-400 0f

Kerosene 400-575 0f
Fuel oil Above 575 0f
Requirements to Study the Reservoir Fluid Behavior

Reservoir fluids are generally complex mixtures of


hydrocarbons existing as liquid-gas systems under
high pressures & temperatures

An important aspect of petroleum engineering is


predicting the future behavior of a petroleum reservoir
when it is put on production

Therefore, it is necessary to know the behavior of


reservoir fluids as a function of temperature and
pressure

To understand the behavior of complex systems


existing in petroleum reservoir, the derivations from
ideal behavior are used.
Phase Behavior of Hydrocarbon Systems

A phase is a definite portion of a system which is homogeneous


throughout and can be separated from other phases by distinct
boundaries.
Solids, liquids and gases are phases of matter which can occur,
depending on pressure and temperature. Commonly, two or
three different fluid phases exist together in a reservoir.
Any analysis of reservoir fluids depends on the relationships
between pressure, volume and temperature of the fluids
commonly referred to as the PVT relationship.
It is customary to represent the phase behaviour of
hydrocarbon reservoir fluids on the P-T plane showing the limits
over which the fluid exists as a single phase and the proportions
of oil and gas in equilibrium over the two phase P-T range.
Single Component Systems

Single component hydrocarbons are not found in nature,


however it is beneficial to observe the behaviour of a pure
hydrocarbon under varying pressures and temperatures to gain
insight into more complex systems.
As an example, the PVT cell is charged with ethane at 60° F and
1000 psia. Under these conditions, ethane is in a liquid state. If
the cell volume is increased while holding the temperature
constant, the pressure will fall rapidly and first bubble of gas
appears. This is called the bubble point.
Further increases of cylinder volume at constant temperature
does not reduce the pressure. The gas volume increases until
the point is reached where all the liquid is vaporized. This is
called the dew point.
Further increase of cylinder volume results in a hyperbolic
reduction in pressure as the ethane gas expands.
Single Component P-V
Phase Behaviour of Hydrocarbon System
To understand the significance of the pressure-temperature
diagrams, it is necessary to identify and define the following
key points on these diagrams:
Cricondentherm (Tct)—The Cricondentherm is defined as the
maximum temperature above which liquid cannot be formed
regardless of pressure. The corresponding pressure is termed
the Cricondentherm pressure pct.
Cricondenbar (pcb)—The Cricondenbar is the maximum
pressure above which no gas can be formed regardless of
temperature. The corresponding temperature is called the
Cricondenbar temperature Tcb.
Critical point— The critical point for a multicomponent
mixture is referred to as the state of pressure and
temperature at which all intensive properties of the gas and
liquid phases are equal. At the critical point, the
corresponding pressure and temperature are called the critical
pressure pc and critical temperature Tc of the mixture.
Phase Behavior of Hydrocarbon System
Phase envelope (two-phase region)—The region enclosed by
the bubble- point curve and the dew-point curve, wherein gas
and liquid coexist in equilibrium, is identified as the phase
envelope of the hydrocarbon system.
Bubble-point curve—The bubble-point curve is defined as the
line separating the liquid-phase region from the two-phase
region.
Dew-point curve—The dew-point curve is defined as the line
separating the vapor-phase region from the two-phase region.

In general, reservoirs are conveniently classified on the basis


of the location of the point representing the initial reservoir
pressure pi and temperature T with respect to the pressure-
temperature diagram of the reservoir fluid.
P-T Diagram for a Multicomponent
Phase Behaviour of a Two-Component System
Consider the phase behavior of a 50:50 mixture of two pure
hydrocarbon components on the P-T plane.

The vapor pressure and bubble point lines do not coincide but
form an envelope enclosing a broad range of temperatures and
pressures at which two phases (gas and oil) exist in equilibrium.

The dew and bubble point curves terminate at that temperature


and pressure at which liquid and vapour (gas) phases have
identical intensive properties, density, specific volume, Etc.
Phase Behaviour of a Two-Component System
Reservoir Fluid Types

Oil reservoirs
If the reservoir temperature T is less than the critical
temperature Tc of the reservoir fluid, the reservoir is
classified as an oil reservoir.
Gas reservoirs
If the reservoir temperature is greater than the critical
temperature of the hydrocarbon fluid, the reservoir is
considered a gas reservoir.
P-T Diagram for a Multicomponent
Reservoir Fluid Types

Depending upon initial reservoir pressure pi, oil


reservoirs can be sub classified into the following
categories:
1. Undersaturated oil reservoir.
If the initial reservoir pressure pi is greater
than the bubble-point pressure pb of the
reservoir fluid, the reservoir is labeled an
undersaturated oil reservoir.
2. Saturated oil reservoir.
When the initial reservoir pressure is equal to
the bubble-point pressure of the reservoir
fluid, the reservoir is called a saturated oil
reservoir.
Reservoir Fluid Types

3. Gas-cap reservoir.
If the initial reservoir pressure is below the
bubble point pressure of the reservoir fluid, the
reservoir is termed a gas-cap or two-phase
reservoir, in which the gas or vapor phase is
underlain by an oil phase. The appropriate
quality line gives the ratio of the gas-cap volume
to reservoir oil volume.
Reservoir Fluid Types

• Black oil

• Volatile oil
Pres , Tres
• Retrograde Condensate Dry
(gas condensate)

Pressure
Gas

Gas
• Wet gas Condensate

Volatile Black
• Dry gas Oil Oil

Temperature
Reservoir Fluid Types

Crude oils cover a wide range in physical properties and


chemical Compositions.
In general, crude oils are commonly classified into the
following types:
• Ordinary black oil
• Low-shrinkage crude oil
• High-shrinkage (volatile) crude oil
• Near-critical crude oil
P-T Diagram for a Blabk Oil
Blabk Oil

The liquid shrinkage


curve approximates a
straight line except at
very low pressures.
When produced,
ordinary black oils
usually yield gas-oil
ratios between 200–
700 scf/STB and oil
gravities of 15 to 40
API.
The stock tank oil is
usually brown to dark
green in color.
Low Shrinkage Oil
Low Shrinkage Oil

• Oil formation
volume factor less
than 1.2 bbl/STB
• Gas-oil ratio less
than 200 scf/STB
• Oil gravity less than
35° API
• Black or deeply
coloured.
• Substantial liquid
recovery at
separator condition.
P-T Diagram for a Volatile Oil
Volatile Oil

Oil formation volume


factor is near to 2
bbl/STB.
Gas-oil ratios
between 2,000–3,200
scf/STB
Oil gravities between
45–55° API.
Lower liquid recovery
of separator
conditions.
Greenish to orange in
color.
P-T Diagram Near Critical Oil
Near Critical Oil

The near-critical
crude oil is
characterized
by a high GOR in
excess of 3,000
scf/STB.
Oil formation volume
factor of 2.0 bbl/STB
or higher.
P-T Diagram for gas condensate
P-T Diagram for gas condensate

• Gas-oil ratios between 8,000 and 70,000


scf/STB.
• Generally, the gas-oil ratio for a condensate
system increases with time due to the liquid
dropout and the loss of heavy components in
the liquid.
• Condensate gravity above 50° API.
• Stock-tank liquid is usually water-white or
slightly colored.
P-Tdiagram for a wet Gas
P-Tdiagram for a wet Gas

Wet-gas reservoirs are characterized by:


• Gas oil ratios between 60,000 to 100,000
scf/STB
• Stock-tank oil gravity above 60° API
• Liquid is water-white in color.
• Separator conditions, i.e., separator pressure
and temperature, lie within the two-phase
region
P-T Diagram for a Dry Gas
Composition of Different Crude Oil

Mole Composition and Other Properties of Typical Single-Phase


Reservoir Fluids

Compon Black oil Volatile Gas Wet gas Dry gas


ent oil condens
ate
C1 48.83 64.36 87.07 86.67 95.85
C2 2.75 7.52 4.39 7.77 2.67
C3 1.93 4.74 2.29 2.95 0.34
C4 1.60 4.12 1.74 1.73 0.52
C5 1.15 2.97 0.83 0.88 0.08
C6 1.59 1.38 0.60 0.85 0.12
C7+ 42.15 14.91 3.80 1.1 0.42
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Reservoir Fluid Properties

• Oil Compressibility
• Saturation Pressure
• Live Oil Viscosity
• Live Oil Density
• Oil Formation Volume Factor
• Gas-Oil Ratio
1. Liberated GOR
2. Solution GOR
• Liberated Gas Formation Volume factor
• Incremental Liberated Gas-Gravity
• Cumulative liberated Gas-Gravity
Reservoir Fluid Properties

Oil Compressibility
The compressibility of any substance is the change in volume
per unit volume for per unit change in pressure. By
definition, the isothermal compressibility of a substance is
defined mathematically by the following expression:

Saturation Pressure
The pressure at which oil is saturated with gas and it can
not further dissolve gas is called saturation pressure
Reservoir Fluid Properties

Live Oil Viscosity


The viscosity of oil determined at reservoir pressure and
temperature with all constituents present in oil at that
reservoir condition.

Live Oil Density


The density of oil determined at reservoir pressure and
temperature with all constituents present in oil at that
reservoir condition.

Oil Formation Volume Factor


The oil formation volume factor, Bo, is defined as the ratio of
the volume of oil (plus the gas in solution) at the prevailing
reservoir temperature and pressure to the volume of oil at
standard conditions.
Reservoir Fluid Properties

Gas-Oil Ratio
The gas/oil ratio (GOR) is the ratio of the volume of gas
that comes out of solution, to the volume of oil at
standard conditions.
1. Liberated GOR
2. Solution GOR
Liberated Gas Formation Volume factor
The gas formation volume factor, Bg, is defined as the
ratio of the volume of gas at the prevailing reservoir
temperature and pressure to the volume of gas at
standard conditions.
Reservoir Fluid Sampling
Sampling of Reservoir Fluids
• The purpose of sampling is to obtain a representative
sample of reservoir fluid identical to the initial reservoir
fluid.

• For this reason, sampling operations should ideally be


conducted on virgin reservoirs (having not yet produced) or
in new wells completed in no depleted zones, containing
fluids identical to the initial reservoir fluids.

• If the production fluids are still identical to the initial fluids,


the sampling procedure will be very similar to that of new
wells.

• If the produced fluid is not identical to the fluid initially in


place in the reservoir, one cannot hope to obtain
representative samples.
Well Conditioning for Sampling
The objective of well conditioning is to replace the non-
representative reservoir fluid located around the wellbore
with original reservoir fluid by displacing it into and up the
wellbore.
A flowing oil well is conditioned by producing it at
successively lower rates until the non representative oil has
been produced.
The well is considered to be conditioned when further
reductions in flow rate have no effect on the stabilized gas-oil
ratio.
Stable well conditions: Pressure, Rate, GOR, WGR,
Temperature
Types of Sampling

Downhole

DST strings
Wireline sample

Surface

Wellhead samples
Separator samples
Sub-surface sampling for Oil Reservoirs

Subsurface samples are generally taken with the well shut-in.


The sample should be taken under single-phase conditions,
Pres > Pb
The well should be fully cleaned up
A static pressure gradient survey should be performed either
prior to or during sampling to check for the presence of water
at the bottom of the well
Sub-surface sampling for Oil Reservoirs
Sub-surface Sampler
Sample Transfer

Single-phase sub-surface samples become two-phase as


they are brought to surface as a result of a large reduction
in pressure due to cooling
The sample chamber must be re-pressured to single-
phase conditions prior to transfer to sample bottles
Single-phase positive displacement samplers are now
common place, and maintain single-phase conditions in
the chamber as it is brought to surface
Sample
transfer unit
Sample transfer Procedure
Surface sampling for Oil/gas Reservoirs

Sampling at the wellhead


Valid fluid samples are only likely to be obtained if the
fluid is single-phase at the wellhead
Poses safety hazards (high-pressure fluid...)
Sampling at the separator
Easier, safer, cheaper
Only reliable surface method if fluid is two-phase at the
wellhead
Wellhead sampling

Sample point should be as near wellhead as possible, and


upstream of choke manifold
It is possible to obtain mono phasic wellhead samples for
very high pressure gas condensates
Pres = 15,000 psia
Pwh = 11,000 psia
Pdew = 5500 psia
But beware of flashing occurring at sample point
Separator sampling

The most important factor in separator sampling is


stability of conditions
Stabilised gas and oil flow rates (and therefore GOR)
Stabilised temperature
Stabilised wellhead pressure
Gas and liquid samples should be taken simultaneously,
as they are a matched pair
Oil and gas rates must be measured carefully
Sample points must be as close to the separator as
possible
Horizontal Separator

momentum Gauge
absorber
Inlet Gas
Outlet

Sight Liquid
Glass Outlet
Recombination of surface Sample

Separator samples are recombined using the ratio calculated


from measured gas and liquid flow-rates
Care must also be taken to preserve consistency between
field and laboratory values of separator liquid shrinkage
In what ratio should the oil and gas samples be recombined?
Laboratory Analysis of
Reservoir Fluid
The PVT Cell
Used for examining the
behaviour of fluids at reservoir
pressures and temperatures
Temperature thermostatically
controlled
The volume of the cell can be
changed by using a positive
displacement pump
Sampling points are provided
Most cells are fitted with an
observation window
PVT Equipment
Positive Displacement Pump
Basic PVT Experiments

 Isothermal Flash

 Constant Composition Expansion (CCE)

 Constant Volume Depletion (CVD)

 Differential Vaporisation (Liberation) (DV)


Isothermal Flash
 The Isothermal Flash is the basis for most
laboratory PVT experiments

 Single-phase fluid is loaded into the PVT cell at


temperature T and pressure P1

 The temperature is kept constant throughout


the experiment (PVT cell is placed in a heat
bath)

 The fluid is expanded to a new pressure P2


(P2<P1)

 The flash results in a change in total volume


and may result in phase changes
Constant Composition Expansion (CCE)
 A series of isothermal flash expansions at
constant temperature (normally Tres).
No fluid is removed from the cell

Vapour

Vapour

Volume Single Liquid


@ Psat Single Phase Liquid
Phase

P > Psat P = Psat P < Psat P <<


Psat
Bubble-Point Determination

 Bubble-point identified by change in fluid


compressibility

Black Volatile
Oil Oil

Volume
Volume

Pb Pressure Pb Pressure
Constant Volume Depletion (CVD)

 A series of flash expansions at T


 At each pressure, vapour is withdrawn to
restore original cell volume at Psat

Vapour
Vapour

Vapour Vapour
Vapour
Vapour Vapour

Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid

Psat P1 P1 P2 P2
Differential Vaporisation (DV)
 A series of flash expansions at T
 At each pressure stage, all of the vapour
in the cell is removed

Vapour
Vapour
Vapour Vapour

Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid

Psat P1 P1 P2 P2
The liquid remaining at the last pressure step is cooled to ambient
temperature to give the residual oil
DV Reported Data
 Oil volume
 Oil density
 Oil formation volume factor, Bo
 Gas specific gravity
 Gas Z-factor
 Gas formation volume factor, Bg
 Evolved gas volumes
 Solution GOR, Rs
Example
Results of Differential Liberation
Pressure Two phase Single phase Gas Vol at
Psia Volume Volume surface
Cc at 150 0F cc cc
2000 20
1800 (BP) 20.9
1400 24 19 595
1000 25 18.1 585
600 26.8 16.9 590
300 30 15.7 580
atm 14.65 650

Room Temp 800F, Volume of oil received after experiment


at atmospheric condition is 13.5 cc
Density of Oil at atmospheric condition 0.8112
Calculate all PVT Parameters (FVF, Soln GOR, Lib GOR)
Thank You