Awakening the Mind in the Gut: Gut Reactions

Siobhain O¶ Mahony PhD
Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre

body and SOUL? Psychonutrition???  Can foods alter you frame of mind? Stress Disorders of the gut What can go wrong!   .Overview    The second brain: the gut has a mind of its own Two brains???  Development of the two brains Bi-directional communication between the 1° brain Bi1° and the gut How the 2 brains interact     Mind.

´ ³gutWe really do have feelings in our gut. and produce emotionemotionbased feelings. Over half of the nerve cells in your body are located in the gut. It has its own well-developed nervous system that acts wellindependently of almost everything except your unconscious brain. Your ³gut brain´ is also able to learn. The Enteric Nervous System contains neurons and neurotransmitters just like those found in your skull.The second brain  The gut has a mind of its own ± literally.     . The expression ³gut-level feeling´ isn¶t just a ³saying. remember.

The vagus nerve is the longest of all our cranial nerves. Because of this direct brain-gut connection. These become divided and one develops into your central nervous system and the other into your enteric nervous system (your ³gut´ brain) During later stages of fetal development.     .the vagus nerve. and creates a direct connection between your brain and your gut. brainthe state of your gut has a profound influence on your psychological well being.Two brains???  During early fetal development both your gut and your primary brain started to develop from the same clump of embryonic tissue. these two brains then became connected via a massive nerve -.

and the gut immune system. and in the pathophysiology of various eating disorders. In disease. altered brain-gut interactions may brainunderlie the symptom generation in functional GI disorders (FGIDs). In health-regulation of digestive processes health(including appetite and food intake). Routes of communication include:    Psychological Stress    neural (physical connection) immune system hormonal system Infection .Bi-directional communication Bi Bi-directional brain-gut interactions play an Bibrainimportant role in the regulation of many vital functions in health and disease.

Stress       The hormonal stress system is one of the major routes of communication between the brain and the gut! Threat to homeostasis that evokes an adaptive response. Pathological stressors. . Genetic or early life events can alter ability to adapt to stress. Stress is a major component in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Healthy individuals ± stress response systems are turned on and off quickly.

cortisol) ‡ Increase in gut permeability ‡ Increase in mucosal inflammation ‡ Changes in GI motor function ‡ Changes in gut flora .Stress and the gut Stress Activation of the HPA axis (ie CRF. ACTH.

the art of Tai Chi emphasise the lower abdomen as a major reservoir for life energy and health. The belly is considered the ³dantian.  . In China.Mind. Body and SOUL?  Many mystical and natural healing practices consider the belly a major center of energy and higher consciousness.´ a key center for higher consciousness development.

psychologically it deals with our sense of satisfaction and spiritually it deals both with our "prosperity".Gut feelings: Chakras      Subtle energetic system within each of us comprised of 7 vital energy centers and 3 interconnecting. psychological and spiritual being Third centre in our subtle system is called "nabhi" or "Manipur" chakra. parallel channels Govern specific aspects of our physical. Often that ³Gut Feeling´ is us being sensitive to the state of the Nabhi chakra . "generosity" as well as with our innate sense of right and wrong. Its physical location is at about the level of the navel Physically .it deals with our organs of digestion.

Osmond.Psychonutrition???  Branch of medicine that deals with nutrition and its effects on the brain chemistry-orthomolecular psychiatry chemistryIn the 1950s two psychiatrists. discovered that certain people showed signs of mental illness if they were deficient in vitamin B3 (niacin) Other peoples mental illnesss could be helped by administering large amounts of certain nutrients that were either deficient in their diet for which these individuals had unusually high requirements 1976. Abraham Hoffer and Dr. Dr. Dr Mackarness published a book titled ³Not all in the mind´mind´allergies in mentally ill patients may promote malabsorption leading to deficienies    .

walnut oil. sleep as well as gut motility Tryptophan is the precursor to serotonin and can be found in many foods such as turkey.      . of course. Low DHA levels have been linked to low brain serotonin levels which again are connected to an increased tendency to depression. the omega-6 EFAs omegaand the omega-3 EFAs. suicide. The human brain is one of the largest "consumers" of DHA. The chemical linked with the ³high´ of being in love is called phenylethylalanine. chocolate Essential fatty acids are polyunsaturated and grouped into two families. and fatty fish omegaOmegaThe predominant fatty acid found in fish oils are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). It is involved in mood. soyabean. watercress ect. Omega-3 is found in flaxseed oil. phenylethylalanine. It is derived from phenylalanine ± an amino acid found in many common foods including. and violence.Psychonutrition???  Serotonin is a neurotransmitter present in both the brain and the gut.

What can go wrong?  Some individuals are more prone to disorders than others-predisposing factors others Disorders of the Gastrointestinal tract      Leaky gut syndrome Infections Allergies Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) .

These are: milk. There are eight foods that account for 90% of all food-allergic foodreactions. etc. which is not caused by an immune reaction. Food allergy is distinct from food intolerance. tree nut (walnut.     . fish. There is no cure for food allergies.).Allergies  A food allergy is an immunologic response to a food protein. peanut. in accordance with their doctor. Persons diagnosed with a food allergy may carry an autoinjector of epinephrine wear some form of medical alert jewelry. Treatment consists of avoidance diets. shellfish and soy and wheat. or develop an emergency action plan. egg. cashew. in which the allergic person avoids all forms of the food to which they are allergic.

mucosal inflammation. exaggerated stress response.Irritable Bowel Syndrome  Most common GI functional disorder diagnosed by gastroenterologists affecting about 5-10% of the population with female predominance of 2-3:1 52Symptom complex including abdominal pain. altered bowel function. increases in plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines proStress (including early life stress) plays a major role in the onset and exacerbation of symptoms in IBS Recent studies have shown that there may be a brainbrain-gut axis dysfunction involved in IBS Treatment options for IBS are symptom based and include:  Laxatives  Loperamide (Imodium)  Antispasmodics  Antidepressants  Serotonin receptor agonists/ antaginsts     . bloating.

the small intestine. Treatment includes:    Immunosuppression Steroids Surgery . in some cases.Inflammatory Bowel Disease     Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine and. The main forms of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis(UC) The main difference between Crohn's disease and UC is the location and nature of the inflammatory changes.

Probiotic foods are a group of functional foods. aging. Found to be effective in the treatment of some disorders of the gut that are associated with an imbalance in the gut flora. Illness.Probiotics  Beneficial bacteria that can be introduced into the digestive system through food. stress. Most commercially promoted products with probiotic properties contain strains of Lactobacillus bacteria or Bifidobacteria. poor diet. infection by food poisoning and the use of medications can disturb the flora balance    .

Faeces analysis!!!! .holistic nutritionist McKeith³Empower people to improve their lives through information. food and lifestyle´.   Gillian McKeith.

of course. is your body's natural defence system that keeps you healthy Therefore maintenance of a healthy gut is essential Intelligent eating Know your own system .Keeping the balance right!     This gut flora has incredible power over your immune system. which.

Thanks for your attention .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful