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Aluminium and its alloys

 Large growth in use since 1950 (6 times)
 Abundant metal - 8% of earth’s crust
 Light weight SG = 2.7
 Moderate to high strength (depending on alloy)
 Conductivity high (pure metal & low alloys)
 Corrosion resistant (Al2O3 coating)
 Reflectivity high
 Non-magnetic
 Ductile metal easily fabricated by rolling
and extrusion
– Commercially pure metal can undertake a cold
reduction of 80 - 90% without annealing
– Anneal at 350˚C
 Machineability is good, but limited by the
tendency to gall.

Aluminium products
 Cast alloys
 Wrought products
– Sheet, plate, foil
– Rod, bar, wire, tube
– Standard and special extruded shapes
– Forgings, impacts (combined extrusion and
 Powder metallurgy (dispersion strengthened) products

Structural applications
 Static building structures AS1664 series

 Scaffolding and ladders

 Transportation
– Aerospace, road (trucks, buses, trailers), railway
 Machinery and industrial equipment
– Non-sparking tools, roofs to tanks, chemical process
vessels, jigs, patterns, instruments
 Consumer durables

– Structure of appliances: refrigerators, furniture,

cooking utensils

Thermal and electrical
 Electrical
– Pure Al(68%) has 200% of the conductivity of
copper weight for weight
– Conductors, heat sinks, capacitors, wave
guides, antennas
 Reflectors
– Mirrors, search lights, loft insulation

Limits of use
 Temperature range of -240˚C to +200˚C
for normal alloys
 Up to 350˚C for special alloys
 Up to 480˚C for short periods for special
 Low modulus of elasticity, requires
 Inferior wear, creep, & fatigue properties
to steel
Wrought alloy designations
Alloy Group Designation
Pure aluminium (99.00% min) 1xxx
Al-Cu 2xxx
Al-Mn 3xxx
Al-Si 4xxx
Al-Mg 5xxx
Al-Mg-Si 6xxx
Al-Zn 7xxx
Al + other element 8xxx

Alloy types and properties

 Strain hardened alloys (plus solid solution

 Precipitation (age) hardened alloys
 Dispersion strengthened alloys

 Yield strength from 28 MPa for 1050-O to 455

MPa for 2024-T4
 Strength increases at low temperature
 No ductile-brittle transition

Strain hardened alloy tempers
Code Description
-O Annealed
-F As fabricated (no mechanical
property limits)
-H1x Strain hardened
-H2x Strain hardened and partially
-H3x Strain hardened and stabilised
Temper designations
T1 Hot work, then naturally age
T2 Hot work, cold work, then naturally
T3 Solution treat, cold work, then
naturally age
T4 Solution treat, then naturally age
T5 Hot work, then artificially age

1000 Series alloys
 Pure Al, can be work hardened
 Corrosion performance excellent
 Electrical and thermal conductivity excellent
– eg 1060: 99.6%Al min. 62 IACS
 Yield strength up to 145 MPa (1050-H18)
 Food, chemical, heat exchangers, electrical
wiring, capacitor foil
 Weldable

2000 Series alloys
 Up to 6.3% Cu
 Eg 2014: 4.4Cu-0.8Si-0.8Mn-0.5Mg
 Precipitation hardened
– 130 to 230˚C aging temperature - T6
– RP0.2 410 MPa typical
 Aircraft structure and mechanical components,
vehicle body panels
 Weldability poor to fair depending on alloy

3000 Series
 Up to 1.2Mn + Fe in some alloys
– Eg 3004: 1.2Mn-1.0Mg
 Strength from fine particles (Mn,Fe)Al6 which
pin grain boundaries
 Excellent formability and weldability, very high
corrosion resistance
 Work hardened up to 250 MPa yield typical
– 3004-H38
 Cans, chemical vessels, industrial roofing,
culvert pipe
4000 Series
 Up to 13Si (few wrought alloys)
 Eg 4032: 12Si-1Mg-0.9Cu-0.9Ni
 High temperature parts, pistons
 Can be precipitation hardened if Cu is
– Aging168-174˚C 8 to 12 h
 Inferior corrosion resistance

5000 Series alloys
 Mg up to 5.1% in solution increases work
hardening rate
– 5083: 4.4Mg-0.7Mn-0.15Cr
 Work hardened up to 260 MPa yield
– 5083-H116: RP0.2 228 MPa typical
 Excellent weldability, moderate strength,
 Good corrosion resistance

5000 series alloy applications
 Very popular alloys
 Marine, auto and aircraft applications
 Pressure vessels, cryogenics
 Communication towers
 Armour plate
 Some alloys prone to exfoliation or stress
corrosion if Al8Mg5 forms in grain boundaries
– Avoid high Mg over 65˚C

6000 series
 Combination of Mg and Si allows precipitation
hardening with Mg2Si precipitates
 6061: 1Mg-0.6Si-0.3Cu-0.2Cr
– 6061-T6: RP0.2 276 MPa typical
 Easily workable alloy with excellent strength,
corrosion resistance
 Limited to excellent weldability (alloy
 Available as sheet, plate, extrusions
 Applications as 5000 series

7000 Series
 Up to 7.6% Zn
 Includes some modern high strength alloys
 7178: 6.8Zn-2.7Mg-2.0Cu-0.3Cr
– 7178-T6: RP0.2 540 MPa typical
 Used where stress corrosion or exfoliation
corrosion are a problem
 Aircraft
 Alloys with Cu can be precipitation hardened
 Unweldable to excellent weldability depending
on alloy and process
 Many multiphase alloys have inferior
corrosion resistance
 These alloys are available as Alclad sheet
or plate
 This material has a thin layer of pure
aluminium roll bonded to one or both
surfaces to provide corrosion resistance
 Fabrication must be undertaken so as to
maintain the integrity of this coating
Casting alloys
 System shown is from the Aluminum
 The number after the decimal point
indicates the form supplied (eg ingot or

Casting alloy designations
Al >99.00% 1xx.x
Al-Cu 2xx.x
Al-Si, with Cu and/or Mg 3xx.x
Al-Si 4xx.x
Al-Mg 5xx.x
Al-Zn 7xx.x
Al-Sn 8xx.x
Casting processes
 Die casting
 Permanent mould casting
 Sand mould casting
 Investment casting
– Lost wax
 Centrifugal

Mechanical properties
 Depend on
– Casting process
– Composition
 Alloy modification with sodium finer grain
– Heat treatment
 Up 435 MPa Yield strength possible
 Ductility up to 20%, but mostly <5%

200 series alloys
 Heat treatable up to 435 MPa
– Eg 201.0:
 Sand, investment and die castings
 Structural members, aircraft, car cylinder
heads, pistons, etc
 Low weldability, lower corrosion resistance

300 series alloys
 Up to 12Si with up to 4Cu or up to 0.6Mg
 Excellent castability, especially die castings
 336.0: 12Si-2.5Ni-1Mg-1Cu
 Pistons, general and ornamental castings,
aircraft piston engines
 Most widely used series
 Limited weldability

400 series alloys
 Up to 12Si
 413.0: 12Si
 Excellent castability
 Thin walled and intricate castings
 Cooking utensils, marine fittings
 Die and sand castings
 Excellent weldability

500 series castings
 Up to 10% Mg
 518.0: 8Mg
 Corrosion resistance and machineability
 Castability can be low (hot short)
 Weldability limited to excellent
 Dairy, food, sewage, chemical, marine fittings,
ornamental, aircraft fittings

700 series alloys
 Zn up to 7.5%
 Eg 713.0: 7.5Zn-0.7Cu-0.35Mg
 High strength without heat treatment ages
at room temperature (21 days). Corrosion
resistant. Polishes to high lustre.
 Cast furniture, very large castings
 Excellent weldability

 Machineability better than steel
 Cold and hot workability excellent
 Complex extrusion forms common
 Joined by fusion and non-fusion welding,
brazing, soldering, adhesive bonding and
mechanical methods

Copper and its alloys

Properties of Cu and its alloys

 Excellent electrical and thermal conductivity

 Ductility and malleability
 Corrosion resistance
 Biofouling resistance
 Non-magnetic
 Familiar colour
 Not very abundant
– Average about 33 ppm of Earth’s crust

Extraction of Cu

 From Cu ores (mostly sulphides)

 Flotation to concentrate ores
 Controlled roasting in air
 Smelting of roasted ore to produce a matte
 Converting Cu matte (Cu2S) into Cu by blowing
air in special furnaces. The result is Cu blister,
 Electrolytic refining produces pure Cu (99.9%)

Cu Alloys Designation
 CDA (Copper Development Association) designation
– Three digits, eg 110 = Electrolytic tough pitch Cu
– See AS 2738 parts 1, 2 & 3
 UNS designations (more than 340 alloys)
– C + 3 CDA digits + 00 eg C11000
 145 different temper or mill treatments
 Cast alloys are to AS1565
 Wrought alloys to AS1566, AS1567, AS1568, AS1569,
AS1571, AS1572, AS1573, AS1574
 180 ASTM specifications (e.g. Grade B 36, 148, 176)

CDA wrought alloy designations

Coppers Cu-Sn-Pb (leaded

100-155 532-548
min. 99.3%Cu phosphor bronzes)
High copper alloys Cu-Al (aluminium
162-199 600-642
min. 96%Cu bronzes)

200-299 Cu-Zn (brasses) 647-661 Cu-Si (silicon bronzes)

Cu-Zn-Pb (leaded Miscellaneous copper

300-399 667-699
brasses) alloys
Cu-Zn-Sn (tin Cu-Ni (cupronickels -
400-499 700-725
brasses) old)
Cu-Sn (phosphor Cu-Ni-Zn (nickel
500-529 732-799
bronzes) silvers)
CDA cast alloy designations
833-838 Red brasses 922-929 Leaded tin bronzes

842-848 Semi-red brasses 932-945 High-leaded tin bronzes

852-858 Yellow brasses 947-949 Nickel-tin bronzes

861-868 Manganese bronzes 952-958 Aluminium bronzes

Silicon bronzes and

872-879 962-966 Copper-nickels
silicon brasses

902-917 Tin bronzes 973-978 Leaded copper nickels

Grades of coppers – 80% of all alloys
 High conductivity copper (electrolytic tough pitch
copper, C11000)
– Remelting of cathode copper, contains oxygen (0.04%)
 Electrolytic oxygen-free copper (C10100)
– Produced as above, but melted and cast in a controlled
atmosphere (O<10ppm)
 Cadmium copper 0.1Cd (C14300)
 Silver bearing copper 0.085Ag (C10700)
 Tellurium and sulphur bearing coppers (C14500,
 Fire refined tough pitch copper (C12500)
 Phosphorus deoxidised copper (C12200)

Application of coppers
 Electrical conductivity high - up to 102% IACS
– International annealed copper standard
 Electrical/thermal applications (~50%)
– Electrical wiring and components
– Thermal conductors
 General uses
– Architectural, automotive, cooking vessels,
pressure vessels, printing rolls, plumbing
– Sculptural

Metalworking of coppers
 Pure copper is extremely ductile, only 3.9 MPa
shear stress to cause slip on {111} crystal planes
 Limitless cold reduction without annealing being
necessary (single phase FCC)
– 90% rolling reduction in one pass
 Alloying increases work hardening rate
 Joined by mechanical methods, soldering,
brazing & welding
– GTAW, GMAW (argon/helium, ERCu wire), MMAW (ECu
wire), electron beam, friction and cold welding
 Oxygen causes embrittlement during heating in
furnaces, welding and brazing

Problems in welding of coppers

 High thermal conductivity causes difficulty in

fusion welding
– Preheat required for all except thin sections
 Oxygen contamination
– Oxides reduce strength in weld and HAZ
– Hydrogen contamination generates steam and causes
cracking in weld and HAZ
– Deoxidants (P, Sn, Si, Mn) reduce these problems
– Choose weldable grade (deoxidised or oxygen free)
 Avoid fire refined and electrolytic tough pitch grades
– Otherwise absolute cleanliness, perfect gas shielding

High-copper alloys
 Be, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni, Zr, Te added in small
amounts (<4%)
 High thermal and electrical conductivity retained
 Strengthening by solid solution
 Age hardening
– Cu-Be, up to 1380 MPa yield strength (highest
strength of all Cu alloys)
– Cu-Co and Cu-Cr alloys

Metalworking of High-Cu alloys
 Application: Non-sparking hand tools, electrical
contact springs, cavities in plastic injection molds
 Good formability
– Forming done in the annealed condition, before aging
 Machinability lower than brass (diamond tools)
 Welding
– Welding gives overaged HAZ, brazing
overages whole component
– Weld only in solution annealed condition
– Beryllium fume from casting or welding Cu-Be
is toxic
 Wide range of alloys of Cu with Zn
– Zn deoxidises and strengthens copper
– Other elements: Pb, Fe, Sn, Ni, As
 Single phase alloys a up to 38% Zn have
excellent ductility
– Gilding metal, red brass, cartridge brass
 Duplex a plus b at higher Zn levels(40%)
– Muntz metal
– Lower ductility
– Higher strength
Metalworking of Brasses
 Excellent formability
– Stress relief of cold-worked brass is required
 Excellent machinability - Pb added
 Soldered and brazed
 Weldability low - volatility of Zn
– GMAW, GTAW, MMAW and OFW with ERCuSn or
ERCuAl-2 filler
 Wide variety of uses from decorative to marine
– Jewellery, plumbing fittings, door furniture,
cartridge cases, light globe caps, ship’s

Tin Bronzes
 Sn is less soluble and has greater hardening
effect than Zn (delta phase)
 Types:
– phosphorus bronze (Cu-5Sn-0.2P)
– zinc bronze (Gun metal, Cu-10Sn-2Zn)
– lead bronze (free lead, Cu-10Sn-10Pb)
 Few single phase alloys

Metalworking of Tin Bronzes
 Many casting alloys
– Some casting alloys have low ductility
 Cold working of wrought alloys inferior to brass
 Machinability increased by Pb
 Weldability is good if Pb, Zn are not present
– Keep arc energy low because to avoid
– Gun metals are not welded
 Wear resistant parts: bearings, worm gears,
pump parts

Aluminium Bronzes
 Aluminium is the main alloy element
– Mn, Ni, Fe and Si may also be added
 4-8% Al alloys are single phase (a)
 Alloys with >8% Al, or with Ni and Fe
(Al>10.5%) are multi-phase, with properties
which are often influenced by processing
 High strength UTS 415 to 1000 MPa
 High corrosion, corrosion-abrasion and wear
 Good creep strength up to 400 C

Metalworking of Al Bronzes
 Wrought and cast alloys
– Excellent ductility for a alloys
 Welding
– Alloys with <8% Al suffer cracking in HAZ
– Single phase alloys with Al >8% and 2 phase alloys are
considered weldable with low arc energy
– Preheat often not required
 Applications
– Propellers, pumps, gears, valve guides, seals for
seawater and sour mine water, safety tools (non
sparking), equipment for handling explosives;
Architectural (bells, statuary, art castings)

Silicon Bronzes
 1 to 5% silicon added
– Single phase alloys
 Silicon has a powerful effect on:
– Strength (UTS 380 to 900 MPa)
– Corrosion resistance (marine applications)
– Castability
 Good weldability
– Low thermal conductivity, preheat
– Solidification cracking possible, but less likely
than other copper alloys

Copper-Nickel alloys
 Complete solid solubility of Ni in Cu
 90/10 and 70/30 alloys widely used in marine
– Seawater piping, cladding of offshore
 “Cunife” and “Cunico” are permanent magnet
alloys containing Fe and Co
 “Silver” coinage is 75Cu-25Ni
 Constantan (65Cu-45Ni) is an electrical
resistance alloy

Metalworking of Cu-Nickel alloys
 Wrought and cast alloys
 Hot and cold formability are good
– Strengthening by cold work
 Machinability is fair
 Readily welded
– Autogenous welds are likely to be porous
– Preheat not necessary (thermal conductivity is
similar to carbon steel)
– Surfaces must be clean and free of oxide and

Introduction to Steel

 Production
 Commercial Forms
 Strengthening Mechanisms
 Applications
 Corrosion
Iron Production

 Blast Furnace
– Reduces iron ore
to metal
– Separates metal
from impurities
 Molten Iron
 Slag
Ferrous Metals
 Pig Iron
– Iron ore is combined with coke, and limestone
(fluxing agent). Blasts of hot air are forced
through the material to ignite the coke and
melt the iron ore. The impurities in the iron
are absorbed by the limestone and forms
blast furnace slag.
Forms of Ferrous Alloys
 Cast Iron
– cast iron is pig iron is any other shape.
Remelted and cast into desired shape.
 Malleable Cast Iron
– annealed (heating then slow cooling to
encourage refined grains and soften
mechanical properties, removes internal
stresses, removes gases) cast iron that has
been made more ductile and formable.
Forms of Ferrous Alloys
 Wrought Iron
– a form of iron that contains slag, and virtually
no carbon. making it workable when it is hot
but hardens very rapidly when cooled rapidly.
 Ingot Iron
– low carbon steel or iron cast from a molten
Forms of Ferrous Alloys
 Steel
– Iron - Carbon alloy which is cast from a
molten mass in a form which is malleable.
Carbon steel is steel with less than 1.7%
carbon. Alloy steel is steel which has
properties controlled by elements other than
Historical Use of Structural Steel
 Cast Iron first used in bridges
– England – 100 ft. arch bridges (1777)
– Truss and ached trusses (1780-1820)
 Wrought Iron replaced cast iron
– Wales – Multi span 230’-460’-460’-230’ built
up tubular girder bridge (1845)
 1stRolled shapes in 1870s.
 1890 Steel replaced wrought iron

 Phases of Steel
– Ferrite, a (BCC)
– Austenite,  (FCC)
– Cementite (Orthorhombic)
 Grain Size
(ferrite) (austenite)
Strengthening Mechanisms
 Alloying
 Heat Treating
 Cold Working

 Carbon & Manganese

 Vanadium & Columbium

 Phosphorus and Sulfur must be limited to

promote weldability
 Forming Solid Solution with Iron
– Carbon, Chromium, Manganese, Nickel,
Copper, and Silicon
 Formation of Carbide
– Titanium, Vanadium, and Molybdenum
 Formation of an Undissolved
– Lead, Sulfur, and Phosphorus
Steel Designations, ASTM A6
 Low Carbon
1. Carbon Steel
– <0.15% C
– 0.08-1.70% C (Increase
in carbon decreases  Mild Carbon Steel
weldability, ductility) – 0.15-0.29%C
2. High strength Low-  Medium Carbon Steel
Alloy Steel – 0.30-0.59% C
– Fy~40-70 ksi  High Carbon Steel
– Not heat treated – 0.60-1.70% C
3. Alloy Steel
– 80-110 ksi
– Heat treated
– <0.20 C
Heat Treatments

 Annealing – heat above austenite temp.

(900C) and cool very slowly
 Quenching – heat above austenite temp.
(900C) and cooled in a water spray
(<300C) Locking in Martensite
 Temper – heat quenched steel (450-650 C)
reducing strength & increasing ductility
Critical Temp.

Fine Pearlite


Cold Working
 Plastic deformation
 Done below recrystallization temperature
Engineering Properties of Steel

 Yield Strength
– Prior to 1960, Fy=33 ksi
– Currently 36-100 ksi structural steel
– 150-270 ksi for steel cable and wire
 Modulus of Elasticity
– E~29,000 ksi
 Poison’s Ratio
– ~0.30
Engineering Properties of Steel
 Ductility
– Mild Steel: ~ 0.20/0.002=100
– Alloy Steel: ~ 0.08/0.005= 16
 Fracture Toughness
– CVN from 15-35 ft-lbs
 Fatigue Resistance
Carbon and Alloy Steels

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 Designation of Carbon and Low-Alloy
 Structure of Plain Steel
 Alloy Steels
 Characteristic of Alloying Elements
 Influence of Alloying Elements on Steel

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 Concept of Hardening
 How To Harden Steel
 High-Strength Structural and High-
Strength Low-Alloy Steels
 Quench hardening of steel
 Alloyed tool and die steels
 Special Steels

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Designation of Carbon and Low-Alloy
 A designation is the specific identification of
each grade, type, or class of steel by a number,
letter, symbol, name, or suitable combination
– Grade is used to denote chemical composition;
– Type is used to indicate deoxidation practice; and
– Class is used to describe some other attribute, such as
strength level or surface smoothness.

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SAE-AISI Designations
 SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers )
 AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute )
 SAE-AISI system is the most widely used system
for designating carbon and alloy steels.
 As a point of technicality, there are two separate
systems, but they are nearly identical and have
been carefully coordinated by the two groups.
 The SAE-AISI system is applied to semi-finished
forgings, hot-rolled and cold-finished bars, wire
rod and seamless tubular goods, structural
shapes, plates, sheet, strip, and welded tubing
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Carbon steels
 Carbon steels contain less than 1.65% Mn,
0.60% Si, and 0.60% Cu; they comprise the
lxxx groups in the SAE-AISI system and
are subdivided into four distinct series
as a result of the difference in certain
fundamental properties among them.

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Carbon steels
 Designations for merchant quality steels include the prefix M.
 Carbon steel designation with the letter B inserted between the
second and third digits indicates the steel contains 0.0005 to
0.003% B for enhanced hardenability.
 The letter L inserted between the second and third digits
indicates that the steel contains 0.15 to 0.35% Pb for enhanced
 Resulfurized carbon steels of the 11xx group and resulfurized and
rephosphorized carbon steels of the 12xx group are produced for
applications requiring good machinability.
 Steels that having nominal manganese contents of between 0.9 and
1.5% but no other alloying additions now have 15xx designations in
place of the 10xx designations formerly used.

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Alloy steels
 In the AISI-SAE system of designations, the first two
digits of the designation indicate the major alloying
elements. The amount of carbon, in hundredths of a
percent, is indicated by the last two (or three) digits.
 For alloy steels that have specific hardenability
requirements, the suffix H is used to distinguish these
steels from corresponding grades that have no
hardenability requirement.
 As with carbon steels, the letter B inserted between the
second and third digits indicates that the steel contains
 The prefix E signifies that the steel was produced by the
electric furnace process.

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HSLA Steels
 Several grades of HSLA steel are described in
SAE Recommended Practice J410. These steels
have been developed as a compromise between
the convenient fabrication characteristics and
low cost of plain carbon steels and the high
strength of heat-treated alloy steels. These
steels have excellent strength and ductility as

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AISI Composition or SAE Number
 10xx Plain carbon steels
 11xx Plain carbon (resulfurized for machinability)
 13xx Manganese (1.5-2.0%)
 23xx Nickel (3.25-3.75%)
 25xx Nickel (*4.75-5.25%)
 31xx Nickel (1.10-1.40%), chromium (0.55-0.90%)
 33xx Nickel (3.25-3.75%), chromium (1.40-1.75%)
 40xx Molybdenum (0.20-0.30%)
 41xx Chromium (0.40-1.20%), molybdenum
 43xx Nickel (1.65-2.00%), chromium (0.40-0.90%),
molybdenum (0.20-0.30%)

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AISI Composition or SAE Number

 46xx Nickel (1.40-2.00%), molybdenum (0.15-0.30%)

 48xx Nickel (3.25-3.75%), molybdenum (0.20-0.30%)
 51xx Chromium (0.70-1.20%)
 61xx Chromium (0.70-1.10%), vanadium ((0.10%)
 81xx Nickel (0.20-0.40%), chromium
 (0.30-0.55%), molybdenum (0.08-0.15%)
 86xx Nickel (0.30-0.70%), chromium
 (0.40-0.85%), molybdenum (0.08-0.25%)
 87xx Nickel (0.40-0.70%), chromium
 (0.40-0.60%), molybdenum (0.20-0.30%)
 92xx Silicon (1.80-2.20%)
– xx: carbon content, 0.xx%

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UNS Designations
 The Unified Numbering System (UNS) has been
developed by ASTM and SAE and several other technical
societies, trade associations, and United States
government agencies.
 A UNS number, which is a designation of chemical
composition and not a specification, is assigned to each
chemical composition of a metallic alloy.
 The UNS designation of an alloy consists of a letter and
five numerals. The letters indicate the broad class of
alloys; the numerals define specific alloys within that

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ASTM (ASME) Specifications
 ASTM - American Society for Testing and
 The ASTM classification is widely used for
structural and pressure vessels steels. In this
classification, steels are given a reference
number, for example: ASTM A-36, A-285, A-
516, A-572
 Many of the ASTM specifications have been
adopted by the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME) with little or no
modification; ASME uses the prefix S and the
ASTM designation for these specifications. For
example, ASME-SA213 and ASTM A 213 are
 A grade number sometimes follows the ASTM
9/23/2018 number (ex: ASTM A-572
Carbon and Alloy Steels Grade 42 or 50). 84
European and Japanese Designation
 DIN standards are developed by Deutsches
Institut fur Normung in Germany.
 All steel specifications are preceded by the
uppercase letters DIN followed an alphanumeric
or numeric code. The latter method, known as
the Werkstoff number, uses numbers only with a
decimal point after the first digit.
– For example DIN 17100 for structural steels

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 85

European and Japanese Designation Systems

 JIS standards are developed by the Japanese

Industrial Standards Committee, which is part of the
Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Tokyo.
 The JIS steel specifications begin with the uppercase
letters JIS and are followed by an uppercase letter (G in
the case of carbon and low-alloy steels) designating the
division (product form) of the standard. This letter is
followed by a series of numbers and letters that indicate
the specific steel.
– For example: JIS G 3101 Rolled steels for general structure.
– JIS G 3111 Rolled carbon steel

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 86

European and Japanese Designation Systems

 British standards (BS) are developed by the British

Standards Institute in London, England. Similar to the
JIS standards, each British designation includes a
product form and an alloy code.

 AFNOR standards are developed by the Association

Francaise de Normalisation in Paris, France. The correct
format for reporting AFNOR standards is as follows. An
uppercase NF is placed to the left of the alphanumeric
code. This code consists of an uppercase letter followed
by a series of digits, which are subsequently followed by
an alphanumeric sequence.

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 87

Structure of Plain Steel
 The essential difference between ordinary steel
and pure iron is the amount of carbon in the
former, which reduces the ductility but increases
the strength and the susceptibility to hardening
when rapidly cooled from elevated temperatures.
 Because of the various microstructures, which
may be obtained by different heat-treatments, it is
necessary, to emphasize the fact that the following
structures are for "normal" steels, i.e. slowly
cooled from 760-900°C depending on the carbon

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 88

Structure of Plain Steel

Armco iron: ferrite 0.4% carbon steel. Ferrite +

grains pearlite

0.87% carbon steel

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 89

Alloy Steels
 The Alloy Steels Research Committee
adopted the following definition: “Carbon
steels are regarded as steels containing
not more than 0.5% manganese and 0.5%
silicon, all other steels being regarded as
alloy steels”.
 The principal alloying elements added to steel in
widely varying amounts either singly or in
complex mixtures are nickel, chromium,
manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon and

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 90

Effect of alloying element
 It may go into solid
solution in the iron,
enhancing the strength.
 Hard carbides
associated with Fe3C
may be formed.
 It may form
compounds with iron,
e.g. Fe-Cr (sigma
phase), Fe-W,.

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 91

Effect of alloying element
 It may influence the critical range in
one or more of the following ways:
1. Alter the temperature. For example,
3% nickel lowers the Ac points some
30°C, while 12% chromium raises
the Ac1, temperature to about
800°C and also forms a range of
150/200°C above this in which the
pearlite changes to austenite.
2. Alter the carbon content of the
eutectoid. The carbon content of the
pearlite in a 12% chromium steel is
0.33%, as compared with 0.87 in an
ordinary steel. Nickel also reduces
the amount of carbon in the pearlite
and consequently increases the
volume of this constituent at the
expense of the weaker ferrite.

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 92

Effect of alloying element
 Alter the “critical cooling velocity”, which is the
minimum cooling speed, which will produce bainite or
martensite from austenite. Typical critical speeds
obtained by quenching from 950°C are given in the
following Table
Carbon, % Alloying Element, Cooling Speed to form Martensite,
% °C per sec (650°C)
0.42 0.55 Mn 550
0.40 1.60 Mn 50
0.42 1.12 Ni 450
0.40 4.80 Ni 85
0.38 2.64 Cr 10

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 93

Effect of alloying element

 Combinations of elements can be chosen so that the volume change

is reduced and also the risk of quench cracking. It may produce
effects characteristic of the alloying element.
– It may render the alloy sluggish to thermal changes, increasing the
stability of the hardened condition and so producing tool steels which are
capable of being used up to 550°C without softening and in certain cases
may exhibit an increase in hardness.
– It may have a chemical effect on the impurities. Under suitable slag
conditions vanadium, in quite small quantities, "cleans" the steel and
renders it free from slag inclusions. Manganese and zirconium form
– Certain elements such as chromium, aluminum, silicon and copper tend
to produce adherent oxide films on the surface of the steel, which
increase its resistance to corrosion and oxidation at elevated
– Creep strength may be increased by the presence of a dispersion of fine
carbides, e.g. molybdenum.

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 94

Classification of alloying additions
 Elements which tend to form carbides.
Chromium, tungsten, titanium, columbium,
vanadium, molybdenum and manganese. The
mixture of complex carbides is often referred to
as cementite.
 Elements which tend to graphitize the
carbide. Silicon, cobalt, aluminum and nickel.
Only a small proportion of these elements can
be added to the steel before graphite forms
during processing.

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 95

Classification of alloying additions
 Elements which tend to stabilize austenite.
Manganese, nickel, cobalt and copper. These
elements alter the critical points of iron in a similar
way to carbon by raising the A4 point and lowering
the A3 point, thus increasing the range in which
austenite is stable, and they also tend to retard the
separation of carbides. They have a crystal lattice
(FCC) similar to that of -iron in which they are more
soluble than in a-iron.
 Elements which tend to stabilize ferrite.
Chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium and
silicon. These elements are more soluble in a-iron
than in -iron. They diminish the amount of carbon
soluble in the austenite and thus tend to increase the
volume of free carbide in the steel for a given carbon
9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 96
Concept of Hardening
 The hardening process is often associated with heat
treatments like quenching or ageing. Generally speaking,
this process is described as the increasing of hardness
by suitable treatments, usually involving heating and
cooling or cold working.
 Hardness is, in fact, a measure of the resistance of a
material to plastic deformation, usually by indentation.
The term may also refer to stiffness or temper, or to
resistance to scratching, abrasion or cutting.
 Indentation hardness may be measured by various tests
such as Brinell (B), Rockwell (HR) and Vickers (Hv).

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 97

Concept of Hardening
 Hardenability is closely related to the formation of the hard
microstructure, martensite. Martensite is steel's hardest
microstructure. It is the result of rapid quenching from above
the transition temperature (723oC). Since carbon and alloys
cannot separate from the material to make pearlite, they will
create a supersaturated iron body-centered phase, which is
called martensite.
 Hardness is often considered as a good indicator for wear
resistance. This is only partially true since wear may take
many forms such as grinding wear, sharp particles wear or
friction wear. One has to be very careful not to automatically
select the hardest material for a given wear action. Hardness
is also associated with brittleness. Except for a few
situations, brittleness normally increases when hardness

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 98

How To Harden Steel
 There are three main ways to harden
– Alloying elements
– Mechanical deformation
– Heat treatments

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 99

Alloying Elements
 The introduction of alloying
elements in the crystalline
patterns (such as BCC or FCC)
will deform the pattern and
harden the metal
 The most important function of
these elements, in heat
treatable steels, is to increase
hardenability, which makes
possible the hardening of large
sections while using moderate
quenching environments

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 100

Role of different elements in steel

Carbon: Increases the tensile strength of steels by increasing the amount

of carbide present.
Increases the hardening capacity of the steel so that it may be
effectively quenched and tempered.
Decreases the toughness of the steels. More so when present as
lamellar (layered) cementite in pearlite rather than round
(globular/spheroidal) particles.
Silicon  Added as a deoxidizer during steel melting.
 Increases strength.
 Moderate increase in hardening capacity.

Manganese  Present in amounts up to 1.8 wt%.

 Combines with sulfur to form less harmful manganese
sulfide inclusions in high sulfur steels.
 Increases the steel's strength but less than silicon.
 Increases the steel's toughness to some extent.
 Considerably increases the steel hardening capacity.

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 101

Role of different elements in steel

Nickel  Little effect on steel's strength and hardening capacity but

considerably improves its low temperature toughness.
 Increases the atmospheric corrosion resistance of the steel.

Chromium  Little effect on steel's strength but increases the steel's

hardening capacity.
 Increases steel's resistance to scale/oxide formation when
heated to elevated temperatures.
 Combines with carbon to form chromium carbides that are
more stable than cementite.
 Helps to maintain the steel's strength and reduces its creep
strength at higher temperatures and for longer periods of time.
Molybdenum:  Has a small effect in increasing the steel strength.
 Increases hardening capacity, slightly more than does chromium.
 Forms more stable carbide than cementite.
 Increases the steel's resistance to creep.

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 102

Role of different elements in steel

Vanadium  Forms carbides.

 Added for strength and toughness via grain refinement in as-rolled
(control) as well as normalized steels.
 Helps retain higher hardness and strength after tempering in Q & T
Niobium  Forms nitrides and carbides.
 Added for strength and toughness via grain refinement.

Copper  Increase the steel strength.

 The effects on toughness and hardening capacity are small.
 Increases the atmospheric corrosion resistance of the steel

Boron: Added to relatively low carbon steels in very small amounts to increase
the hardening capacity of steels meant to be quenched and tempered
Nitrogen Intentionally added only when other elements like vanadium are
present so that vanadium nitrides can improve strength and help refine
the grain size

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 103

Role of different elements in steel

Increased strength C, Si, Cu, Mn, Mo (also Nb and V; their exact

effect depends on other factors also such as
the rolling temperature and time, amount of
carbon and nitrogen present, etc.)
Hardening capacity C, Mn, Mo, Cr, Ni, Cu

Toughness: Ni, grain refinement (achieved via the

presence of Nb, V, Al, Ti)

Elevated Temperature Cr, Mo, V


Atmospheric Cu, Ni
corrosion Resistance

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 104

Cold Work
 During cold work, (such as during the rolling
of the plate) work hardening is produced
by severe plastic deformation. Cold work
increases hardness, yield strength, and
tensile strength, and lowers ductility.
 Hardness and elongation react differently to
work hardening. As cold work increases,
hardness increases and elongation decreases
down to a minimum after which the piece will

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 105

Heat Treatment
 Heat treatment can be defined as an
operation or combination of operations
involving the heating and cooling of a metal
or alloy in the solid state
 Heat treatment consist basically in a three
steps process:
– Heating the steel to a specific temperature,
– Maintaining the steel at that temperature for a
certain length of time,
– Cooling the steel at a specific rate.

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 106

Conventional heat

 Annealing
 Normalizing
 Quenching
 Tempering
 Stress relieving

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 107

Special heat treatments

 Flame hardening
 Hot shots
 Case hardening

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 108

Purposes of heat treatments

 Remove stresses induced by cold work

 Refine grain structure
 Decrease hardness and increase ductility
 Increase hardness
 Improve toughness
 Improve machinability
 Improve mechanical properties as a whole

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 109

High-Strength Structural and High-Strength Low-
Alloy Steels

 High-strength carbon and low-alloy steels have yield

strengths greater than 275 MPa and can be more or
less divided into four classes:
As-rolled carbon-manganese steels
As-rolled high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels (which
are also known as micro alloyed steels)
Heat-treated (normalized or quenched and tempered)
carbon steels
Heat-treated low-alloy steels.

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 110

Structural Carbon Steels

 High-strength structural carbon steels are available in

various product forms:
 Cold-rolled structural sheet
 Hot-rolled carbon-manganese steels in the form of
sheet, plate, bar, and structural shapes
 Heat-treated (normalized or quenched and tempered)
carbon steels in the form of plate, bar, and
occasionally, sheet and structural shapes.
 The heat treatment of carbon steels, which typically attain
yield strengths of 290 to 690 MPa, consists of either
normalizing or quenching and tempering

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 111

Quenched and Tempered Low-Alloy

 Alloy steels are defined as those steels

1.Contain manganese, silicon, or copper in
quantities greater than the maximum limits
(1.65% Mn, 0.60% Si, and 0.60% Cu) of carbon
steel; or
2.Those have specified ranges or minimums for one
or more other alloying additions.
 The low-alloy steels are those steels
containing alloy elements, including carbon,
up to a total alloy content of about 8.0%.
9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 112
 Quenched and tempered steels have carbon contents in
the range of 0.10 to 0.45%, with alloy contents, either
singly or in combination, of up to 1.5% Mn, 5% Ni,
3% Cr, 1% Mo, 0.5% V, 0.10% Nb; in some cases
they contain small additions of titanium, zirconium
and/or boron.
 Generally, the higher the alloy content, the greater the
hardenability and the higher the carbon content, the
greater the available strength.
 The response to heat treatment is the most important
function of the alloying elements in these steels.

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 113

 Enhanced toughness and high strength
are achieved in the nickel-chromium-
molybdenum alloys, which include steels
such as ASTM A 543, HY-80, HY-100 and
HY-130. These steels use nickel to
improve toughness.

9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 114

High-Nickel Steels for Low-
Temperature Service
 For applications involving exposure to temperatures
from 0 to -195oC, the ferritic steels with high nickel
contents are typically used.
 Such applications include storage tanks for liquefied
hydrocarbon gases and structures and machinery
designed for use in cold regions.
 These steels utilize the effect of nickel content in
reducing the impact transition temperature, thereby
improving toughness at low temperatures.
 Carbon and alloy steel castings for subzero-
temperature service are covered by ASTM standard
specification A 757.
9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 115

 The 5% Ni alloys for low-temperature service include

HY-130 and ASTM A 645.
 Double normalized and tempered 9% nickel steel is
covered by ASTM A 353,
 Quenched and tempered 8% and 9% nickel steels are
covered by ASTM A 553 (types I and II).
 Ferritic nickel steels are too tough at room
temperature for valid fracture toughness (KIc) data.
The 5% Ni steel retains relatively high fracture
toughness at -162oC and the 9% Ni steel retains
relatively high fracture toughness at -196oC.
9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 116
Quench hardening of steel

 Heating temperatures are the same as those

given for full annealing.
 Soaking time in air furnaces should be 1.2 min.
for each mm of cross-section or 0.6 min in salt
or lead baths. Uneven heating, overheating and
excessive scaling should be avoided.
 Quenching is necessary to suppress the normal
breakdown of austenite into ferrite and
cementite, and to cause a partial
decomposition at such a low temperature to
produce martensite.
9/23/2018 Carbon and Alloy Steels 117
Metals: Ferrous
& NON Ferrous
Learning Goals
 Understand The Difference Between
Ferrous and NonFerrous Metals
 Distinguish Between the Major Types of
Ferrous Metals
 Recognize the Different Letter/Number
Designations for Various Standard
Ferrous and NonFerrous Metals
 Understand When to Use a Ferrous vs.
NonFerrous Materials
Ferrous v. NonFerrous Defined
 A Metal Alloy/Compound is Designated as
FERROUS if it Contains 50+% Iron
 EVERY Other Metal is NONFerrous

 Class Question: Rank these Metals in

Terms of WorldWide Production
 Steel  Aluminum

 Zinc  Copper
Global Metal Production - 2001
Metal 106 Tonnes

Zinc 7

Copper 12

Aluminum 21

Steel (Ferrous) 788

Why Ferrous Dominates
 Ore is cheap and abundant
 Processing techniques are economical
(extraction, refining, alloying, fabrication)
 High strength
 Very versatile metallurgy – a wide range
of mechanical and physical properties can
be achieved, and these can be tailored to
the application
Ferrous Disadvantages
 Low corrosion resistance –
Oxidizes (rusts) easily
– use, e.g., titanium, brass instead
 High Density: 7900 kg/m3 (0.29 lb/in3)
– Use, e.g., aluminum, magnesium
 High temperature strength could be better
– Use Nickel or Cobalt Instead
FERROUS and NONferrous alloys:
 Ferrous metals are
‘all-purpose’ alloys
 Non-ferrous metals used for niche
applications, where properties of
ferrous metals
are inadequate
Process: Iron Ore → Steel
Iron Ore Limestone

heat generation
gas C+O2 CO2
vessel reduction of iron ore to metal
layers of coke CO2 +C 2CO
and iron ore 3CO+Fe 2O3 2Fe+3CO 2
air purification
Molten iron CaCO 3 CaO+CO 2
CaO + SiO 2 +Al2O3 slag
Metal Alloys

Ferrous Nonferrous

Cast Irons
Cast Irons
Cu A Mg Ti
T(°C) microstructure:
ferrite, graphite

1200  1148°C L+Fe3C
austenite Eutectic:
1000 4.30


600 0.77 a+Fe3C
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.7
Co, wt% C
Cast iron
 Family of ferrous alloys
 Cast into desired shape – not worked
 3-4.5% C
– Usually with 1-3% Si
 Instability of Fe3C (Cementite):
– Cementite → graphite-flakes → graphite-
Classification of Cast Iron
Type Graphite Ductility Notes
White None Fast Cooling Rates

Gray Flakes Slow Cooling Rates
WhiteIron + Anneal
Malleable Flake → Yes
Heat Treatment
Additions Made So that
Nodular Nodular Yes Graphite forms Nodules
and Not Flakes
Cast Iron on Phase
Cast Iron: Factors Affecting
 Metal Cools Across Eutectic T from “A”
to “B” will Fe3C or GRAPHITE form?
–  + Eutectic-Liquid at “A”
 Fast cooling →  + Fe3C (white cast iron)
 Slow cooling →  + GRAPHITE (gray cast iron)
–  + Graphite (gray cast iron) at point “B”
 a + Fe3C – pearlitic gray cast iron
 a + GRAPHITE – ferritic gray cast iron
Gray vs. Nodular Cast Iron

White Cast Iron
 Fe3C + Pearlite
 Hard, Brittle
 Excellent Wear
 Withstands
High Compressive Stress
 Shows a “White” Crystalline Fractured
Malleable Cast Iron
 White cast iron + Graphite Nodule

 During annealing
graphite nucleates
and grows from
the Fe3C to form
Pearlitic Malleable Cast Iron
Graphite Nodules
Gray Cast Iron
 During slow Graphite Flakes

carbon in Fe
separates or
to form separate
Pearlitic Malleable Cast Iron
Ductile/Nodular CastFerrite
 Mg added to
molten iron
 Helps to
 Low levels of
minor elements
such as S and P
Nodular Cast Iron
General Characteristics,
Advantages of Gray Cast Iron
 Cheap  Excellent Vibration
 Low melting point Damping Properties
 Fluid – easy to cast  Excellent wear
– especially resistance (hi C)
advantageous into  Can be heat treated
large complex (surface hardened
shapes etc.)
 Excellent  Can be alloyed etc.
 Excellent bearing
Low Alloy High Alloy
low carbon med carbon high carbon
<0.25wt%C 0.25-0.6wt%C 0.6-1.4wt%C

heat austentitic
Name plain HSLA plain plain tool
treatable stainless
Cr,V Cr, Ni Cr, V,
Additions none none none Cr, Ni, Mo
Ni, Mo Mo Mo, W
Example 1010 4310 1040 4340 1095 4190 304
Hardenability 0 + + ++ ++ +++ 0
TS - 0 + ++ + ++ 0
EL + + 0 - - -- ++
Uses auto bridges crank pistons wear drills high T
struc. towers shafts gears applic. saws applic.
sheet press. bolts wear dies turbines
vessels hammers applic. furnaces
blades V. corros.
increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility
StainLess Steels
 If metallurgist Harry Brearly,
the man credited with the
development of stainless steel,
had his way we would know
this family of alloys as rustless
steel. However, even in 1913,
the Cutlery Manager of the
Sheffield (England) steel plant
where the new alloy was
devised, one Earnest Stuart,
decided that the name rustless
was no great marketing tool.
His test for utensils made from
this new product was to dip
knife blades in vinegar and he
noted they STAINED LESS than
other metals.
What is Stainless Steel?
 Must Contain: >10.5% Cr, <1% C
 The Cr Alloying Creates as Cr2O3 surface
Layer that resists oxidation and makes the
material "passive" or corrosion resistant
(i.e. "stainless").
 Three MAIN Branches
– Ferritic → Cr Only, BCC (e.g. 430)
– Austenitic → Ni Added, FCC (e.g. 304)
– Martensitic → Hard & Brittle (e.g. 410)
StainLess Steels Compared
Mechanical Properties
(Annealed condition)
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elongation Hardness

Stainless ksi MPa ksi MPa

410 70 483 45 310 25 B80

430 75 517 50 345 25 B85
304 84 579 42 290 55 B80
316 84 579 42 290 50 B79
Elongation in 2" (50.80 mm)
Hardness in Rockwell B
Unified Numbering System
 The UNS establishes a series of
designations for metals and alloys.
 Each UNS designation consists of a
SINGLE-LETTER prefix followed by FIVE
 In most cases the letter is suggestive of
the family of metals identified: for
example, F for cast irons, T for tool steel,
S for stainless steels.
UNS Series Descriptions
UNS Series Metal System
A00001 to A99999 Aluminum and Al Alloys
C00001 to C99999 Copper and Copper alloys
D00001 to D99999 Specified Mech. Property Steels
Rare Earth and Rare-Earth-Like
E00001 to E99999
Metals and Alloys
F00001 to F99999 Cast irons
AISI and SAE carbon and alloy
G00001 to G99999
H00001 to H99999 AISI and SAE H-steels
J00001 to J99999 Cast steels
UNS Series Descriptions
UNS Series Metal System
Miscellaneous steels and ferrous
K00001 to K99999
L00001 to L99999 Low-melting metals and alloys
Miscellaneous nonferrous metals
M00001 to M99999
and alloys
N00001 to N99999 Nickel and nickel alloys
P00001 to P99999 Precious metals and alloys
Reactive and refractory metals
R00001 to R99999
and alloys
UNS Series Descriptions
UNS Series Metal System
Heat and corrosion resistant
S00001 to S99999
(stainless) steels
T00001 to T99999 Tool steels, wrought and cast
W00001 to W99999 Welding filler metals
Z00001 to Z99999 Zinc and zinc alloys
UNS For Low Carbon Steels
 Consider the UNS G-Series → AISI and
SAE carbon and alloy steels
 These Steels have Nine SubGroups
Based in the Primary Alloying Element
• 1 - Plain Carbon (not an • 6 - Chromium and
alloy steel) Vanadium
• 2 - Nickel • 7 - Tungsten
• 3 - Chromium and Nickel 8 - Nickel, Chromium and
• 4 – Molybdenum
• 9 - Silicon and Manganese
• 5 - Chromium
UNS Embedded Info
 Sometimes but Not Always, the UNS
Number contains Alloying Information
 For the Low Carbon Steels in Particular

G10400 = G 1 0 40 0
carbon and alloy

Plain Steel Use

0% Alloying 0.40% Carbon

AISI/SAE↔UNS X-Consistency

AISI 1095 = UNS G10950

AISI 4340 = UNS G43400
NONferrous Metals
 Commercially Significant Non-Iron-
Based Metals
 Aluminum and its  Gold
Alloys  Hafnium
 Beryllium  Indium
 Cobalt and its  Iridium
 Lead and its Alloys
 Cobalt Based
 Magnesium and
 Copper and its
NONferrous Metals cont.1
 Commercially Significant Non-Iron-
Based Metals
 Molybdenum  Ruthenium
 Nickel and Alloys  Silver
 Nickel Based  Tantalum
SuperAlloys  Thorium
 Osmium  Tin and its Alloys
 Platinum  Titanium and its
 Rhenium Alloys
 Rhodium
NONferrous Metals cont.2
 Commercially Significant Non-Iron-
Based Metals
 Tungsten
 Vanadium
 Zinc and its alloys
 Zirconium and its
• Zr has Very Low Neutron
– Use as Nuclear Fuel
 Three Main Types  Performance
– Cobalt-Based – Able to maintain high
– Nickel Based strengths at high
– Nickel+Iron Based temperatures
 Less Expensive – Good corrosion and
oxidation resistance at
 Major Alloying high temperatures (Cr,
Element = Cr Al)
 Other Significant – Good resistance to
Alloying Elements = creep and rupture at
Mo, Al high temperatures
Ni-Based SuperAlloys
 Since 1950, these alloys have
predominated in the range 750-980°C
– Due to the presence of very stable ’ ordered
FCC precipitate (Ni3Al,Ti)
 ’ provides high temperature strength thru the
Precipitation-Strengthening Mechanism
 The ’ phase in Co-based
superalloys dissolves
at 815-1050°C
Co-Based SuperAlloys
 Exhibit superior hot corrosion and strength
characteristics at temperatures 980-1100°C
 Operating temperatures of the turbine and
combustion section
 Co-based alloys sometimes used in the lower
range of 750°C in preference to Ni-based
 Can be air or argon cast and are less expensive
than the vacuum-processed Nickel alloys
SuperAlloy Examples
 Haynes-25 = L605 = UNS R30605
Chemical Analysis of Haynes 25™ (UNS R30605) Alloy L605
C MN P S Si Cr Ni Mo Cu Co Cb Ti Al Fe W Other
.05 -.15 1.0 -2.0 .4 .03 .4 19.0 -21.0 9.0 -11.0 bal 3.0 14.0 -16.0

• Haynes 25™ has an excellent temperature strength and oxidation

resistance to 2000 ºF.

 Inconel 601 = UNS N06601

Chemical Analysis of Inconel 601® (UNS N06601)
C MN P S Si Cr Ni Mo Cu Co Cb+Ta Ti Al Fe Other Other
.05 .3 .2 22.5 61.5 5 1.4 14.1

• Inconel 601® is a standard engineering material and has a great

resistance to heat and corrosion. Inconel 601® also has high strength
and good workability. Inconel 601® can be used in the heat-treating
industry for muffles, furnace components, and for
heat-treating baskets and trays.
Aluminum Alloy Numbering
 Consider Al Alloy UNS A13560
– First Digit (A)
 An alpha indicator of base metal. Always A for
– Second Digit (1)
 Indicates a modification of the original alloy
– Third Digit (3) 2XX Copper 5XX 8XX Tin
 Designates Magnesium
alloy 3XX Si w/ Cu 6XX Unused 9XX
and/or Mg Others
4XX Silicon 7XX Zinc
Aluminum Alloy No.s cont.
 Consider Al Alloy UNS A13560
– Fourth and Fifth Digits (56)
 Assigned ID number for the particular alloy
– Sixth Digit (0)
 O Casting Specification
 1 Ingot Specification
 2 More Tightly Refined Ingot Specification
Aluminum Alloy Examples
 Aluminium 6061-T6 = UNS A96061
Component Wt. % Component Wt. % Component Wt. %

Al 95.8 - 98.6 Mg 0.8 - 1.2 Si 0.4 - 0.8

Cr 0.04 - 0.35 Mn Max 0.15 Ti Max 0.15
Cu 0.15 - 0.4 Other, each Max 0.05 Zn Max 0.25
Fe Max 0.7 Other, total Max 0.15
• Material Notes:
General 6061 characteristics and uses: Excellent joining characteristics,
good acceptance of applied coatings. Combines relatively high strength,
good workability, and high resistance to corrosion; widely available. The T8
and T9 tempers offer better chipping characteristics over the T6 temper.
• Applications: Aircraft fittings, camera lens mounts, couplings, marines
fittings and hardware, electrical fittings and connectors, decorative or misc.
hardware, hinge pins, magneto parts, brake pistons, hydraulic pistons,
appliance fittings, valves and valve parts; bike frames
All Done for Today
StainLess Steel Shapes



StainLess Steels
Martensitic StainLess Steels
 12 to 18% – Fasteners
chromium – Shafts
 Basic Characteristics – Springs
– Are magnetic  Grades/Forms
– Can be hardened by – Metallurgical
"heat treatment" structure -
– Have "poor" welding Martensitic
characteristics – Grade: 410 (most
used), 420 (cutlery),
 Common Uses 440C (for very high
– Knife blades hardness)
– Surgical instruments – UNS: S41000,
S42000, S44004
Ferritic StainLess Steel
 12 to 18% Cr; – Automotive exhaust
<0.2% C and fuel lines
– Architectural trim
 Basic Character
– Cooking utensils
– Are magnetic
– Bank vaults
hardened by "heat  Grades/Forms
treatment" – Metallurgical
 always used in the structure - Ferritic
annealed or softened
condition – Grade: 409 (high
temperature), 430
– Poor Weldabiliy (most used)
 Common Uses – UNS: S40900,
Austenitic StainLess Steel
 Nickel added and – Have the "BEST"
the Cr level corrosion resistance
increased – Can be easily welded
– Structure Stays FCC – Have excellent
to Room Temp cleanability and
 Basic Character characteristics
– Are NOT magnetic – Have exceptional
– CANNOT be resistance to both
hardened by "heat high and low
treatment" BUT CAN temperature
be hardened by cold
Austenitic StainLess Steel cont.1
 Common Uses – Ovens/Furnaces
– Kitchen sinks – Heat exchangers
– Architectural  Grades/Forms
applications such as – Metallurgical
roofs and gutters, structure - Austenitic
doors and windows,
– Grade: 304 (most
tubular frames
used), 310 (for high
– Food processing temperature), 316
equipment (for better corrosion
– Restaurant food resistance), 317 (for
preparation areas best corrosion
– Chemical Vessels resistance)
Other StainLess Steels
 Austenitic Grades  Cr = 18 to 26%
 Ni = 4-7%
Forms (cont)
 Mo = 2-3%
– UNS: S30400,
– Common Uses
S31000, S31600,
 Sea water
S31700 applications
 Duplex StainLess  Heat exchangers
– MicroStructure is  Desalination plants
Combination of  Food pickling plants
Ferritic and
– Typical Compostion
 Structural Members
 Bolts, Connectors
 Concrete Reinforcement
 Cold Formed Steel Studs
Standard Rolled Shapes
Mild Steel Grades
 A36 Carbon Steel
– <0.26% Carbon
– Structural Shapes, weld & bolt, Buildings
– d8”=20%
– Fu=58-80 ksi
– <.40 Si, 0.85-1.35% Mn,
– <0.04% P, <0.05% S
A325 and A490 Bolts
 A325
– High Strength Bolts  A490
– <0.30 C – Heat Treated High
– Quenched & Tempered Strength Bolts
– Fy= 81-92 ksi – <0.53 C
– Fu= 105-120 ksi – Quenched & Tempered
– Fy= 115-130 ksi
– Up to 1½” diameter
– Fu= 170 ksi
– Up to 2½” diameter
High Strength Bolts
A 572 “High-Strength Low-Alloy
Columbium-Vanadium Steel”
– Grade 42 (0.21C, Fu=60 ksi, d8”= 20%)
– Grade 50 (0.23C, Fu=65 ksi, d8”= 18%)
– Grade 60 (0.26C, Fu=75 ksi, d8”= 16%)
– Grade 65 (0.26C, Fu=80 ksi, d8”= 15%)
– 0.80-1.35 Mn, 0.40% Si,
– < 0.04%P, < 0.05%S,
– <0.15% V, 0.05% Nb, <0.15% (V+Nb)
– Structural Plate, Sections, Bolts and Rivets
A 572 High-Strength Low-Alloy
Columbium-Vanadium Steel
A 615 Billet Reinforcing Steel

 Grade 60
 low alloy, high ductility steel
 reinforcing bars
 d8”=9%, bend around a pin 3.5-9 bar
 Fu=90 ksi
A709 Bridge Steel
standard W option
 High-strength low-
alloy steel C <0.26 <0.19

 Superseded A242, Mn 0.80-1.25

A514, A572 &A588 P <0.04 <0.04

in bridges S <0.05 <0.05

Si <0.40 0.30-0.65
 Grade 36, 50 &100
Cu <0.20 0.25-0.40
 50W, 70W &100W Ni <0.40
designate enhanced Cr 0.40-0.65
corrosion resistance V 0.02-0.10
Fracture Toughness

 Silver Bridge, Pt.

Pleasant, WV (1967)
 Eyebar bridge (1928)
 1060 steel, Fy=80ksi
 St. Marys Bridge
(sister to Silver
Bridge) Pt. Pleasant,
WV (torn down)
Testing Fracture Toughness
 Carbon content
 Temperature
 ASTM A370

Transition Zone
Charpy (CVN) Specifications
 Test temperature is LAST/F Test Temp.
dependent y
– lowest anticipated 0F Non-Critical Critical
service temperature <65 ksi
70 ksi
(LAST) 100 ksi 10 -10

– Yield strength -30F Non-Critical Critical

– Fracture Critical <65 ksi 50
70 ksi
Members 100 ksi -10 -30

-60F Non-Critical Critical

<65 ksi 30 0
70 ksi 0 -30
CVN Specs for Structural Steel
Yield, ksi Thickness, Energy, ft-lbs
in. Critical Non-
36 <4 25 15
50 <2 25 15
>2 30 25
70 <2 30 20
>2 35 25
100 < 2.5 35 25
>2.5 45 35
Metal Corrosion

 “the destruction of a material by

chemical or electrochemical reaction to
its environment”
 typically a transfer of electrons from
one metal to another through an
Oxidation-Reduction Reaction.
Oxidation - Reduction Reduction
 Anodic metal gives up electrons (oxidation)

Fe  Fe 2  2e 

Al  Al 3  3e 

 Cathodic metal accepts electrons (reduction)

Cu 2   2e   Cu

 Or gases accept electrons (reduction)

2 H   2e   H2 ( gas)
Steel Corrosion Mechanism
 Cathodic cell
– discussion of emf
 galvanic series
 intergranular corrosion
 oxidation-reduction of iron
 salt effects
Basics of Corrosion
 EMF series is a numeric rating of potential
under ideal conditions
 Galvanic Series is a practical listing
 Galvanic Protection
Steel Corrosion

Initial Oxidation Reaction

2 Fe  O2  2 H2 O  2 Fe ( OH ) 2

Secondary Oxidation Reaction

2 Fe(OH ) 2  O2  H2 O  2 Fe(OH ) 3
Corrosion potential calculation
 Reduction Reaction must have higher
potential than the oxidation reaction or
they will not form a cathodic cell

Fe 2  2e   Fe -0.440 V

Zn 2  2e   Zn -0.763 V

V  .440   .763  0.323V Relative measure of

Acceleration of Corrosion
 Physical Characteristics
– exposed area (less, increases corrosion rate)
– time of exposure (more time, more corrosion)
 Environmental Characteristics
– acidic environment
– sulfur gas environment
– temperature (high temps, more corrosion)
– moisture (oxygenated moisture)
 A protective film in oxidizing atmospheres
– chromium,nickel, titanium, aluminum
 Metal oxide layer adheres to parent metal
– barrier against further damage
– self-healing if scratched
 Sensitive to environmental conditions
– passivated metal may have high corrosion rates
Forms of Corrosion
 Uniform corrosion of a single metal
– usually an electrochemical reaction at
granular level
– relatively slow and predictable
– rusting of exposed steel, tarnished silver
– easily corrected with coatings and regular
Forms of Corrosion
 Galvanic Corrosion
– 2 dissimilar metals, electrolyte, electrical
connection and oxygen
 Pitting Corrosion
– Localized corrosion forming holes or
– Difficult to initially detect
Forms of Corrosion
 Crevice Corrosion
– narrow crevice filled with ionized solution
– Oxygen-rich on the outside, oxygen-poor on
the inside
– metals oxidize with salt anions FeCl2 and pH
rises in cathodic zone
– H+ may destroy passivity
Forms of Corrosion
 Intergranular Corrosion
– corrosion along grain boundaries at
microscopic level
– stainless steels and heat treated high-strength
– carbides precipitate along grain boundaries
leaving these areas with no alloyed Chromium
– Welds can have this same depletion effect
Forms of Corrosion
 Cavitation and Erosion in Pipe
– particulate matter
– turbulent flow
– abrades away the corrosion product
– abrasion of zinc coatings
Forms of Corrosion
 Stress Corrosion Cracking
– tensile stress and corrosive environments
– cracks are initiated at corrosion areas
– tensile stresses propagate the crack
– corrosion further deteriorate crack
– etc.....
Avoiding Corrosive Situations
 Choose couple metals close on the galvanic
 Use large anode, and small cathode areas
 Electrically insulate dissimilar metals
 Connect a more anodic metal to the system
 Avoid turbulent flow and impingements in pipe

 Control Methods
– Protective Coatings
– Galvanic Protection
– Cathodic Protection
– Corrosion-resistant Steels
Corrosion Prevention

 Coatings  Active Cathodic

– Barrier films Protection
– Inhibitive Pigments  Corrosion Resistant

– Galvanic Protection Alloys

– Paint