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Sep 25, 2018

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Aboorption

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Aboorption

© All Rights Reserved

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component (absorbate) from the

gas phase to a liquid (absorbent)

phase through a gas-liquid

interface.

Q: What are the key parameters that affect the effectiveness?

Q: How can we improve absorption efficiency?

gas phase controlled absorption

liquid phase controlled absorption

Q: Does it matter if it’s gas phase or liquid phase controlled?

Gas Absorption Equipment

Spray tower Clean gas out Countercurrent

Clean gas out packed tower

Mist

Eliminator

Spray

nozzle Liquid

Spray

Packing

Q: Limitations of a

spray tower? Q: Why redistributor? Mycock et al., 1995

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 2

Three-bed cross Liquid spray Dry Cell

flow packed tower

Packing

Saddle Saddle Ring Ring Ring

Q: Criteria for good packing materials? Mycock et al., 1995

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 4

Known: ?? Gas out

Unknown: ??

Liquid in Gas in

Mass Balance

In = Out Liquid out

Gm1 Lm 2 Gm 2 Lm1

Gm y1 y2 Lm x1 x2

(for a dilute system)

Slope of Operating

Gm: molar gas flow rate Line = Lm/Gm

x: mole fraction of solute in pure liquid

y: mole fraction of solute in inert gas

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 5

Dirty air

Clean air

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 6

Generally, actual liquid

flow rates are specified

at 25 to 100% greater

than the required

minimum.

water is used? What if a

fraction of water is recycled?

to remove SO2 gas. The inlet gas contains 3% SO2 by

volume. Henry’s law constant is 42.7 (mole fraction of SO2 in

air/mole fraction of SO2 in water). Determine the minimum water

flow rate (in kg/min) to achieve 90% removal efficiency.

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 7

Problems with high gas flow

• Channeling: the gas or liquid flow is much greater at some

points than at others

• Loading: the liquid flow is reduced due to the increased gas

flow; liquid is held in the void space between packing

• Flooding: the liquid stops flowing altogether and collects in

the top of the column due to very high gas flow

• Gas flow rate is 3538 mole/min and the minimum liquid flow rate

is 2448 kg/min to remove SO2 gas. The operating liquid rate is

50% more than the minimum. The packing material selected is 2”

ceramic Intalox Saddles. Find the tower diameter and pressure

drop based on 75% of flooding velocity for the gas velocity.

Properties of air:: molecular weight: 29 g/mole; density: 1.17×10-3

g/cm3. Properties of water:: density: 1 g/cm3; viscosity: 0.8 cp.

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 8

(G ' ) 2 F 0L.1

G L g

of liquid

G: mass flow rate

of gas

G’: mass flux of gas

per cross sectional

area of column

F: Packing factor

: specific gravity

of the scrubbing

liquid

L: liquid viscosity

(in cP; 0.8 for water)

L G

(dimensionless)

G L

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 9

Mass Transfer

Flux / interfacia l k concentrat ion

rate of mass

area difference

transferre d

J M / A k Ci C

mass

J: flux ( area time )

k: mass transfer coefficient CI

Two-Film Theory (microscopic view)

J k G pG pI

(gas phase flux) CL

J k L CI CL pG

(liquid phase flux)

pI HCI

pI

J

1

pG HC L

1 / kG H / k L Cussler, “Diffusion”, Cambridge U. Press, 1991.

(overall flux)

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 10

J KOL C* CL

1 pG

K OL C*

(overall liquid phase MT coefficient) 1 / k L 1 / kG H (equivalent concentration

H

KOG pG p*

1 to the bulk gas pressure)

K p* HC L

OG

(overall gas phase MT coefficient) 1 / k G H / k L (equivalent pressure to the

bulk concentration in liquid)

2 Macroscopic analysis of a packed tower

Mole balance on the solute over the

differential volume of tower

of solute minus flow out

dy dx L’m: molar flux

0 G 'm L 'm of liquid

dz dz G’m: molar flux

G 'm of gas

x x1 ( y y1 )

1 L'm

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 11

Mole balance on the solute in the gas only

solute solute flow in solute lost

accumulati on minus flow out by absorption

dy

0 G 'm K OG aP( y y*) a: packing area per volume

dz

G 'm dy

y* Hx

Z y

Z dz

1

(tower height)

0 K OG aP y y *

y Z

1 1 y1 Hx1

Z ln

K OG aP 1 / G 'm H / L'm yZ Hx Z

G 'm 1 y1 Hx1

ln

K OG aP 1 HG 'm / L'm yZ Hx Z

HTU? NTU?

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 12

Mass balance x1 , y1

y y1

L'm

x x1

G 'm

Equilibrium

y* Hx x1 , y1 *

G 'm y1 dy x Z, y Z

K OG aP yZ y y *

Z

x Z, y Z*

Alternative solution:

Z

G 'm

y1 y z

; y LM

y y y

1

*

1 z y *

z

K OG aP y LM y1 y1*

ln

*

Assumptions for dilute/soluble systems? yz yz

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 13

Pure amine 0.04% CO2

Lm = 0.46 gmole/s

to absorb CO2. The entering gas contains 1.27%

CO2 and is in equilibrium with a solution of

amine containing 7.3% mole CO2. The gas

leaves containing 0.04% CO2. The amine,

flowing counter-currently, enters pure. Gas

flow rate is 2.31 gmole/s and liquid flow rate is

0.46 gmole/s. The tower’s cross-sectional area 1.27% CO2

Gm = 2.31

is 0.84 m2. KOGa = 9.34×10-6 s-1atm-1cm-3. The gmole/s

pressure is 1 atm. Determine the tower height C* = 7.3%

that can achieve this goal. CO2 in amine

Absorption of concentrated vapor

x 1 , y1

d d

0 (G 'm y ) ( L'm x)

dz dz

x1, y1*

Gas flux Liquid flux

1 1

G 'm G 'm 0 L'm L'm 0

1 y 1 x

xZ, yZ

y1 L'm 0 x x1

xZ, yZ*

1 y1 G 'm 0 1 x 1 x1

y

y1 L'm 0 x x1

1

1 y1 G 'm 0 1 x 1 x1

Mole balance on the gas in a differential tower volume

G 'm 0 dy

0 K OG aP( y y*)

1 y dz

2

Z G 'm 0 y1 dy

Z dz HTU NTU

0 K OG aP Z (1 y ) y y *

y 2

G 'm0

HTU

K OG aP

y1 dy

NTU

yZ (1 y ) 2 ( y y*)

HTU

pollutant, HTU does not change much.

2018/9/25 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 17

Summary

• Transfer from gas phase to liquid phase; Gas

phase or liquid phase controlled mass transfer.

• Equipment: spray tower and packed tower.

• Equilibrium line (Henry’s law) and operating line

(mass balance).

• Design: (a) liquid flow rate by mass balance; (b)

tower diameter by flooding condition; (c) tower

height by mass transfer rate

• Dilute and concentrated system

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