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MATHEMATICAL

REVIEW
What are we talking about here?
Focal Points

1. Basic Algebra & Simultaneous Equations

2. Coordinate Geometry & Graph Interpretation

3. Ratios & Percentages


ALGEBRA
Back to the Basics
Simultaneous Equations

There are may ways to solve Simultaneous Equations:

1. Substitution
2. Elimination
3. Graphically
4. Matrices
Substitution Method

𝑦 = 3𝑥 + 5 𝑃 = 4𝑄 +6
𝑦 = −4 − 6𝑥 𝑃 = 4−𝑄

3𝑥 + 5 = −4 − 6𝑥 4𝑄 + 6 = 4 − 𝑄
3𝑥 + 6𝑥 = −4 − 5 4𝑄 + 𝑄 = 4 − 6
9𝑥 = −9 5𝑄 = −2
𝑥 = −1 −2
𝑄=
𝑦 = 3 −1 + 5 5
−2
𝑦=2 𝑃 = 4−( )
5
2
𝑃=4
5
Graphical Method

Steps for solve two linear equations:


1. Point at least two points for each equation.
2. Connect the points for each line.
3. Look for the point where they intersect (cross). This point would be the solution for
the equations.
Graphical Method

2𝑥 + 𝑦 = 4
𝑥−𝑦 =2
Graph both equations using
x- and y-intercepts (plug in zeros for x and then y).

2x + y = 4 Graph the ordered pairs. x – y = 2


(0, 4) and (2, 0) (0, -2) and (2, 0)
Graph the equations.

2x + y = 4
(0, 4) and (2, 0)

x-y=2
(0, -2) and (2, 0)

Where do the lines intersect?


(2, 0)
Check your answer!

To check your answer, plug


the point back into both
equations.

2x + y = 4
2(2) + (0) = 4

x-y=2 Nice job….I guess


(2) – (0) = 2
GRAPHICAL
REPRESENTATION
What that graph ‘bout?
Equation of a Line

𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐

The variable on The point at


the y axis The variable on which the line
The gradient of cuts the y axis
the line the x axis
Gradients
(Slope) of a straight line shows how steep a straight line is.

Direction of a line:
If a gradient is positive the two variables
are said to have a positive relationship. i.e
as one increases so does the other.

If a gradient is negative the two variables


are said to have a negative relationship. i.e
as one increases the other decreases.
Gradients
(Slope) of a straight line shows how steep a straight line is.

Magnitude of a line:
If a gradient of a line falls −1 < 𝑚 < 1 the
line is relatively flat. i.e a change in the
value of x would not have a great impact
on the y value.

If a gradient of a line falls outside −1 <


𝑚 < 1 the line is relatively steep. i.e a
change in the value of x would have a great
impact on the y value.
Gradients

Equation for gradient:

𝑦2 − 𝑦1
𝑚=
𝑥2 − 𝑥1
Gradients

Uses for gradients:

1. Elasticity
2. Marginal Propensity to Consumer
3. Marginal Cost
INTERPRETATION OF
GRAPHS
Now you see it….
Key Things to Pay Attention to when
Looking at Graphs
1. Magnitude of Slope
2. Direction of Slope
3. Point at which curves (lines) intersect
4. Point at which the curves cut the y axis
5. Point at which the curves cut the x axis
6. Area under the curve(s)
INTERPRETATION OF
LINEAR STATEMENTS
The Madness Begins
Linear Equations

𝑌 =𝐶+𝐺+𝐼+𝑋−𝑀

When G increases Y
increases. This is seen as
When M increases Y
a positive or direct
decreases. This is seen as
relationship
a negative or inverse
relationship.
RATIOS
A percentage of the FUN!!
Ratios

Ratios are one number expressed in relation to


another by dividing the one number by the other.
For example, the sex ratio of Delaware in 1990 was:
343,200 females to 322,968 males or 1.06 This can
easily be expressed in terms of males to females, .94.
The interpretation of the sex ratio is that for every male
there are 1.06 females.
Ratios

Examples of common ratios found in 𝐶𝑃𝐼𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑠 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 − 𝐶𝑃𝐼𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟


𝐼𝑛𝑓𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 =
Economics: 𝐶𝑃𝐼𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑡 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟
1. Population Density
2. Consumer Price Index
3. Inflation
4. Unemployment Rate
5. Crude Birth Rate
RECAP QUESTIONS
Now…..do these.
Solve the following Describe the following
Simultaneous Equations. linear equations.
1. 𝑃 = 4𝑄 − 3
1. 𝑦 = 6𝑥 + 1
𝑃 =𝑄+9

2. 𝑃 = 5 − 6𝑄
2. 2𝑥 + 4𝑦 = 5
3𝑦 − 6𝑥 − 9 = 0 3. 𝑌 = 𝐶 + 𝐼 + 𝐺

3. 7 = 𝑦 + 𝑥 4. 3𝑦 − 3𝑥 = 9

𝑥 = 5𝑦 − 1
5. 𝑥 = −𝑦 + 9