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The basic 

principles of 
research using 
By: animals try
Choirul Anam (176090100111007) 3R
Ivakhul Anzila (176090100111003)
Evi Octaviany (176090100111011)

Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Department

March 15, 2018
of Biology, University of Brawijaya, Malang

1941-1956 Dead animals dumped in areas Complex Problem

of the home and Ranch

The animal became disabled

1957 LAB and many died naturally due to
places that do not support
The 3R

Incrase the use of

animals in
fundamental and 1959
applied research

what animals are used, how many

in number, the goal for what, and
how many animals are used
The law of animal research


Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles

for Medical Research Involving Human
Subjects, WMA General Assembly (1964 – Undang-undang no. 23/1992
Operational Guidelines for Ethics
Undang-undang no. 36/2009
Committees That Review Biomedical Government regulation,
Research, WHO 2000 number 39 of 1995
International Ethical Guidelines for
Epidemiological Studies, CIOMS 2008
Questions as part of the approval process in
every scientist planning an animal experiment

Are there methods or strategies

not entailing the use of animals ?

Is the number of used test animals

reduced to an absolute minimum?

Is animal suffering kept to the very

lowest level possible?
Principles of Human
Experimental Techniques

Replacemen The Three Rs has

t become a widely
accepted ethical
principle, and is
Three 3Rs now embedded in
concept Reduction
the application of
science in
Refineme Indonesian and in
nt many countries of
the world.
• Replacement: refers to methods that avoid using animals

Absolute replacing animals with inanimate

systems such as computer
Replacement programs and cell lines

Relative replacing animals such as vertebrates

with animals that are lower on the
phylogenetic scale or keep using
animals. Ex: cell culture, tissue,
and organs donor

Controlled Question

 Is it necessary to use live animals to achieve the stated

 Have alternatives to the use of animals been considered
for this activity?
 Are there good reasons provided for not using
alternatives to live animals in this activity?
Why and when we use
animals in research
variety of in vitro methods including medical imaging, human
volunteer studies, tissue culture, genetic and statistical studies

Animals are only used when no other methods can address the research
questions being posed.

UCL research in mice found that a class of drug used to treat leukaemia
also boosts immune responses against many different cancers.

Methods that minimise animal use and enable researchers to obtain comparable levels
of information from fewer animals, or to obtain more information from the same
number of animals, thereby reducing future use of animals

The main task is to determine the optimum number of animals per group
in a given animal test

Controlled Question

 Has the project/experimental design been revisited to

enable any further reduction in predicted animal use?
 Were the models used still the most appropriate?
 Were the numbers of animals used appropriate for
statistical analysis (too many/too few)?
 Could different approaches reduce further animal use?
Normal minimum quantities are calculated using the federer
formula (n-1) (t-1)> 15, where n is the number of animals
required and t is the number of treatment groups. the
weakness of the formula is the less the research group, the
more the number of animals needed, and vice versa. for that
required the use of the design of appropriate money statistics
in order to obtain the results of a sahih
– Reduction also includes methods which allow the information gathered per animal in
an experiment to be maximised in order to reduce the use of additional animals.
Examples of this include the use of some imaging modalities or microsampling of
blood. In these scenarios, it is important to ensure that reducing the number of
animals used is balanced against any additional suffering that might be caused by
their repeated use.

– Improvements to scientific procedures and husbandry that minimise actual

or potential pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm and/or improve animal
welfare before, during, and after the experiment.

Controlled Question

 What species and class/type of animal is being used in

the activity?
 Are there measures in place to minimise any distress or
pain to the animals?
 Is the housing is safe and appropriate for the animals?
– Refinement applies to all aspects of animal use, from their housing and husbandry to the scientific
procedures performed on them
– Refinement involves the application of sterile surgical procedures, the proper use of analgesics, and
provisions to handle the animals with the least possible stress during experimentation – but not only
then. For it is not only the experiment as such that causes distress to the animals, but also the way in
which the animals are kept and housed. Animals experience particularly high levels of distress if they are
taken from wild habitats for use in research. For this reason, animals that were bred for research
purposes are used almost exclusively today. Distress is also caused by uncaring handling of the animals,
cages without enrichments, and social isolation. Nowadays, these discomforts can be prevented
– Could include reducing stress by developing new approaches such as training animals, use of non-
invasive techniques or enrichments that improve living conditions